about Keith Jarrett and Miles Davis's ensemble



The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 1 Miles Goes Electric 

第1章 マイルス、エレクトリックに 



For musicians within the world designated “jazz” who sought to expand their horizons, 1969 was ripe with possibilities. An arresting sense of urgency marked both Ornette Coleman's Crisis, symbolized by its album cover image of the Bill of Rights in flames, and Tony Williams Lifetime's searing Emergency, showcasing his new high-volume, high-energy drums, electric guitar, and organ trio. This was but one year after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The night after King's death, at a televised concert in Boston, James Brown soothed an audience that was hurting and angry, and cities burned. Meanwhile, a black cultural renaissance was burgeoning. People were proudly assuming Swahili names and wearing dashikis. Politically, the Black Panther Party was at its height. 




Nineteen sixty-nine was also the year of the first moon landing, a growing antiwar movement, and Woodstock Nation. Musicians mirrored and generated the high level of imaginative possibilities percolating throughout American culture. While this was the era of the concept album, the best examples display a startling depth and breadth of emotional expressivity and sonic variety across a single recording. Among these are the Art Ensemble of Chicago's People in Sorrow, Herbie Hancock's The Prisoner, and Frank Zappa's Uncle Meat, a mash-up of rock and roll, 1950s doo-wop, exploratory improvisation, Stravinskian angularity, and musique concrete. 

1969年と言えば、他にも、初の月面着陸、反戦運動の激化、そして第1回目のウッドストックウッドストック・ネーション)の年であった。ミュージシャン達は、想像力を掻き立て、高いレベルの力を発揮して、それを映し出して作品として生み出してゆく。彼らの作品は、アメリカの文化全体に浸透していった。その最も良い例を示しているがシングルレコードである。「コンセプト・アルバム」の時代と呼ばれていた1969年だが、一方で、シングルレコードに対しては、心の内を表現する深みと懐の大きさに人々は驚き、音作りのバラエティも豊富であった。代表的なところを見てゆこう。シカゴの「People in Sorrow」、ハービー・ハンコックの「The Prisoner」、フランク・ザッパの「Uncle Meat」、ロックンロールにおいては2つの曲を1つにあわせる「マッシュアップ」や、1950年代のドゥワップ、探り合う手法によるインプロヴィゼーションストラヴィンスキー信奉者による厳格主義、そして生活雑音なども演奏とともに取り入れるムジークコンクリート、といったところ。 


Festival programming offered dramatic genre-crossing juxtapositions: In Monterey, the Modern Jazz Quartet and Miles Davis performed alongside Sly and the Family Stone; at Newport, Bill Evans and Freddie Hubbard were paired with James Brown and Led Zeppelin. Even more extreme was the assemblage at Festival Actuel in Amougies, Belgium: an eclectic montage of the Art Ensemble of Chicago, Sunny Murray, Don Cherry, and Archie Shepp; Pink Floyd, Frank Zappa, keyboard whiz Keith Emerson and the Nice; and Musica Elettronica Viva. 



The permeability of musical boundaries was being tested and stretched. It is not by chance that 1969 was the year when Miles Davis recorded two albums that meditated on the wealth of musical influences that defined the 1960s. Each took the vantage point of a jazz recording to look outward and inward. On one hand, the albums balanced rock and funk's rhythmic dynamism with a relatively static aesthetic sensibility. On the other, they sought grounding in Davis's lyrical sensibilities while casting off familiar conventions of musical structure. 



Along with Cecil Taylor, Charles Mingus, and Sun Ra (each of whom had released pivotal albums in 1956), Ornette Coleman had opened a new musical passageway with the 1959 release of The Shape of Jazz to Come and premiere performances of the material at the Five Spot in New York City. A growing number of younger musicians were exploring the possibilities his music suggested. Coleman provided a way out what some, including John Coltrane and Miles Davis, had felt to be the growing tyranny of cyclical chord progressions. In an interview with Martin Williams, Coleman famously remarked: “If I'm going to follow a preset chord sequence, I may as well write out my solo.” What he meant was that the repeated cycle of harmonic movement shaped expectations of note choices based on what is suggested by functional harmony. Within bebop, harmony had expanded to accommodate broader note choices. But Coltrane demonstrated the limitations of this approach. His recording of “Giant Steps” (1959) traversed rapid-fire, cascading chord changes as if to say: “You want chords? I'll give you chords!” An overabundance of chords pointed to the need for new structural principles and the desire to balance freedom of the individual with membership in a collective. 

この10年前の1959年、新たな音楽の道が、既に切り開かれていた。オーネット・コールマンが、セシル・テイラーチャールズ・ミンガス、サン・ラ(3人共1956年に代表作となるアルバムを出している)と共に、「The Shape of Jazz to Come」をリリースし、その初演を、ニューヨークのファイブスポットで行ったのである。彼の音楽が世に示した可能性を、更に追求しようと、多くの若手ミュージシャン達が取り組みを始めた。「循環コード進行は絶対だ」という風潮が高まっている、そう感じていた一部のミュージシャン達(ジョン・コルトレーンマイルス・デイビスもその一人)にとっては、コールマンの示したものは、そこからの脱出路となった。コールマンは、マーチン・ウィリアムスとのインタビューの中で、次のように述べたことは、良く知られている「予め決められたコード進行に沿って演奏しなければいけない、そういうことなら、本番演奏するソロは、前もって楽譜を用意するほうがマシだ。」機能和声を使うことが基本だというなら、彼曰く、循環コードで曲作りをしたら、使う音符なんて限られてしまう。音符を制限せずもっと使えるように、として、コードを広げてみせたのが、ビ・バップである。だが、このやり方には限界がある、ということを示したのが、コルトレーンだ。彼の「Giant Steps」(1959年作)では、コード変化が矢継ぎ早に発生する。それはまるでこう言っているようだ「コードが聞きたい?ほれ、ほれ、ほれ!」そうやってコードを沢山盛り込むことで、曲作りの新しいやり方が必要となっていた状況を解決し、各奏者の自由と集団としてのまとまりとのバランスを取りたいという声に応えたのである。 



Saxophonist Sam Rivers described the new music of the period as “freeform,” a “revitalizing force” in jazz. In place of the detailed intricacies of bebop, the goal was to play with “no preconceived plan,” to “make every performance different, to let your emotions and musical ideas direct the course of the music, to let the sound of the music set up its own impetus, to remember what has been stated so that repetition is intentional, to be responsive to myriads of color, polyrhythms, rise and fall, ebb and flow, thematic variations, etc., etc.” 



Although Davis publicly expressed scorn and, frankly, jealousy toward what he believed to be unwarranted attention given to Coleman, he was clearly listening. 



Davis writes: “I used to go and check them out when I was in town, even sat in with them a couple of times.” His reading of what happened could be viewed as reportage or as braggadocio: “I could play with anybody, in any style ... But Ornette could play only one way back then. I knew that after listening to them a few times, so I just sat in and played what they played.” He caustically adds: “He just came and fucked up everybody. Before long you couldn't buy a seat in the Five Spot ... They were playing music in a way everyone was calling 'free jazz' or 'avant-garde' or 'the new thing' or whatever.” 

デイヴィスはこう記している「街へ繰り出せば、彼らの演奏を見に行ってチェックしたものだった。時には演奏を共にすることも数回あった。」彼が見聞きし感じたことを書いたものを読むと、極めて客観的とも取れるし、一方で、相当自信満々な書き方もしている。「オレは誰とでも、どんな音楽ともやっていける。だが当時のオーネットは、やれるのは一つだけ。数回聴いて、それが分かった。だから、席につけば、あとは彼らのやっている通り演奏するだけだった。」彼は更に、辛辣に続ける「オーネットは来ても全員を引っ掻き回すだけだった。程なく、ファイブスポットのチケットは買えなくなった… 彼らが演奏していた音楽は、いわゆる「フリー・ジャズ」だの「アヴァンギャルド」だの「新しい音楽」だの、そういったものだった。」 


Critic Larry Kart reports Coleman's memories of the encounter, confirming Davis's presence at the Five Spot but adding an ulterior motive: 




Years later Ornette said, “I'm not mentioning names, but I remember one trumpet player who came up to me and said, 'I don't know what you're doing, but I want to let the people see me playing with you. Why don't you play some blues and let me come up and play.' So I said, 'OK,' and we did some song that he had played with Charlie Parker. Then when they asked him what he thought of my music, he said, 'Oh, the guy's all messed up ― you can tell that just by listening to him.' And it wasn't true.” 




Davis commented that he liked Coleman and trumpeter Don Cherry as people but saw them as neither talented nor original and revolutionary. He reserved particular scorn for Cherry: “I didn't like what they were playing, especially Don Cherry on that little horn he had. It just looked to me like he was playing a lot of notes and looking real serious.” Davis challenged not only Coleman's choice of this fellow trumpeter but Coleman's own performance on trumpet and violin, for which he lacked formal training: “[He was disrespecting] all those people who play them well.” But this wasn't the first time Davis had disparaged a musician. Robin D.G. Kelly reports a screaming match Davis had with Thelonious Monk at Monk's house in the early 1950s; while playing one of the pianist's compositions, Davis reportedly told him that he wasn't playing the music correctly. Monk's father asked Davis to leave. 



Davis's rivalry with Coleman seems at least in part generational, as both men were close in age. Coleman's dramatic appearance on a scene where Davis had staked a claim as a central innovator could not have been easy for him. Even with fifteen years of history in New York, he was already contending with the rising star of another contemporary, former sideman John Coltrane. In his autobiography, Davis expresses appreciation for Coltrane's late work, both musically and in terms of its sociopolitical meaning for young black people. But it was Coleman who commanded the attention that had previously been directed Davis's way; rattled by this, he sought to reassert his dominance. Davis's tensions with Coleman can also be viewed with respect to the comparative ease and esteem with which a younger generation of musicians related to Coleman. Anthony Braxton, Leroy Jenkins, and drummer Jerome Cooper, all of whom we will meet in this book, were among the many who saw Ornette Coleman as a mentor and generous supporter. 



Despite his complicated feelings toward Coleman, Davis learned from him. Although years later he continued to diminish the import of Coleman's method and execution, he acknowledged the significance of his methodology: “[The group was] just being spontaneous in their playing, playing 'free form,' bouncing off what each other was doing ... it had been done before, only they were doing it with no kind of form or structure ... that's the thing that was important about what they did, not their playing.” And Davis added a respectful postscript: “Now, what Ornette did a few years later was hip, and I told him so.” 

デイヴィスは、コールマンに対しては複雑な思いを抱いていたが、同時に彼から多くを学んだ。随分あとになってからは、コールマンのやり方や演奏については、吸収することを減らしていったものの、彼の手法の重要性は、良く分かっていた。「この集団は、自発的な演奏をする。「フリーフォーム」に基づいて演奏し、互いのやっていることに、しっかりと耳を傾ける… 前から行われていたことだが、彼らは既存の形式や仕組みを用いない。それこそが、彼らの取り組み(演奏、ではなく)にとって重要なことだった。」そしてデイヴィスは敬意に満ちたあとがきを添える「そして、オーネットが数年後に取り組んだことは、本当にスゴい。それは彼にも言ってある。」 


The influence of Coleman's approach, his use of intuition to govern improvisation and his application of a democratic principle to guide collectivity, can be heard in Davis's quintet of the 1960s as the band turned toward open forms. By 1965, it was deeply engaged in what Chick Corea calls “that thing of vaporizing themes and just going places.” “Going places” was the result of a collective musical mind at work. Davis's new electric quintet of 1969 was primed to take these principles further. 




