about Keith Jarrett and Miles Davis's ensemble


第3章(1)The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 3 Anthony Braxton 

第3章 アンソニー・ブラクストン 


Leroy Jenkins, Musica Elettronica Viva, and the “Peace Church”  




Another European Adventure: Braxton and Jenkins in Paris 



We now turn to Anthony Braxton and Leroy Jenkins, two musicians from Jack DeJohnette's hometown of Chicago, and both members of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians. While neither was a member of the Miles Davis Lost Quintet, both men were integral to the aesthetic universe from which that group emerged. When Braxton joined with Lost Quintet members Chick Corea and Dave Holland (plus drummer Barry Altschul) to form Circle, he helped further the more exploratory side of the Davis band's legacy. Simultaneously, Jenkins cofounded the Revolutionary Ensemble, an important group of instrumentalists who inhabited a related musical space. Exploring the evolution of both these musicians can help us better understand the musical influences that shaped both the odyssey of the Lost Quintet and the musical world they all shared. 



While the quintet toured Europe and the United States in 1969, a group of young, Chicago-born musicians affiliated with the AACM also had Europe on their minds and relocated to Paris. Since the 1920s, Paris had been a home away from home for African American expatriate artists, among them saxophonist Dexter Gordon and writer James Baldwin. Despite a highly creative atmosphere in Chicago at the time, many musicians on the city's South Side were frustrated by the limited performance opportunities that had led to the founding of the AACM. Drummer Steve McCall led the exodus, soon joined by the core of the Art Ensemble of Chicago: Roscoe Mitchell, Malachi Favors, Lester Bowie, and Joseph Jarman. This cohort in turn was joined by three composer-performers who had formed a trio in Chicago: trumpeter Leo Smith (later Wadada Leo Smith), violinist Leroy Jenkins, and saxophonist Anthony Braxton. They played as a quartet with the addition of Steve McCall. Upon Braxton's return to the United States in 1969 and Jenkins's in 1970, both men played pivotal roles in ensembles at the center of this book. 




Leroy Jenkins 



Leroy Jenkins began playing the violin as a child. Geroge Lewis relates: 



When Leroy was eight or nine, his auntie's boyfriend Riley brought a violin to the house. Leroy was transfixed by the finger-busting classical marvels Riley played, and pleaded with his mother to get him a violin. Soon, a half-size, red-colored violin came from Montgomery Wards by mail order. It cost $25, which his mother paid for on credit. Leroy recalled that at first, he had “a terrible sound. I almost gave it up, but I figured I'd keep doing it and I'd sound like Riley.” 



Born and raised in Chicago, Jenkins played in local churches as a youngster. He was accompanied by pianist-singer Dinah Washington, then named Ruth Jones, and also performed in orchestral settings. Taking up the saxophone in high school, Jenkins became one of the budding jazz musicians mentored by “Captain” Walter Dyett, bandleader at DuSable High School on the city's South Side. Trained in a broad array of musical traditions, he played clarinet, saxophone, bassoon, and violin while attending Florida A&M, one of the historically black colleges and universities, where he completed degrees in music education and violin. After graduation, he taught high school violin in Mobile, Alabama, and then in Chicago, where he returned in 1965 at the age of thirty. 



Soon after his arrival back in his hometown, Jenkins discovered the AACM by attending a concert played by Roscoe Mitchell, Kalaparusha (Maurice McIntyre), Alvin Fielder, and other future colleagues. His college violin teacher ― who had just played a gig with Muhal Richard Abrams ― had brought him to the performance. Jenkins recalled that they “both were quite befuddled as to what was happening. But we liked it. It was very exciting, what they were doing.” At some point during the concert, he brought out his violin and was immediately included in a collective improvisation conducted by Abrams. “Boy, that was really something to me, even though I was playing in a little more orderly fashion than I am now, or let's say a more traditional fashion. These guys were squawking and squeaking and making sounds and doing different things, and I was still playing little snatches of changes because I didn't know anything else.” Jenkins spent four years with the organization before leaving Chicago. 



His year in Paris performing with Braxton and Smith was exciting for him as well: 



Archie Shepp [with whom he played] ... everybody was there. Philly Joe Jones was there. It was great. I played with Philly Joe! I made a record with him. That was great ... Sometimes [the trio] was Anthony's group, sometimes it was my group, sometimes it was Leo's group ― it was one of those kinds of things. But we were the first or second group of our type in Europe in 1969, and we raised quite a bit of Cain. [The Art Ensemble of Chicago, the best known of the AACM-affiliated groups] beat us over there by about a month. 



After moving to New York City in 1970, Jenkins played with Alice Coltrane and Albert Ayler. Kunle Mwanga (whom we'll soon meet) recalls: “People were calling Leroy for gigs. It was almost like Leroy was the first person to come up here and really circulate within the New York musical environment.” 


第2章(最後)The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

Solo without the Vamp - and When the Vamp Changes Shape 



In Berlin on November 7, 1969, the band supports Shorter's solo without any sign of the tune's characteristic vamp. The result is harmonically ambiguous, leaving Shorter the space he needs to build a motivic solo. His solo begins with a four-note phrase drawn from the final moment of Davis's preceding solo (moving steadily upward, Eb - G - Eb, and then down to C). Corea's solo receives a spare treatment from the rhythm section, accompanied by Holland alone. The lack of harmonic expectations allows Corea to build a rapid series of lengthy phrases, sometimes highly pointillistic, drawing heavily from major and minor seconds. When he harmonizes his playing, continuing after the end of his solo, Davis comes in, playing a quiet, lyrical line above these chords, setting a mood that is melancholy and beautiful. 



But When Does the Tune Begin? 



When “Bitches Brew” opened a set, the point at which the tune begins was relatively obvious. “Relatively,” because the sequence of sound events evolved, and showed some flexibility from performance to performance. But since the set list progressed from tune to tune without a break, the question arises nonetheless: How did the band know when and how to make the shift? Enrico Merlin refers to Davis's technique as “coded phrases.” He explored how Miles cued the next tune by inserting a representative musical gesture as the band was playing the current tune. The type of phrase reflected the characteristics of the upcoming tune: if it had a core melodic figure, he would play the “first notes of the tune.” If the core was a bass vamp, “the signal would be a phrase from that vamp; or if there was a core harmonic component, the signal would be 'voicings of the harmonic progressions.'” “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down" could be cued either by the bass vamp or by the first notes of the descending trumpet melody. “It’s About That Time” could be cued by alluding to the descending harmonic (chord) progression. In the recorded version of “Spanish Key,” the code was a key change. This approach continued through the mid-1970s. 

「Bitches Brew」のツアーステージで演奏されるそれぞれの曲は、その始まりは比較的ハッキリしている。「比較的」と書いたのは、各曲とも、その音の並び方は本番によって一定ではなく、柔軟性を持たせてあり、ステージを重ねる度にどんどん発展してゆくからだ。だが、全ての曲が切れ目なく演奏されることから、当然疑問が湧いてくる。メンバー達は、次の曲へ行