The musically democratic principle had gained influence across North America and Europe. In 1964 in New York, a cluster of creative musicians participated in a four-day festival named the October Revolution in Jazz; some of these players later formed the Jazz Composers Guild. The next year in Chicago, black musicians gathered under the banner of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM), with sister groups springing up in other parts of the United States. London had its own “free jazz” scene; among its participants were guitarist John McLaughlin and bassist Dave Holland, future musical associates of Miles Davis. 



From where else did Davis draw inspiration during this time? Drummer Tony Williams was an important source of new ideas within Davis's 1960s quintet. His own first two recordings, Lifetime and Spring! anticipate the developing musical abstraction soon to be found within that band. By the late 1950s, when Williams was thirteen years old, he had played with saxophonist Sam Rivers's band and participated with those musicians in the Boston Improvisational Ensemble. 

デイヴィスがこの時期、インスピレーションの源としたところは、他にどこがあるか?彼の重要な知恵袋となったのは、1960年代のデイヴィスのクインテットにあっては、ドラム奏者のトニー・ウィリアムスである。彼自身が関わる2つのアルバム「Life Time」と「Spring!」を聞けば、成長途上にある彼の音楽的観念が感じ取れる。そしてそれは、程なくバンド全体に見いだされるようになるのだ。これに先立つ話だが、1950年代には、ウィリアムスは若干13歳にして、サックス奏者のサム・リヴァースのバンドで演奏し、更にはボストン・インプロヴィゼーショナル・アンサンブルにも参加していた。 


Rivers described the group in this way: “We'd go to museums and we'd play the lines on the paintings, he [an art historian and musician who led the group] would explain the painting, and then we'd play the music like this ... The usual Dada kind of stuff. We'd throw ink splats on the paper, and do the rise-and-fall of this.” He refers here to the way some musicians interpreted graphic scores, translating visual information into sound. 



Three years later, in 1963, following dates with icons of the avant-garde, pianist Cecil Taylor and saxophonist Eric Dolphy, Williams joined saxophonist Jackie McLean's band. He gained Miles Davis's ear, netting an invitation to join his quintet; in 1965, he subbed for Elvin Jones with the John Coltrane Quartet. 



Coltrane's work during this period was of great interest to Davis, Trane's former employer, and to his band. Coltrane's quartet took an expansive approach to the concept of soloist-with-accompaniment, offering the kind of distinct flexibility and adaptability that saxophonist Wayne Shorter could build on with Davis. 



Regarding Davis's influence, trumpeter Wallace Roney, a protege of his, observes: 




This band had participated and assimilated the innovations of The John Coltrane Quartet, Ornette Coleman Quartet, and Miles Second Great Quintet and utilized them freely with the new Pop avant-garde. They were on the front line of these innovations along with individual members of the Second Quintet, and Miles himself! The difference between the Second Quintet and the Lost Quintet was the second Quintet innovations were conceived adjacent to the John Coltrane Quartet and although inspired by the happenings of that Quartet, and by Ornette and Mingus, they were developing their ideas, whereas the lost Quintet was free to use both concepts at any given time. In other words the lost Quintet might play things pioneered by the Second Quintet behind Miles, play something pioneered by the John Coltrane Quartet behind Wayne  

or vice versa or a hybrid behind either one, or play totally abstract. 





As the Miles Davis Quintet evolved during its most exploratory period, 1965-68, Davis sought something akin to what in politics is sometimes called a “third way.” He kept one foot planted in inherited forms and the other in the new order. While seeking musical cohesion in the qualities of sound, he was not yet prepared to depart from song forms. His own playing remained committed to melody and a rootedness in the blues. But his band was also beginning to embrace spontaneous collective invention. By the late 1960s, the idea of weaving sonic fabric from melodic or rhythmic germs ― concepts developed by Coleman, Coltrane, and Taylor ― had worked its way into Davis's creative imagination. 





My favorite example is from the quintet's appearance at the Paris Jazz Festival, held at Salle Pleyel on November 6, 1967. Wayne Shorter's “Masqualero,” a constant on the November 1967 European tour, receives a striking treatment, beginning with a dramatic and forceful statement of the theme. This opening is followed by a quiet, spare solo by Davis, punctuated by short spikes by Herbie Hancock, a steady pulse by Tony Williams, and a stream of repeated notes by bassist Ron Carter. Suddenly, Hancock initiates a change in course by playing a downward, stepwise series of chords, which Davis imitates in his solo line, echoed by Hancock. As Davis's solo unleashes an outpouring of faster notes, the rhythm section builds energy and tension, reaching a peak, and then shifting to a pastoral mood. It is difficult to tell whether one musician has initiated this shift or it is simply a collective action. Either way, the entire band is instantaneously together. When Davis plays a more upbeat phrase, the band again responds, shape-shifting as a unit. 




This reconfiguration of mood, texture, and intensity occurs again and again throughout the performance. It happens next at the start of a Shorter solo that begins with a beautiful yet simple figure, juxtaposed to an equally lovely Hancock accompaniment. Again, it is difficult to tell who has initiated the change. Thirty seconds into his solo, Shorter reaches into a higher register to play a variant of his starting motif, then descends slowly. Before we know it, another moment of musical grace unfolds, beginning with a spontaneous, new Shorter melody, maybe a recasting of the previous one, joined by Hancock. Williams and Carter are immediately present to capture the subtle shift in mood. For most of the solo, Williams has played a repeated-stroke snare figure, akin to a very gentle military cadence. With only a slight shift in volume and intensity, the same material has been transformed into a perfect complement for the new emotional tone. 



While Miles Davis was exploring ― and, in a sense, mainstreaming ― abstraction and spontaneous invention, other musical worlds beckoned to him from beyond the jazz realm: rock, rhythm and blues, and funk. His eyes and ears were trained simultaneously on both abstract and populist principles. Chick Corea remarks: “In retrospect if I look at it now, it's pretty obvious where Miles was going. He wanted to reconnect with audiences. And to do that, he put a groove and rhythm back into his music. He more and more put flavors of the youth of the times into his presentation, the way he dressed, the musicians he hired, the way they played, the electric guitar. Davis's repertoire began to draw from vamps and grooves, the steady, repetitive rhythmic pulses and bass lines of rhythm and blues, and rock and roll. 



His path would lead from the blues-gospel bass line of “It's About That Time” (from In a Silent Way, 1969) through the funk riffs of James Brown and Sly and the Family Stone that ground his 1970 recording A Tribute to Jack Johnson, and ultimately to his vigorously percolating multilayered, polyrhythmic guitar and electric organ bands that produced Dark Magus (1974), Agharta (1975), and Pangaea (1975). 

こうして、ブルースやゴスペルのベースラインを取り入れた「It's About That Time」(1969年の「In a Silent Way」より)、ジェームス・ブラウンやスライ&ザ・ファミリー・ストーンのファンク音楽が持つリフを取り入れた「A Tribute to Jack Johnson」(1970年収録)、そしてついには、快活に漂う多重構造の複合リズムをもたらす、ギターや電子オルガンを擁した編成による「Dark Magus」(1974年)や、「Agharta」(1975年)、そして「Pangaea」(1975年)へとたどり着いた。 


While a youthful, more contemporary black aesthetic was guiding Davis toward a more pronounced, regular metric pulse, his music continued to tap into a deep well of experimental influences. As Corea notes: “Experimentation and the search for new combinations was definitely 'in the air.' .... The excitement over search for new forms was a peak, and as improvisers, the best place to start seemed to be with free-form improvisation, where the rules were made up as you go.” Aspects of this sensibility continued to shape his even more funk-oriented music until his first retirement in 1975. 




What drove Corea's and Dave Holland's passions while playing with Davis wasn't the beat but, as Corea continues, “the free music aspect of the band; that's what interested us ... Miles was 'in kind of a search.'” Although “as the concerts developed, Miles kept going more and more to a groove rhythm. He'd start a groove rhythm and the band would go in all kinds of different directions, with Wayne's solo and mine and what Dave and Jack were doing.” The “free music aspect” of this Miles Davis Quintet was equal in importance to the grooves, and the flexibility and open instincts of Jack DeJohnette rendered his drummer as deeply implicated in these directions as Corea and Holland. 




What is notable is Davis's ability to maintain his balance while remaining on a leading edge. Greg Tate speaks of his deep rootedness in his sense of himself as a black man, culturally confident. Tate adds: “Miles' music makes you think of Nat Turner, proud without being loud because it was about plotting insurrection. In this sense Miles never changed. His agenda remained the same from day one: stay ahead.” Despite his ambivalence about what has been termed the “freedom principle” linking open improvisation, black identity, and political freedom, Davis at various points embraced elements of all three concepts. As in most things, he did so in his own way and in his own time. 




He was at the time a nondirective bandleader. Members of his quintet were given wide latitude to play what they wished. The “just going places” ethic noted by Corea was pregnant with possibilities, opening tremendous space for unanticipated musical creativity. Corea observes that Davis's method was focused on the choice of musicians: 




Miles .... was a chemist ― a spiritual chemist ― as far as putting musicians together, because he himself didn't really compose tunes that much, although he developed styles and arrangements but he chose musicians that went together a way that he heard and that he liked. And he went from this piano player to that piano player or from this drummer to that drummer ― he chose these guys so that it went together in a way that he heard it. And I guess that's leadership, you know, it's like the choosing of the way and the treatment of the group. 

「マイルスは … メンバーのまとめ方に限って言えば、化学者、それも「人と人を配合する」化学者だ。彼自身が曲を一から作ることは、実際にはあまりない。勿論、楽曲のスタイルやアレンジを展開してゆくことはするが、要は彼は、自分が聞いて気に入ったミュージシャン達を、みつくろっているのだ。「人と人を」と言われる所以は、そこにある。こっちのピアノ奏者からあっちのピアノ奏者へ、こっちのドラム奏者からあっちへと、みつくろっては、集めて、自分が聞いて気に入った通りの音楽をさせるのだ。チームの方向性とその扱いを、そうやって選択する、これこそリーダーシップといえるのではないか。」 



In 1969 DownBeat interview with Larry Kart, Corea relates that in their first conversation, Davis told him about how to interprets Shorter's compositions: “I don't know what else to tell you except that we'll go and play, but whatever you think it is, that's what it is. 

チック・コリアは、1969年に「ダウンビート」誌のラリー・カートとのインタビューの中で、デイヴィスとの初めての言葉のやり取りについて述べている。ショーターの楽曲をどう演奏するかについて、デイヴィスは次のように語った「特に言うことは … うん、分からないけれど、まぁ、集まって楽器を演奏する。それだけだよ。結果として出てきた演奏、それについて、お前さんがどう思おうと、お前さんの勝手さ。」 


Hancock remembered Davis's leadership of the previous quintet in a similar way. He explains in a 1971 Downbeat interview: 




With Mile's band we were all allowed to play what we wanted to play and shaped the music according to the group effort and not to the dictates of Miles, because he really never dictated what he wanted. I try to do the same thing with my group. I think it serves this function that I just mentioned ― that everybody feels that they're part of the product, you know, and not just contributing something to somebody else's music. They may be my tunes, but the music belongs to the guys in the band. They make the music ― it's not just my thing. 




Wayne Shorter 



Shorter's first decade on the national stage began in 1959 with sessions with John Coltrane and fellow members of Davis's first quintet (Wynton Kelly, Paul Chambers, Philly Joe Jones), a recording under his own name, Introducing Wayne Shorter, and the beginning of a five-year stint with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers. Blakey's group was the preeminent hard bop ensemble of its time and a training ground for young musicians. With Blakey, Shorter joined a front line with trumpeter Lee Morgan (later replaced by Freddie Hubbard); all three horn players recorded on one another's Blue Note Records sessions. Shorter became the Blakey band's chief composer, a role he continued when he joined the Miles Davis Quintet in 1964. 

ショーターが全米にその活動を展開し始めたのが、1959年。ジョン・コルトレーンと、デイヴィスの最初のクインテットのメンバーだったウィントン・ケリーポール・チェンバースフィリー・ジョー・ジョーンズらとのセッションで、自身の名を冠した「Introducing Wayne Shorter」の収録だ。そして、アート・ブレイキージャズ・メッセンジャーズとの5年契約の最初の年だった。ジャズ・メッセンジャーズといえば、当時のハード・バップの最高峰であり、併せて、若手ミュージシャン達が腕を磨く場でもあった。ブレイキーの元で、ショーターはトランペット奏者のリー・モーガン(後にフレディ・ハバード)とともに主席奏者となる。ショーター、モーガン、ハバードの3名は、互いにブルーノート・レコードのセッションでの作品を残している。ショーターは、ブレイキーのバンドが演奏する楽曲の、主たる作曲担当となった。この役目を、彼はマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットに1964年に参加した際にも、担うことになる。 



Shorter was always an arts man, majoring in visual art in high school and graduating with a degree in music education from New York University. The university's Greenwich Village location afforded him the opportunity to hear Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, and other prominent musicians at a neighborhood theater, and at Birdland and the Open Door farther uptown. The timing of his graduation proved prescient: “One week I was hanging out at the Cafe Bohemia [in the Village]. Everybody was in the joint ― Kenny Clark, Donald Byrd, Max Roach, Jimmy Smith had just come to town, and Cannonball [Adderley] had come from Florida ― all in that same week. I was standing at the bar, and Donald Byrd said, 'Hey, Wayne, come on up.'” After serving in the army, he returned to New York. Shorter built a close association with Coltrane ― he recalls Trane inviting him over to play: “Hey, you're playing that funny stuff, like me. Come on over to my house.” There, he heard Coltrane experimenting with what would become the chord patterns of “Giant Steps.” He realized that “if there is anything new that I am going to do, I'm going to have to do it all by myself.” 

ショーターは芸術一筋の人生を歩んだ。高校時代は絵画や彫刻、デザイン等を専攻し、ニューヨーク大学卒業時には、音楽教育学士号を取得している。大学がグリニッジ・ヴィレッジにあったおかげで、彼はデューク・エリントンディジー・ガレスピーチャーリー・パーカーといった超一流のミュージシャン達を、生で、それも近所の劇場や、バードランド、さらにはオープンドアといった「山の手」の名門ライブハウスで聞く機会に恵まれた。彼が大学を卒業するタイミングが、その後の彼の人生に、大きな幸運をもたらすことになる。「1週間ほど、(ヴィレッジの)カフェ・ボヘミアに入り浸っていた。みんなそこに集まっていた。ケニー・クラークドナルド・バードマックス・ローチ、そしてジミー・スミスらが、丁度その時、グリニッジ・ヴィレッジに来ていて、そして何と、キャノンボール・アダレイまでもがフロリダから来ていたのだ。全員、たまたま、その同じ週に、である。私がカフェ・ボヘミアにいると、ドナルド・バードが「よぉ、ウェイン。来いよ」と声をかけてきた。」兵役を終えて、ショーターはニューヨークへ戻る。彼はコルトレーンとも親しくなったのだ。キッカケは、コルトレーンがショーターに、一緒に演奏しないかと誘ったことである。「よぉ、お前さんの演奏、オレもそうだが、へんてこりんだな。どうだ、オレの家に来ないか。」そこでショーターは、後に「Giant Steps」のコード進行となるものを、コルトレーンが試し弾きしているのを聞かされた。この時彼は気付いた「新しいことをしようと決めたら、自力で全部やらねばならなくだろう。」 



One year into Shorter's tenure with Davis ― around the time of the famous concerts at Chicago's Plugged Nickel ― the band members began to actively ground their musical structures in intuition. This shift is documented on the recordings ESP (1965), Live at the Plugged Nickel (1982 / 1995, recorded in 1965), Miles Smiles (1966), Nefertiti (1967), and Sorcerer (1967). The new approach also served as the engine that would guide the Lost Quintet. It was one that suited Shorter well, provided there was attentive and flexible support from his bandmaster. His improvisational approach is described by Kart as one “in which emotion is simultaneously expressed and 'discussed' (i. e. spontaneously found motifs are worked out to their farthest implications with an eye-open conscious control.)” These “workings out” are anything but clinical, as Kart adds: “His playing has more overt emotional qualities of tenderness or passion which can give pleasure to the listener.” Indeed, what Shorter brought to both Davis bands was great imagination, intensity, and emotion. Four years with the 1960s Davis Quintet gave him a deep knowledge of the give-and-take chemistry Davis sought within his new ensemble.  

ショーターがデイヴィスの元に来てから1年、かの有名な、シカゴの名門プラグド・ニッケルでのコンサートが、行われた時期である。デイヴィスのメンバー達は、自身が音楽を構築するその土台を、直感に求める方向で、活発に動き始めていた。彼らがこの様に方向転換したことが、良く現れている作品が、「ESP」(1965年)、「Live at the Plugged Nickel」(1982年/1995年再版:収録は1965年)、「Miles Smiles」(1966年)、「Sorcerer」(1967年)である。彼らの新しいアプローチは、同時に、ロスト・クインテットを導く動力源となってゆく。ショーターにもしっくり来るものだったが、それにはバンドのメンバーに、気配りの良さと柔軟性の良さがあるサポートが、備わっていることが必要だった。「ダウンビート」誌のラリー・カートによれば、ショーターのインプロヴィゼーションの手法は、次の通り「彼の心情が、音になり、同時にそれについてメンバー間で話し合いが発生する(例えば、思いつきで見つかったモチーフがいくつかあると、メンバーがどんどん細部を練ってゆく。その意識の働かせ方は、実に驚異的だ。」そうやって「練った細部」は、スリム以外の何物でもない、とラリー・カートは続ける。「彼の演奏には、思いやりとか、情熱といった、心の様相が込められていることが、ハッキリと分かる。それは、聴手に喜びを与えるものだ。」ショーターが、マイルスのバンドにもたらしたもの、それは、大いなる想像力、強靭さ、そして熱い思いである。1960年代、マイルスのクインテットと関わる4年間の中で、彼は、デイヴィスが新たな彼のバンドに求めた、ギブ・アンド・テイクの「化学反応」についての深い知恵を得た。 








At first, Miles Davis's Lost Quintet seemed less oriented toward free exploration than the previous band, composed of Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, and Tony Williams. That situation changed as the band shifted in personnel, allowing a new chemistry to develop. First, in August 1968, twenty-one-year-old British bassist Dave Holland replaced Carter. In July, Miroslav Vitous had filled the gap left from Carter's departure. Davis, vacationing in London, came to Ronnie Scott's club one night to hear pianist Bill Evans, but unexpectedly discovered Holland, who was playing that night with a group opposite Evans. Jack DeJohnette was Evan's drummer but was also playing melodica in the group with Holland. Holland relates: “Miles dropped in, and between two sets his former drummer Philly Joe Jones passed on the message to me. But when I got off, he had left, and I missed him the next morning at his hotel, as he had checked out and was on his way back to New York. Three weeks later, his agent called, informing me I had to be there in three days. That's when I met him for the first time, in the studio.” 




Holland played both electric and acoustic bass ― Carter had not wanted to play electric ― and once Davis heard him, the bandleader immediately surmised that he just might be the right person for his band. The choice proved prescient, because Holland could play not only what Davis was seeking but much more, since his musical interests had been shaped in part within London's open-improvisation world.  



In September 1968, Chick Corea replaced Herbie Hancock, at Tony Williams's recommendation. Hancock told John S. Wilson of the New York Times on the eve of the premiere of Hancock's new sexet: “Miles had heard Chick Corea and felt he would be the best new piano player for him. While Chick was with Stan Getz, he had six weeks off so Miles decided to use him for that period.” Holland and Corea's first studio session with Davis was on September 24, 1968, recording two tunes that would appear on Filles de Kilimanjaro. The pair recorded in the studio with Davis throughout November and into early December. These sessions often involved multiple keyboardists, including Hancock and Josef Zawinul. Guitarist John McLaghlin was another regular participant. 

1968年9月、トニー・ウィリアムスの後押しで、チック・コリアハービー・ハンコックの後任に就いた。ハンコックは、彼が新たに結成したセクステット(6人編成のバンド)のお披露目公演に際し、その晩、ニューヨーク・タイムズ紙のジョン・S・ウィルソンに、次のように語っている「マイルスはチック・コリアの演奏を聞いたことがあり、自分の新たなピアノ奏者に最高だと、その時すでに感じたようだ。チックがスタン・ゲッツのバンドに居た頃、6週間休暇をとった時期があって、その時マイルスは、その間彼を使ってみようと思ったわけだ。」デイヴィスの元、デイヴ・ホランドチック・コリアが初めてスタジをセッションしたのが、1968年9月24日。その時録音した2曲は、後にアルバム「Filles de Kilimanjaro1」に収録される。この2人は、翌11月から12月初旬まで、デイヴィスとスタジオ収録に取り組む。このセッションでは、キーボード奏者を複数導入し、そこにはハービー・ハンコックやジョー・ザウィヌルらもいた。ギター奏者として、ジョン・マクラフリンが、別途全参加している。 




A New Bassist: Dave Holland 



Dave Holland was born in Wolverhampton, a town in the West Midlands of England. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the region became home to automobile, glass, and other manufacturing industries. According to Holland, “There were no musicians in my family, but my uncle brought a ukulele home and started strumming some chords. I wanted him to show me, so that's how I picked up my first things, and I was just five years old then. There was a piano, too; my mother and grandmother sang songs from sheet music, so I began to pick out tunes with it.” 



The young Holland took up rock guitar but switched to bass as a teenager, playing in local “beat ... C&W-style [country and western] pop” groups and “studying Ray Brown's work on Oscar Peterson's albums Night Train and Affinity, plus two Leroy Vinnegar records, Leroy Walks and Leroy Walks Again.” When he was eighteen, he left Wolverhampton for the musically more cosmopolitan London scene. “For kids like myself, music was like a ticket to ride, a way out of that dreadful working environment and rigid class system.” 

ホランドはその後、ロックギターに手を出すが、13歳になるとベースに転向する。地元の「ビート云々カントリーウエスタンポップ」のグループでベースを弾くようになり、本人曰く「オスカー・ピーターソンのアルバム『Night Train』や『Affinity』に収録されているレイ・ブラウンの楽曲や、リロイ・ヴィネガーの2枚のアルバム「Leroy Walks」と「Leroy Walks Again」を教材にした」。18歳の時、彼はウルヴァーハンプトンを出て、音楽的に多彩な街・ロンドンを目指す。「私みたいな子供からすれば、音楽とは、うんざりするような労働環境やギスギスした階層社会から脱出するための、列車の切符のようなものだった。」 


In London, Holland played clubs and restaurants; his diverse repertoire included Dixieland, which was sweeping England at the time. He also joined visiting American saxophonists Coleman Hawkins, Ben Webster, and Joe Henderson and British sax player Ronnie Scott at the eponymously titled premier London jazz club, Ronnie Scott's. Holland recalled in 1968: “When I came to London four years ago, I couldn't read music and had to take all kinds of jobs ― even worked in a Greek restaurant playing bouzouki.” During this period, he was studying bass with James Merrett at the Guildhall School of Music and became involved with the growing British open-improvisation world, which included a trio he joined in 1967 with guitarist John McLaughlin and drummer Tony Oxley.  




Among Holland's musical associates was saxophonist John Surman, and he played with John Stevens's Spontaneous Music Ensemble, recording Karyobin Are the Imaginary Birds Said to Live in Paradise in early 1968. The recording included musical pioneers Derek Bailey, Evan Parker, and Kenny Wheeler. This collective improvisation was organized as a series of short spurts of activity, each one a phrase played in parallel (not unison), each separated by a brief pause. In this form of improvisation, embedded within each cluster of activity, individual musicians listen closely and respond to one another, completing and commenting on the other's gestures. At times, one or more of the players are akin to a relay race, where one person hands a baton off to the next. Holland's rapid, mellifluous phrases, first pizzicato and later arco, reflect the kind of individual-within-the-collective thinking that would serve him well with Miles Davis and later with Circle, Anthony Braxton, and Sam Rivers. He is rarely in the foreground, yet is an integral element in the group chemistry, an ever-active, highly engaged presence, crafting well-shaped phrases and thinking on his feet. 

ホランドの音楽仲間には、サックス奏者のジョン・サーマンがいる。また、彼はジョン・スティーヴンスの「スポンティニアス・ミュージック・アンサンブル」に参加し、「Karyobin Are the Imaginary Birds Said to Live in Paradise の収録に参加した。1968年初頭のことである。収録には、楽界の先駆者達、デレク・ベイリーエヴァン・パーカー、そしてケニー・ウィーラーらが参加していた。ここでの集団によるインプロヴィゼーションの構成は、短めの演奏を並べてゆくというもので、それぞれに並行して(全く同じく重ねるのではなく)演奏するスタイルを持つ。そしてそれぞれが、短く間をとっている。このインプロヴィゼーションの形式では、各奏者の演奏行為が集中して起こるところにインプロヴィゼーションが発生する。個々のミュージシャン達は、互いによく聴いてそれに反応し、演奏を作り上げ、相方の演奏に反応を音で示すのだ。時には、一人ないしそれ以上のプレーヤー達が、陸上競技のリレーでもやっているかのように、自分から次の走者へと、バトンを渡すようにやり取りしてゆく。ホランドの紡ぐフレーズは、俊敏にして流麗、初めはピチカートで、そのうち弓を用いて弾きだす。「集団の中での個別行動」的な発想を反映していて、マイルス・デイヴィスや、後のサークル、アンソニー・ブラクストン、そしてサム・リヴァースらとの演奏に、大いに役立つ。彼は滅多なことでは、目立つ演奏立ち位置には出てこない。とはいえ、彼は、チームで化学反応を起こす上で、欠かせない存在であり、常に積極的に弾き、全体への関わり方も高度であり、非常によく仕上がったフレーズを作り出し、そして常に自分自身で物事を考えて演奏に臨んでいる。 


Holland came to the States to join Miles Davis's band after completing his final semester at the Guildhall School of Music. “I had only four days to prepare. Luckily I knew most of his music from the records. Right after I got to New York, we opened for 10 days at Count Basie's Club in Harlem. Melody Maker critic Jeff Atterton gave the band a rave review, noting “the strong bass playing of Dave Holland who seemed very much at home with the group and more than able to hold his own in this fast company.” 



The move to the States represented a big change for Holland, but he quickly learned to navigate the New York scene. “I had been out of the country [England] only once before that and being there at that time was a eye-opener. There was a cultural revolution going on then: you had the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement coming to a head, then the political assassinations, so it was such an incredibly intense period. Sure, the language was the same, but I was learning a new culture as well as finding my way around making contacts.” An informal recording from October 28, 1968, has Holland playing with John McLaughlin, Jack DeJohnette, and an unidentified pianist in a relatively open improvisational setting. 



A New Pianist: Chick Corea 

新たなピアノ奏者 チック・コリア 


Chick Corea was raised in a musical household; his father was Armando Corea, a trumpeter and bassist who played the jazz clubs around their hometown, Boston, and nearby Cape Cod. Corea notes that his dad was “a musician all his life and he gave me my first instruction. He was really kind and gentle. He got me off to a real safe start. My parents were both always very encouraging and allowed me total freedom to pursue music.” Armando was active from the 1930s through Corea's adolescence in the 1950s. When he was around four years old, Corea “first heard Bud [Powell] play, on my dad's seventy-eight RPM vinyl ... [and] I do remember the spirit of his playing, and 'bubble-iness' of his piano playing attracting me and I just liked it. I kept listening to him.” 



Chick Corea's formal musical education was limited to “a six-year stint that I spent with a great classical pianist who lives in Boston whose name is Salvatore Sullo ... I began to study with him when I was about eleven, twelve years old and stayed with him until I was about sixteen or seventeen years old. Bach, Beethoven, and Chopin were prevalent in my classical music studies on the piano, along with a little bit of Mozart and Scarlatti.” Corea also developed skills as a trumpeter and drummer. 



When he was a teen, it was Bud Powell's musical approach and feel that he was the most strongly drawn to. He became interested in Powell's compositions and “transcribe[d] some of Bud's piano playing note-for-note and I would try to play the notes.” Literal transcription was but the first step in learning to emulate Powell. “I would play the notes, but it still wouldn't sound like Bud. I knew something was missing from the phrasing or the rhythm or whatever.” Corea began to play along with the recordings, “trying to get it so that my playing would just kind of exactly duplicate what was coming off the record. Bud's playing was just completely innovative and interesting to me ― everything he did was so spirited ... and so creative.” 



It was not unusual for a young jazz pianist to view Bud Powell as a model. After all, Powell had played a substantial role in establishing core traditions of bebop, crafting a harmonic grounding of its highly chromatic musical language ― with left-hand voicing of ninth and thirteenth chords ― while backing Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Powell translated the angularity of Parker's horn lines for his right hand. But equally important to Corea was his simplicity, symmetry, and directness. Over simultaneously rhythmically energetic and in equal measures virtuosic and to the point. Corea's solos came to present well-developed ideas, often symmetrical in phrasing. 



During his teen years, the pianist started playing on his father's gigs. In high school, Corea's interests expanded to hard bop trumpeter Blue Mitchell and pianist Horace Silver, whose solos he also transcribed and played in a trio. “Horace's music and his piano playing was a little bit more accessible to me because it wasn't so technically demanding as Bud's.” In the late 1950s, Corea continued to follow many of the leading jazz pianists of that decade: “I listened to John Lewis. I listened to early Thelonious Monk on Miles' records ... Hank Jones played some with Miles, and then finally into the ... mid-fifties somewhere is where Red Garland showed up. And Red's style just, you know, captured me  ― I loved. It. Then, even after that, Wynton Kelly was a real favorite of mine and after that came Bill Evans ― this is all Mile's career. Then after Bill Evans came Herbie Hancock. So all of these guys were tremendous inspirations to me, piano-wise.” And all these pianists had played with Miles Davis. 



After following his father to the senior Corea's gigs, his father hit on his own, “outside of my father's circle,” was as “a junior in high school ― I guess I was 15 or 16 years old ― I was called to do a gig with Cab [Calloway]'s band for a week at Boston's Mayfair Hotel. That was my first real stepping-out. I was stunned. All of a sudden I had to wear a tuxedo and it was like a big show with lights on the stage. It was kind of scary, you know? He had a dance line of ladies who were only dressed a little bit. They seemed huge to me. They were daunting. After a little while I got into the swing of it and started really loving being out on my own like that. As for the entertainment value of it all, I was just thrilled to be there.” 



Corea moved to New York City in 1959 after his high school graduation, and his recording career began in 1962 in the Latin jazz bands of Wille Bobo and Mongo Santamaria. Joining Montego Joe's band in 1964 continued Corea's experience playing Latin. He first recorded with Blue Mitchell that year and joined his band in 1965. Also in 1965, Corea recorded with flutist Herbie Mann (Roar of the Greasepaint). The following year, he played with Latin vibraphonist Cal Tjader. He also recorded his first album as a leader, Tones for Joan's Bones, “a breakout hard-bop date with a modal feel. 

1959年、高校を卒業した彼は、ニューヨークへ向かう。1962年にはレコード制作に関わるようになった。まずはラテン・ジャズバンドの、ウィリー・ボボとモンゴ・サンタマリア。1964年にはモンテゴ・ジョーのバンドに参加、ラテン音楽への取り組みが続く。この年、ブルー・ミッチェルと初のレコーディングを行い、翌1965年には、彼のバンドに参加する。更にその同じ年、チック・コリアはフルート奏者のハービー・マンと「Roar of the Greasepaint」のレコーディングを行った。次の年、彼はラテン音楽を中心に活躍するヴィブラフォン奏者のカル・ジェイダーと共演を果たす。また彼は、自身がリーダーとなって制作した初のアルバム「Tone for Joan's Bones」をリリース。「モードの雰囲気をもつハード・バップの爆発的ヒット作品」となった。 


Corea's jazz interests continued to be augmented by an appreciation of contemporary European art music: “My favorite contemporary composers are Bartok and Stravinsky. Also, I admire Eric Satie's music an awful lot.” We find throughout Corea's mature playing ― particularly as a member of Miles Davis's Lost Quintet and Circle ― rapid runs and other figures built on tone clusters (collections of adjacent notes that are played simultaneously). Many examples can be found throughout this book. These are devices well represented within Bartok's piano repertoire, for example in Microcosmos, volume 5. An overlapping influence in this regard may have been Thelonious Monk, who also made use of tone clusters throughout his work. 



A 1966 stint with Stan Getz was followed by a tour with Sarah Vaughan in 1967, and then his tenure with Miles Davis. Corea's trio recording Now He Sings, Now He Sobs, with Miroslav Vitous and drummer Roy Haynes, followed in 1968. Accepting an invitation from Miles Davis was of course an excellent move for an aspiring jazz musician. 

1966年にスタン・ゲッツのバンドに参加し、その後の1967年にはサラ・ヴォーンとのツアーがあり、そしてマイルス・デイヴィスの下へ、と続く。1968年には彼のトリオ(ベースのミロスラフ・ヴィトウス、ドラムのロイ・ヘインズ)の作品「Now He Sings, Now He Sobs」が続く。向上心に燃えるジャズ・ミュージシャンにとって、マイルス・デイヴィスの誘いに乗るのは、当然のことながら、この上なき選択肢である。 


A Rhythm Section Two-Thirds Rebuilt: The Band's Final Shows with Tony Williams 



On October 5, 1968, Davis's band, now with Dave Holland, Chick Corea, Wayne Shorter, and Tony Williams, played a show at UCLA that Los Angeles Times critic Leonard Feather hailed as “not likely to be surpassed this season by any other group that works at this high level of abstraction ... The sensitivity that bound the five men in a jagged unity often seemed to attain extra-sensory peaks of invention.” Feather also lauded the new band members: “In this new and more challenging context, [Corea] drew on inner reserves of creative strength that were rarely apparent in the relatively conservative groups with which he had previously been heard [Herbie Mann, Stan Getz]. Holland displayed great sensitivity and a rich, big sound. Although meters, accents, volume and moods shifted around with the liquidity of a light show, nothing seemed to phase him.” He referred to Davis as “a spellbinder” and described Williams's drumming as “frenzied.” The repertoire drew largely from 1965-67 Davis Quintet's songbook, largely composed by Shorter: “Agitation,” “Footprints,” “Paraphernalia,” “Pinocchio,” and “Nefertiti,” plus “Round Midnight” and “an oblique, restless up tempo blues excursion based on one of his early records, 'Walkin'.” All in all, a propitious public start for a band that by this time had replaced bassist Ron Carter and pianist Herbie Hancock. 

1968年10月5日、この時のマイルス・デイヴィスのバンドは、ベースのデイヴ・ホランド、ピアノのチック・コリア、サックスはウェイン・ショーター、そしてドラムがトニー・ウィリアムスという顔ぶれである。UCLAでの公演は、「ロサンゼルス・タイムズ」紙のレナード・フェザーが絶賛している「この様に高いレベルの、抽象絵画とも言える演奏は、今シーズン行われた演奏の中でも、ずば抜けているように思われる。彼ら5人を大雑把にまとめる感性は、音楽を生み出す霊感の極み、その様にこれまでも多く評されたものである。」フェザーは更に、新たに加入したメンバー達を称賛する。「(チック・コリアが)これまで参加してきた、どちらかといえば従来型のグループ(ハービー・マンやスタン・ゲッツなど)には、めったに見られなかった、内なる創造力を、この新たなる、そして更に困難不透明な状況下で、見事に引き出した。デイヴ・ホランドは、優れた感性と豊かでよく響くサウンドを聞かせた。拍子や強拍弱拍の設定、音量、そして曲想といったものは、あたかも万華鏡を覗いてみたときのように、目まぐるしく変わっているものの、彼は一切動じない。」彼はマイルス・デイヴィスを「雄弁なる者」と評し、トニー・ウィリアムスのドラムを「熱狂」と記した。当日の演奏曲目は、1965年から67年にかけてのマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットのものから採られていて、大半がウェイン・ショーターの作曲したものだ。「Footprints」「Pinocchio」「Nefertiti」更には「Round Midnight」そして、『彼の初期の音源の一つ「Walkin'」をベースにした、不安で不穏なテンポのブルース形式の一品』。この時点で、ベースのロン・カーターとピアノのハービー・ハンコックを降板させたバンドへと、大衆は概して都合よく目移りしたようである。 



The same outfit, continuing with Williams, appeared at the Jazz Workshop in Boston for a four-day stand on December 5-8. This was four months after Holland's first performances with the band at Count Basie's club in Harlem. Shows from this period represent Davis's first experiments using two electric pianists in concert settings. One track of an audience recording from Boston pairs Corea with Wynton Kelly on “Round Midnight.” Kelly is likely playing a Wurlitzer, but is barely audible until he takes the first piano solo. Around this time, Davis also paired Corea with Stanley Cowell, in Montreal and probably Boston. Cowell views the combination to have been unsuccessful. 

ウィリアムスの加わったバンドは、さらに同じような結果を出す。ボストンでのジャズワークショップだ。12月5日から8日までの4日間開催された。この4ヶ月前に、ホランドの最初のお披露目公演が、ハーレムのカウントベイシーズクラブで行われている。この時期の数々の公演では、デイヴィスが初めて2台の電子ピアノを、本番で使用している。ボストンでのライブ録音の1つは、チック・コリアウィントン・ケリーとペアを組み、「Round Midnight」で共演している。ケリーが弾いているのは、ワーリッツァー社製のものと思われるが、最初のソロが出てくるまでは、ほとんど聞こえない。当時、デイヴィスは、チック・コリアとスタンレー・カウエルも組みにしている。モントリオールと、もう1つはボストンでの本番と考えられている。カウエルは、この組み合わせを、うまく行かなかったと考えている。 


The Miles Davis Quintet was not an easy band for newcomers to join. By 1968, five years of chemistry among the players had been amassed with a distinct experimental trajectory, particularly since 1965. Holland remembers that it took him nearly a year to gain enough confidence in this new setting. Corea, stepping into Hancock's seat, remembers: 




The main challenge [upon joining Miles's band] was to step into a hot-seat that had developed over six or seven years with Tony Williams, Ron Carter, Herbie Hancock and Wayne Shorter, as one of the great, great groups of jazz in live performance ... It was a pretty big challenge to step in there and try and make some sense. Tony was still playing with Miles, he was in his last six months of his tenure and was full-blown in the freedom with which he was approaching the music, and it was a challenge to try and fit in. But, Miles was really encouraging and told me to just play right here, and I did. It was very rewarding. 




Four months after Corea joined the band, on February 18, 1969, Davis returned to the studio to record the groundbreaking In a Silent Way, using three electric pianists in tandem: Corea, Hancock, and Joe Zawinul, with Williams on drums. By this point, the only members of the previous quintet remaining with the touring band were Wayne Shorter and Miles Davis; Williams had already left to form Tony Williams Lifetime. As we shall see, the emerging new quintet remained musically in transition until Jack DeJohnette, who had been periodically subbing for Williams, joined in time for a March date in Rochestrer, New York. 

チック・コリア加入から4ヶ月後の1969年2月18日、デイヴィスは再び録音スタジオへ入り、革新の逸品「In a Silent Way」を制作。本作では、3人の電子ピアノ奏者を同時に投入、チック・コリアハービー・ハンコック、そしてジョー・ザヴィヌル、彼らはトニー・ウィリアムスのドラムの下、足並みをそろえた。ここに至り、残ったのはウェイン・ショーターマイルス・デイヴィスの2人。トニー・ウィリアムスは、既にトニー・ウィリアムス・ライフタイム結成のために去っていた。これを見て明らかなように、新興クインテットは、音楽面では移行期間にあった。決着がついたのが、ジャック・ディジョネットの加入だった。一旦トニー・ウィリアムスの代役として期限付きで入り、その後正式に加入した。時は3月、ニューヨーク州ロチェスターでの公演に間に合うように・・・。 



The New Drummer: Jack DeJohnette 

新たなドラム奏者 ジャック・ディジョネット 


Chicago-born Jack DeJohnette was first a pianist, and only later a drummer. He began piano lessons at age four and took up the drums at thirteen. His musical interests were cultivated by his uncle, Roy I. Wood Sr., a disc jockey. DeJohnette's professional background became as eclectic as the music of the city's South Side, where he grew up. He played rhythm and blues; hard bop, the newly dominant form of jazz in black communities; and open improvisation. His first experience touring was with saxophonist Eddie Harris, who encouraged DeJohnette to focus on the drums: “He thought I was a natural drummer, and he thought I'd be more successful at it and as it turned out, he was right. When I came to New York in '64 or '65, I went up to Minton's, and Freddie Hubbard was there, he heard me play, and he said, “Hey, man, you got a set of drums?” I said, 'Yeah.' 'Well, you got a gig.' That's when I decided, 'Ok, I'm going to make drums be my main instrument.'” 




A highlight of DeJohnette's time in Chicago, around 1958, was playing with visionary big-band leader Sun Ra. “When I had the time I'd always make his rehearsals. I was trying to develop myself as a drummer, and it was a great experience to play with him.” He played a set with the John Coltrane Quartet, sitting in for Elvin Jones in 1962, and joined Coltrane's band again four years later as a second drummer to Rashied Ali. 



DeJohnette was present at the founding of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) in 1965, and he developed a close connection with early members. He attended Wilson Junior College with saxophonists Anthony Braxton, James Willis, and Roscoe Mitchell, who introduced him to reedist Joseph Jarman. DeJohnette recalls playing with these musicians and introducing Mitchell and bassist Malachi Favors to Muhal Richard Abrams, who cofounded the organization. Also among DeJohnette's AACM friend was Steve McCall, the drummer in one of his early trios as a pianist and later a Braxton collaborator. 







It was a time of exploration and changes. There was no outlet for an alternative music. Roscoe and Joseph and I would get together to play our music and our concepts of improvisation. Muhal realized that we needed to have a space and an organization, we needed a structured outlet to get that creative energy out and so he got together a charter and a performance space and formed the AACM, with an orchestra that then spun off smaller groups Muhal was one of my mentors. He helped me a lot with my music and with life problems, and he was the one who encouraged me to come to New York. 




Drummer Billy Hart keenly recalls this circle of musical connections: “I had met Jack DeJohnette and Muhal Richard Abrams in Chicago when I traveled there with Shirley [Horn]. Anthony [Braxton] and I were very close friends for a while [in the mid-1960s], to the point where when I'd go to Chicago, I would actually stay with him. We used to listen to John Cage, David Tudor, and Stockhausen.” 



The AACM can be approached from overlapping perspectives ― aesthetic, cultural, political, organizational, and business. Among its founding principles were black financial and organizational autonomy guided by collective action, and as scholar and AACM member George Lewis observes, “collective working-class self-help and self-determination; encouragement of difference in viewpoint, aesthetics, ideology, spirituality, and methodologies.” Aesthetically, the group championed a broad musical eclecticism, an interest in open musical forms, a balance between composition and new models to relate composition and improvisation, and, in Lewis's words, “new ideas about sound, timbre, collectivity, extended technique and instrumentation, performance practice.” 

AACMは、その芸術的価値観、文化的側面、政治的影響、組織の有り様、そして経営状況といった、様々な視点を重ねて見てゆくことが出来る。設立理念はいくつかあるが、その中には、集団での行動に導かれる形での、アフリカ系の人々による資金面および運営面での自主自立製である。そして学者であり、AACMのメンバーでもあるジョージ・ルイスは、この組織を評して「寄ってたかって、汗水たらして働く人々が、自らを助け、自ら何事も決定し、物の見方/芸術的価値観/イデオロギー/心のあり方/物事の進め方は「人それぞれ異なる」を良しとする」。芸術的価値観、といえば、この組織が大事にしていることとして、幅広く色々な音楽が共存し混じり合うこと、どのような音楽の形式にも寛容に興味を示すこと、既存の楽曲と新しいネタとのバランスをとることで「作曲」という行為とインプロヴィゼーションの「対立構造」を解消すること、そして、ルイス曰く「サウンド/音色/全体のまとめ方/超絶技法/楽器の組み合わせ/演奏の実践 に常に新風を吹き込む」 


The same year that the AACM was founded, DeJohnette moved to New York, choosing the Lower East Side neighborhood where many jazz musicians were living. During this period, he played with Sun Ra (who had moved from Chicago to Montreal and then to New York), Betty Carter, Charles Tolliver, Henry Grimes, Herbie Lewis, and Jackie McLean, with whom he recorded. DeJohnette was playing with McLean at the neighborhood jazz club Slugs when Miles Davis first heard the drummer play. “Miles and Jackie McLean had similar taste in drummers. Jackie always said to me, 'Miles is going to hire you, because Tony [Williams] was with me before Miles hired him, and we have the same taste in drummers.' Sure enough, one night I was in Slugs, and Miles came in to hear me. He'd heard about me, so he came.” 




DeJohnette caught the attention of a broader group of musicians, listeners, and critics while touring internationally with saxophonist Charles Lloyd. Lloyd had been part of the West Coast jazz scene, where he encountered Ornette Coleman's circle of musicians. His quartet was formed in 1965 with DeJohnette plus pianist Keith Jarrett and bassist Cecil McBee, both invited at DeJohnette's suggestion. The band's musical eclecticism, bridging elements of Coltrane's music, straight-ahead jazz, rock beats, Indian musical influences, and open improvisation, was a tremendous commercial success, particularly among young white audiences. The quartet toured rock halls as well as jazz festivals. 




After a stint with Stan Getz in 1968, DeJohnette joined Bill Evans's trio with bassist Eddie Gomez. Their work is documented on Bill Evans at the Montreux Jazz Festival. It was of course on an evening with Evans that Davis first heard both DeJohnette and Holland play in London. During this period, DeJohnette began subbing for Tony Williams in Miles Davis's Quintet. 

1968年、スタン・ゲッツとの契約期間を終えると、ディジョネットはビル・エヴァンスのトリオに、ベース奏者のエディ・ゴメスと共に参加する。この3人の演奏を収めたのが「Bill Evans at the Motreux Jazz Festival」だ。言うまでもなく、ビル・エヴァンスと舞台を共にしたこの夜、マイルス・デイヴィスが初めてディジョネットとホランドの両方を、ロンドンで耳にしたのである。ディジョネットがマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットトニー・ウィリアムスの代役を務め始めたのは、この期間のことだった。 



When Davis was seeking a new drummer, it was DeJohnette's synthesis of many musical influences and sensibilities that captured the bandleader's imagination. “I adjusted what I played to what the musical situation was. I had influences. I had Elvin, or I had Tony, Roy, Max, and all those, but I also knew very consciously that I had to develop my own voice. So I took what I liked from the other drummers, and tried to turn it around into Jack DeJohnette, and basically had the good fortune to be in situations ... where musicians are taking risks and trying different things. I had a chance to experiment.” Key to working with the Miles Davis Quintet was his “concept around utilizing drums as an integral part of the ensemble, as well as solos.” DeJohnette shared that adaptive quality and skill at balancing individuality and collectivity with Tony Williams, his predecessor in the band. Williams had developed a way to engage with and interconnect his fellow band members, as would DeJohnette.  




DeJohnette brought tremendous drive and intensity to his playing. His beat could be simultaneously direct and flexible, in part thanks to his foot dexterity. He listened carefully to his bandmates and brought constant variety and a deep level of complexity to what he played. In Davis's Lost Quintet, Chick Corea's use of the electric piano (and eventually Dave Holland's electric bass) raised the volume level of the rest of the rhythm section, allowing DeJohnette to draw from the full dynamic range of his instrument. The interplay between him and Corea could become one of the first strikingly creative developments to unfold within the new band. Dave Holland told trumpeter and Davis biographer Ian Carr: “When Jack came in the band, a whole new feeling happened for me because I had played with Jack before and I'd felt this affinity with him; so when he came into the band, the whole feeling of the music changed for me.” He noted that he “hadn't been able to make the kind of musical contact” he needed when playing with Williams, whom he felt “was a sort of immovable object to me: he had his place where he played and I was either to play with him, or on my own. But ... I never felt that he came over to my space too much.” 




DeJohnette found a joy to play with Davis: 




It was great to play with Miles, because Miles loved the drum. Everything came from the drums. He liked boxing, he was a big boxing fan, and he saw drums in jazz as having similar aspects. The drums and the horn player have to set each other up. He would talk about that, “Ok, now you've got to set this way ... “ If you play a phrase, you have to know how to set a guy up. The same thing with boxing. You set a guy up, you feint with a left hook and then catch him with an overhand or uppercut right. It's in the rhythm. “ 





All the Pieces in Place: The Davis Band Develops a New Chemistry 



Jack DeJohnette's presence in the drummer's seat during the band's stand at Duffy's Backstage in Rochester, New York, in March 1969, marks the real beginning of Miles Davis's Lost Quintet. DeJohnette ably continued the tradition of Tony Williams's percussive dynamism, but when he joined, something changed in the chemistry of the group. We immediately sense that the newly formed rhythm section gels in its own way, unique yet parallel to the power of the previous Herbie Hancock-Ron Carter-Tony Williams rhythm section. Both men provided the band's connective tissue and were key to its ability to continuously reconfigure the ever-changing textures at the core of its music. 




The new quintet's rhythm section was more extroverted than its predecessor's. The increased volume level meant not only a louder sound but also different relationships between instruments. The electric piano's more percussive attack, the sound swelling into a longer, richer sustain, the ability to play as loudly as the drums, and the possibility of electronically altering the resulting timbre rendered the instrument a sonic change agent. Corea's newfound timbral variety allowed him to inject his presence within the textural environment of horn soloists. The potential to foreground rhythmic interplay between Corea and DeJohnette increased, and space had to be consciously made for Holland to be heard and for Corea and Holland to interact. 




Finding an ideal balance and synergy between instruments was not going to be a simple matter. Davis's aesthetic was evolving, learning in two seemingly contradictory directions: improvisationally open yet with a strong beat. DeJohnette's experiences attuned him to both of Davis's new musical inclinations, having played rhythm and blues, backed open improvisations by members of the AACM, and engaged in more straight-ahead playing. Although Davis first heard Holland in a relatively conventional musical setting, the bassist was an active participant in London's avant-garde. Corea built a reputation in hard bop and Latin jazz, but he was also a drummer. With Davis he was asked to play a new instrument - electric piano -in a setting unlike what he had experienced. Miles Davis was asking a lot from his new bandmates, tossing them into a setting whose trajectory even he couldn't predict. Yet in its earliest stage, on that March gig, we sense rhythm section cohering and functioning as an integral, organic unit, making compelling music as a team. 




It is difficult to draw firm conclusions about the rhythm section before DeJohnette's arrival simply from the one extant audience recording. What is clear is that drummer Tony Williams was a dominant presence in the Boston Jazz Workshop shows. That four-day stand came amid Miles's first multi-keyboard recording sessions leading toward In a Silent Way, a recording (reuniting Hancock, Williams, and Davis) on which the delicate balance of the previous quintet remains much in evidence. But the Jazz Workshop recording with the new lineup seems quite different. Williams's thundering drumming surges into Wayne Shorter's solo in “Round Midnight,” ebbing and flowing while rarely ceasing to drive hard. It is when Williams lays out after one final drumroll that we hear glimpses of the new quintet: Holland's walking bass line takes over as Shorter's sole partner, eventually leading to Corea's electric piano solo. 

現存するライブ録音1つだけを見て、ディジョネットが加入する前後のリズムセクションについて、きっちり線引を決めてしまうことは、難しい。ハッキリしていることが1つある。それは、トニー・ウィリアムスとは、名ジャズクラブ「ボストン・ジャズ・ワークショップ」では、本番のたびに、ほかを圧倒する存在感を示していた。その4日間は、マイルスが最初に行った複数のキーボードを導入したレコーディングセッション(後に「In a Silent Way」というハンコック、ウィリアムス、そしてデイヴィスが、「ロスト」の前身のクインテットが持っていた繊細なバランス感覚が、依然健在であった録音)へと繋がってゆくものだった。だが、このとき新たな曲目をラインナップした収録は、全く違っていた。トニー・ウィリアムスの雷のようなドラムは、ウェイン・ショーターの「Round Midnight」のソロに襲いかかると、途端に満ち引きを繰り返し、猛烈さをほとんど緩めずにいる。この新たなクインテットの真骨頂が、一瞬耳に飛び込んでくるのが、最後のドラムロールの前に、ウィリアムスが見せつけるその瞬間である。ホランドの「軽快に歩いてゆくような」ベースラインは、ショーターのソロを支えるものとして、あとを引き継ぎ、その後最終的には、チック・コリアの電子ピアノのソロへと、私達をいざなうのだ。 



While the inferior recording quality contributes to the perception that Williams dominates the proceedings, there is little doubt that his role that evening was central. There are hints of both past and future quintets, such as Corea's intuitive approach to comping for Shorter. Here, the pianist responds to the nuance, phrasing, and sound of the saxophonist's lines, providing only hints of the chord changes. Otherwise, the band on this night offers a liner, soloist-centered model closely adhering to the forms of the tunes. It is as if Williams were seeking to provide the glue that holds together what otherwise might be a band lacking the time and opportunity to have developed its own chemistry. His driving drumming on Joe Zawinul's new tune “Directions,” soon to become a core part of the band's repertoire, offers a fascinating snapshot of where his musical instincts were taking him as Tony Williams Lifetime was taking shape. The give-and-take between Williams and Corea, whose sharply attacked chords punctuate the rhythm, is exciting. As Wallace Roney observes: “Tony's Lifetime was the instigator of the electric direction Miles would take.” 





In April 1969, Corea reflected on how challenging it was to figure out what to play in this new band: 



When Tony had called me for the gig, he said that he thought Miles was more interested in an accompanist than a soloist, but the first few weeks I hardly comped at all. I didn't know what to comp. Previously, I had started to play in a very unharmonic atmosphere, using harmonies as sounds and textures rather than as voice leaders in song-like fashion. But when I got in the band the things that Miles and Wayne were playing were so harmonically oriented (single notes they would hang onto would imply so much harmonically) that I was at a loss for what to do ... so I didn't play at all until Miles told me, “Whatever you have, just drop it in.” So I began doing that. Whenever I would have something, rather than hesitating because it might conflict, I would play it, and what started to happen (maybe just to my own ears) was that Miles and Wayne began to play all inside what I would put down. It would seem to be so apropos all the time that there was nothing that could be played which was “wrong.” What is presented always seems to fit. That really makes it very relaxed. 





Heading in a New Musical Direction 



In contrast, the new rhythm section playing together in March 1969 at Duffy's Backstage provides glimpses of a collective cohesiveness that would flower over time. We hear that like his predecessor, Jack DeJohnette's drumming is dramatic and virtuosic. He is well supported by Dave Holland's solid and steady walking bass. DeJohnette plays as if he were a partner in an organic whole, rising and falling in levels of energy, punctuating each soloist's ideas, periodically sparking a rise in intensity. He raises the temperature of the ensemble by subdividing beats, creating variations on a tune's rhythms, tossing in surprising rhythmic accents. He crafts polyrhythms by intently inserting a series of strongly played beats across the bar lines. He attentively follows each soloist, particularly Chick Corea. Listening to the drumming, we immediately sense a high level of interdependence and a growing trust. 



When we listen to the other two members of the rhythm section on this date, we can hear how all three members' contributions cohere. There are moments when one player changes mood, speed, or direction, and the other band members quickly reconfigure in a tightly interwoven manner. Sometimes each musician finds his own way to respond. Two minutes in to Shorter's solo on “So What,” there is a stutter in Holland's bass line, followed by a rapidly repeated three-note phrase, which forms an ostinato. Corea incorporates this particular figure within his chordal accompaniment, which DeJohnette completes with a drum flourish. When Corea contributes a series of two-handed rising and falling melodic lines in contrary motion, the level of complexity increases within the band, interrupting the liner flow of Shorter's solo. After Corea plays a series of brief ostinato figures and one upward glissando after the next, his bandmates build on his musical ideas. Although this is Shorter's solo, it is Shorter who imitates Corea's gesture and DeJohnette who extends it. 

この日の演奏の、他の2人のリズムセクションのメンバーを聴いてみると、3人全員が献身的な姿勢を貫いていることが、聞き取れる。ある者が曲想やスピード感、あるいは方向性を変化させると、他のメンバー達はすぐさま、しっかりとお互いを編み上げてゆく方法で、全体を組み替えてゆく。時には、その奏者独自のやり方で反応してもよい方法を、見つけ出すこともある。「So What」で演奏時間2分が経過したところで、ショーターのソロに対して、ホランドのベースラインが口ごもるようなフレーズをそえて、これに3連符が細かく続き、オスティナートを形成する。チック・コリアはこの特異な音形を、自分のハーモニーによる伴奏にうまく組み込み、これをディジョネットが華やかなドラムのフレーズで華を添える。チック・コリアが音形が対照的な2つのメロディラインを、両手でそれぞれ同時に弾き、全体の演奏の複雑さをさらに増してゆく。そうやってショーターのソロに割って入るのだ。チック・コリアが細切れのオスティナートと、次々とグリッサンド(急激に上昇する音形)を弾き出すと、メンバー全員がこれに乗って音楽を作ってゆく。これはショーターのソロではあるが、ショーター自身が、チック・コリアの発信するものを模倣し、そしてディジョネットがこれを広げてゆく。 


Early in Corea's own rapid and fluid solo, he listens closely to Holland, who is multiply repeating a note, creating a holding pattern. Corea develops the figure further and then also uses the principle of constructing phrases from repeated notes. A dance emerges between piano and bass, while DeJohnette's drums continue steadily behind. At various points, Holland and DeJohnette show remarkable rhythmic elasticity as they change speeds, building and releasing tension. The three members of the rhythm section are engaged in a delicate interplay. 



On this March 1969 recording, we can discern Corea's emerging approach to the electric piano: his solos and comping offer textural variety, rhythmic creativity, and moments of surprise and invention. Ostinati - built from repetitive rhythmic, harmonic, and textural patters - are peppered throughout. At this point, Corea's solos remain generally linear, hinting at the greater chromaticism and complexity to come. His serpentine lines give way to rhythmic figures and whimsical variations of motifs spun from just a handful of notes. In the up-tempo “Paraphernalia” (second set), Corea begins with small amounts of material to construct grand textural events built on thrills or tremolos, or slowing rising chordal structures. In his solo during “No Blues” (second set), he makes use of the tremolo feature on the Rhodes to create a changing delay-like effect that turns sustained chords and then single notes into throbbing, vibrating sonorities. DeJohnette joins Corea with rising and falling levels of drum and cymbal rolls. We can hear Corea's satisfaction confirmed by the increased volume of the Fender Rhodes electric piano, which “really makes me feel like part of the band.” His playing reflects his own vitality and creativity and a keen awareness of his fellow players, a sign of the coming interdependence in the Miles Davis Quintet as it matured. 

この1969年3月の音源では、チック・コリアの電子ピアノへのアプローチに、引き出しの数がますます増えていることが伺える。彼のソロにしても伴奏にしても、音楽の仕組みに多様性が生まれ、リズムに創造性が醸し出され、次々と驚きや新たな発見の瞬間がおとずれる。全体に散りばめられているのが、オスティナートだ(リズムや和声、構成パターンを繰り返すことで作られる音形)。この時点では、チック・コリアのソロは、いずれも概ねわかりやすや明瞭さを保っている。そうすることで、次に来るのは、半音階や複雑さを大いに織り交ぜたものだ、と匂わせるのだ。複雑極まりないメロディラインの次に来る、リズムの音形やモチーフの奇抜なバリエーションは、ほんのわずかな音の数で作り上げたものだ。速いテンポの「Paraphernalia」(セカンドセット収録曲)では、チック・コリアは、冒頭少ない数の素材を使って、大掛かりな構造を作ってゆく。その下敷きには、振動のような音形や、トレモロの音形を用いる。あるいは、テンポを緩めながら上昇してゆく和声の構造を作ることもある。「No Blues」(セカンドセット収録曲)のソロでは、トレモロの音形を用意して、これにフェンダー・ローズ(電子ピアノ)の効果を駆使して、変化を加えながら音が遅れて響いてくるやり方で、コードを響かせ続け、そして次には、一つ一つの音を、鼓動を打つような、そして震えるような響かせ方を聞かせる。そこへディジョネットが入り込み、スネア/トム/シンバルのロールを、音量を上下させて添える。「これでバンドの一員になれた気分だ」チック・コリアのこの言葉は、フェンダー・ローズの電子ピアノで大音量を確保できるようになったことに対する満足感を、伺わせる。彼の演奏は、自身のバイタリティや豊かな創造性もさることながら、仲間のメンバー達を鋭く意識していることを、しっかりと音に出している。それは、その後成熟してゆくマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットのなかで、その後生まれてくる、メンバー同士の相互依存の意識を予見させるものだ。 






The Village Gate as Incubator 



Later that spring, Davis rented the Village Gate, a club on Bleecker Street in Greenwich Village, for several appearances. It was a hip place to fine-tune his new band before taking it on the road. The finger-popping “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” was introduced during these shows, supplementing repertoire from the previous 1960s quintet. This was the first tune developed that would appear on the recording Bitches Brew. 

その年の春、デイヴィスがヴィレッジ・ゲートを会場として借用した。ここはグリニッジ・ヴィレッジのブリーカー通りにあるクラブで、数回の公演を行った。彼の新生バンドが、ツアーに打って出る前に、しっかりと準備をするには、この上ない場所だった。この「数回の公演」期間中に演奏されたのが、後に1960年代のクインテットにとってレパートリーの一翼を担うようになる、ビート感が心地よい「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」。この曲は、「Bitches Brew」の収録曲の中では、一番最初に作られたものとなった。 


Led by the fashion-conscious Davis, the band dressed in the latest “mod” clothing, an analogue to its increasingly electric and exploratory music and the Village setting. Critic Richard Williams reported: “These days Miles wears fringed buckskin waistcoats and flowering Indian-print scarves, and the important thing is that he does it with a natural elegance worlds away from the jowly executive who goes out frugging in order to learn to relate to what the young and the free-spending are digging.” Wayne Shorter remembers one night in particular: “I was wearing a Spanish leather vest, and chopper boots with a heel, in two different colors, brown and black, Spanish conquistador riding-the-horse boots. People in the audience were looking up there at me and Miles, and after the set they were asking, 'which one is Miles.'” Chick Corea wore a “purple headband and the blue corduroy pants, a stick of incense burning on his keyboards; Dave Holland with his curly long hair and velvet fringed shirt.” 




A Musical Affinity Develops between Corea and DeJohnette 



One of the Most striking elements in the quintet's evolution was the close musical connection developing between its electric pianist and its drummer. In part this may have been because Corea and DeJohnette had a background in both instruments, which in turn explains the highly percussive nature of their pairing within the band. 



Musical Example I: Live at the Village Gate 



The extant recording from the Village Gate, possibly from May 1969, opens with the title track of Chick Corea's recording Is. Originally an extended abstract work, the composition is used here as a vehicle for driving solos given shape by Corea's chordal ostinati. At times these are played in sync with DeJohnette's drum hits. We hear this synchronicity between pianist and drummer again on “Footprints,” where coordinated ostinati and drum accents heighten the drama and tension during Davis's and Shorter's solos. DeJohnette's repeated hits, something like a minor volcanic eruption, repeatedly create a pattern of disruption. Later in Shorter's solo, DeJohnette builds waves of energy, calming and slowly building, peaking with multiple bass-drum-pedal hits in a drummer's tour de force. Corea's drummer-like ability to vary his chord articulations - from highly staccato to sustained - adds contour to the band's collective texture. Davis's beautiful, elegiac closing solo backed by the band's textural playing is a high point of the show. 




Davis's “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” lightens the mood from the heightened intensity of the set opener. Holland provides an anchor on the tune's bass vamp, accompanied by Corea and DeJohnette. DeJohnette alternately follows and elaborates on Holland's figures, offering a boogaloo rhythm played with much flourish and virtuoso fills, sixteenth-note hits, and rolls that connect segments. Corea's Rhodes adds a funky flavor. The three work as a team. Shorter's and Corea's solos each develop from small gestures; DeJohnette fills in the spaces between Corea's figures, heavily accenting each beat. Corea's lines soon become lengthy and angular, eventually tossing in contrasting phrases filled with repeated notes. A standout feature of this performance is in fact the close connection between drummer and keyboardist. DeJohnette alternately follows and interlocks with Corea and presides with great energy and invention, varying his choice of accented beats to shift the rhythmic feel. 

「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」は、本番の口火を切る高まったテンションによって、明るい雰囲気を作り出す。ホランドのベースは、ピアノとドラムと共に、この曲の伴奏に安定感を与える。ホランドの伴奏に、ディジョネットが従ってみたり手を加えたりを、交互に行うことによって、ブーガルーのリズムを生み出す。この場合、華やかで技工を凝らしたフィル、16分音符の音形、ロールといったもので、様々な断片をつないてゆく。チック・コリアフェンダー・ローズが、ファンキーな雰囲気を添える。リズムセクションの3人は、一致団結している。ウェイン・ショーターチック・コリアのソロは、それぞれちょっとしたキッカケから展開してゆく。ディジョネットがピアノソロの節目ごとにフィルインを加える。拍の頭一つ一つに重めのアクセントを付けてゆく。ピアノソロのメロディラインは、程なくフレーズが長めに、そして無骨さを呈し始め、最後は繰り返しの音形を多用して、様々なコントラストを含むフレーズとなってゆく。この優れたパフォーマンスの有り様は、実はドラム奏者とピアノ奏者の連携が密であるが故なのだ。ジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアに対して、従ってみたり、手を加え組み合わさってみたりを交互に行い、とてつもないエネルギーと創造力を発揮して奏者としての役割を果たし、リズム感をあれこれと変えてゆく上で、どのようにメリハリをつけるか、その選択をし続けているのだ。 



A better-recorded show from the Blue Coronet, a club in Brooklyn, demonstrates Corea's highly rhythmic approach and the growth of his partnership with DeJohnette. This is most in evidence when he is backing Wayne Shorter's solos. Larry Kart, in his review of the band's early June stand at the Plugged Nickel in Chicago, observes that Corea had assumed the role of “pattern maker in the rhythm section,” partly due to the electric piano's “ability to sustain notes and produce a wide range of sonorities.” Yet Corea was also in many ways thinking like a drummer, which freed Holland and DeJohnette to flexibly vary their roles in the ensemble. We hear evidence of Corea functioning like a second drummer, albeit at the keyboard, even back in Rochester. On the opener to the second set, Jimmy Heath's “Gingerbread Boy,” he peppers the rhythmic flow with percussive staccato chords. This provides a preview of a later point in the life of the quintet, when Corea sometimes actually played a second set of drums. But whether he was at the keyboard or the drums, the sympatico rhythmic relationship between DeJohnette and Corea was an early source of the band's dynamism. 

これより状態の良い音源が、ブルックリンの名店「ブルー・コロネット」というクラブでの公演の模様だ。ここでは、チック・コリアの高度なリズムに対するアプローチと、ジャック・ディジョネットとの更に深化した連携が、しっかりと聞ける。これがハッキリと分かるのが、ウェイン・ショーターの各ソロの伴奏をしている瞬間だ。ラリー・カートは、6月初旬に彼らがシカゴのプラグド・ニッケルで行った本番について、そのレビューの中での分析によると、チック・コリアは「リズムセクションにおけるパターン作り」という役目について、その理由の1つに「電子ピアノが音を長めに残したり、幅広い種類の音色を出せたりすること」と考えている。だが、同時にチック・コリアは、様々な方法でドラム奏者のような物の考え方をするミュージシャンで、おかげでデイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットも、アンサンブルの中で自分たちの役割を、自由自在に変化させることができるのだ。チック・コリアが「第2のドラム奏者」として機能している音源がある。演奏しているのは勿論キーボードで、ロチェスターでのものだ。セカンドセットの1曲目、ジミー・ヒースの「Gingerbread Boy」で、彼は音の立ち上がりを強めにしたスタッカートの和音を使って、リズムのフローを曲の各所に散りばめている。これは、ロスト・クインテットの後の姿の予兆となっている。実際チック・コリアが、本番で2台用意されたドラムのうちの1台を、第2ドラム奏者として叩くことが、時々あったのだ。だが、キーボードにせよドラムにせよ、ジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアが、リズム担当者として好ましい関係を持っていたことは、このバンドが大いに発展した初期の原動力となっていたのだ。 





On Tour 




After the opportunities for its members to bond afforded by a brief but steady residence in New York, the Miles Davis Quintet began to tour steadily. It traveled from New York and Washington, DC, to Chicago, crossing the ocean for a show at the Juan-les-Pins Festival at Antibes, France. By July, Davis's tune “It's About That Time” from In a Silent Way (the recording wouldn't be released until late that month) and Wayne Shorter's “Sanctuary” (soon to be recorded on Bitches Brew) were added to the set lists. The band played a short quartet set (without Shorter) during its July 5 appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. It was on this date that Davis was reportedly taking notice of the audience response and size. He seemed transfixed by singer James Brown's ability to engage the audience through his personal magnetism and the infectiously funky beat of his music. 

ロスト・クインテットのメンバー達は、短い期間ながらも安定した環境をニューヨークで過ごしたおかげで、結束を固めることが出来たことは幸運であった。マイルス・デイヴィスの率いるクインテットは、地に足のついた状態でツアーを開始した。ニューヨーク、ワシントン、シカゴと公演をした後、大西洋を渡ってフランスのアンティーブで開催された、ジュアン・レ・パンジャズフェスティバルへの出演である。ツアー期間中、7月までには、2曲が新たに演奏曲目に加わった。マイルス・デイヴィスのアルバム「In a Silent Way」の収録曲「It's About That Time」(音源自体は同月後半までリリースに至らず)と、ウェイン・ショーターの「Sanctuary」(その後まもなくBitches Brewに収録)である。7月5日にロードアイランドで開催されたニューポートジャズフェスティバルでは、ウェイン・ショーターを除く4人での演奏となった。マイルス・デイヴィスが、観客の反応や規模に関心を示したのは、この日だと言われている。ジェームス・ブラウン人間力が持つ、強烈に人を引きつける力、そして彼の音楽が持つ、影響力抜群にファンキーなビート感に、彼はただ呆然としているようだったという。 



By the July 7 show in New York's Central Park, “Directions” had become the opener and increasingly the vehicle for the band's more exploratory side. Then Davis's clarion calls, driven by DeJohnette's drumming, would usher in “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down.” By this point, the tune had lost its simplicity of prior shows. Corea made increasing use of ostinati in his often highly chromatic chordal accompaniment, inserted when a space opened or wherever he could offer commentary on the proceedings. Holland played repeated fragments and variants of the vamp, creating a steady rhythmic fabric that allowed ample room for DeJohnette's dramatic displays. The lively tempo and high energy continued unabated through “Masqualero” and into “Spanish Key” (also later to be recorded on Bitches Brew). The developing pattern - of Corea comping in a more complex manner behind Shorter than behind Davis - was clearly in play, while rhythmically he remained equally alive and constantly responsive to each soloist. Holland contributed a steady, infectious rhythmic pulse beneath DeJohnette and Corea. 

7月7日にニューヨークのセントラルパークでの公演が行われた頃には、「Directions」はオープニングナンバーとして、そしてこのバンドが以前にもまして積極的に取り組んでいた、新しいことへの挑戦を牽引する1品として、その役割を果たしていた。そして、ジャック・ディジョネットのドラムの腕前に後押しされて、マイルス・デイヴィスの強い決意表明の下、たどり着いたのが「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」である。この時点で、この曲は、それ以前の公演での演奏とは、かけ離れたものになっていた。チック・コリアは、彼がよく使う高度な半音階的和声を使用した伴奏に、オスティナートを以前にもまして使用するようになっていて、演奏中も、スペースがあけば、あるいは曲の進行上可能と判断したら何時でも、これを投入した。デイヴ・ホランドは、断片素材の繰り返しや即興伴奏の変奏パターンを多用することで、安定したリズムの素地を作り、ジャック・ディジョネットが大々的な演奏をしてきても、それが入り込める十分な余地を確保した。活き活きとしたテンポ、そして高いエネルギーが、「Masqualero」そして「Spanish Key」(いずれも後にBitches Brewに収録)の曲の頭から終わりまで維持されている。伴奏の展開してゆくパターンは、マイルス・デイヴィスの伴奏時よりも、ウェイン・ショーターの時の方が複雑な手法をとっており(リズミカルであるかどうかについては、どちらも同じ反応の良さを維持している)、演奏は明確明瞭だ。デイヴ・ホランドは、ジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアの下支えにまわり、安定感があり影響力をもったリズムの鼓動を与えている。 




A Growing Corea-Holland Connection 



While the focus up to this point has been the connection between Jack DeJohnette and Chick Corea, the budding musical symbiosis between Dave Holland and Corea was also developing. 



Musical Example: Live in Central Park 



In a July 7, 1969, rendition of “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” (first show), Holland and Corea create rhythmic ostinato after 4:30; Corea leads by playing tone clusters in groupings of three and later four, and Holland responds in kind. A moment later, Holland plays a series of figures built from rapidly repeated notes; this will become a characteristic feature of his playing during the 1970s. During Corea's solo, Holland closely locks within Corea's repetitive patterns, at one point crafting a several-note phrase that speeds and slows like a roller coaster, spinning with myriad variation. Eventually, the two players become so enmeshed that it is difficult to tell who the soloist is. 

1969年7月7日のライブ、「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」の演奏(1回目の公演)では、開始4分半以降、デイヴ・ホランドチック・コリアがオスティナートのリズムを紡ぎ出す。まず先導として、チック・コリアが、初めは3つ、後に4つのグルーピングをしたトーン・クラスターを弾く。これにデイヴ・ホランドが同様に返す。一呼吸おいて、今度はホランドが、細かい音符の繰り返しによって出来上がっている音形を連続して弾く。後にこの奏法は、1970年代の彼の特徴的なものとなってゆく。チック・コリアがソロを弾いている間、ホランドチック・コリアが繰り返す音形パターンに自分のリズムをピッタリと付けてゆく。そのリズムとは、複数音を有するフレーズで、ジェットコースターのように緩急をつけて、数多くのヴァリエーションを施して紡ぎ出される。最終的には、2人ともガッチリと巻き込み合ってしまい、どちらがソロだか判別が難しくなってしまうほどになる。 



The empathetic, closely interlocking nature of Corea and Holland's musical embrace is on display during “Milestones.” Holland picks up on the smallest nuances and patterns that Corea uncovers, then just as quickly shifts into a walk when the pianist plays more bop-like lines. This requires exquisite attentiveness on Holland's part even within the head of the tune, where Corea tosses off-pulse notes, chords, and clusters. When Corea plays behind Shorter, drawing from pointillism, pantonality, highly angular gestures, and asymmetrical groups of rapidly played notes, Holland has to listen even more closely as he continues to change up the space of his note-pattern groupings, which are interspersed with rapidly repeated single notes. 





The interplay between pianist and bassist is particularly in evidence during the second show, in Corea's solo on “Masqualero.” There, Holland and Corea play nearly in tandem, joined by DeJohnette's cymbals, which provide the source of energy expansion and contraction. Corea builds intensity by repeating short phrases and chordal fragments, pulling from them new phrases. 



Even when the band makes only subtle shifts away from a straight-ahead approach, its members are beginning to display fascinating sleights of hand. After a smart groove has been laid down by Holland and DeJohnette during “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” (second show), the rhythm section plays double time during Davis's solo, creating the perception that the pulse has sped up. Indeed, Davis's lightning-fast lines during the early portion of his solo support this notion. Corea's solo begins in a highly atonal manner, with Holland on arco bass, heavily scraping the strings. A pointillistic dialogue emerges between Corea and Holland, joined soon by DeJohnette. But again, the real action is between the bassist and the pianist before they return to the original groove. 

このバンドのアプローチが、伝統的な4ビートを重んじる手法から移行していったのが、ほんの僅かな振り幅であったとしても、各メンバーとも、手だれた技を見せつけ始めていた。「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」(2回目の公演)で、ホランドとディジョネットが洗練されたグルーヴを聞かせた後、マイルス・デイヴィスのソロに入ったところで、伴奏を2倍速に引き上げた。そうすることで、曲がスピードアップしたような印象を醸し出したのだ。それ以前に、マイルス・デイヴィスが自分のソロを電光石火の速さで吹きこなしていたことも、「スピードアップした印象を醸し出せた」一助となっている。チック・コリアのソロが、高度な無調性音楽の技法で始まる。この時ホランドは、力強いボウイング(弓を使った奏法)を聞かせる。点描画を描くようなチック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドとのやり取りが聞こえてくる。そしてそこへディジョネットが時をおかず入ってくる。だがもう一度、ピアノとベースが元のグルーブのフレーズに戻る前に、二人の間のやり取りが本格化する。 




During the band's fall 1969 European tour, these dynamics show expansive growth. At a November 7 show in Berlin (second set) during “It's About That Time,” Holland responds to Corea's brief, frolicking groupings of notes with sparse figures sometimes imitative of Corea. When Corea crafts a repetitive spinning, textural display, the rhythmic work of a drummer at the keyboard, Holland lays out and DeJohnette takes over, very sparingly, building in response to Corea's more elaborate and intense playing. Holland joins with rapidly played arco figures. “Masqualero” displays the delicate interchange between Corea and Holland, their duet held together by a thread. They both pay breath-long phrases. Holland's bass is barely one step behind Corea, responding to the direction, speed, and density of the pianist's playing. This is a refined form of counterpoint invented on the spot. The level of sensitivity and empathy between the players is substantial. 

1969年秋にこのバンドがヨーロッパツアーをしている間、こうした変化により、大いに成長を見せた。11月7日のベルリン公演(セカンドセット)での「It's About That Time」では、チック・コリアの、短くて遊び心満点のフレーズに、ホランドは薄味の、時にチック・コリアのフレーズを真似したような音形で、これに応えている。チック・コリアが繰り返しを用いてひねりを利かせ、構造が明確なフレーズを作り上げて演奏すれば、それはまるで、ドラム奏者がキーボードを使って、普段担当しているリズムを刻む作業をしているかのようである。チック・コリアの手の込んだテンションの高い演奏に呼応するホランドとディジョネットは、あくまでも控えめに自分たちの演奏を作ってゆく。ホランドは弓を使って細かな音符を弾いて入ってくる。「Masqualero」では、チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドのやり取りは非常に繊細で、今にも崩れてしまうのではないか、というほどである。2人とも息の長いフレーズを作り出してくる。ホランドのベースは、わずかに一歩チック・コリアの後を行き、ピアノの行く方向やスピード、目的地に従う形だ。その場の思いつきで作られた対位法という、非常に洗練された演奏の形態である。2人の奏者には、繊細さと相手を感じ取る気持ちは、高いレベルのものが必要である。 



A Unique Team 



The Corea-Holland-DeJohnette rhythm section had grown remarkably in its own right during this first year of the band. Corea developed an empathetic symbiosis with each of his rhythm partners that would continue to thrive. Together, the three musicians provided lithe and creative support for the horn soloists. But they were also growing as a subunit that functioned according to its own internal logic. Ultimately, this would lead to the band's split, with two of its three members departing to explore further the new directions they had uncovered and Davis reconfiguring the ensemble.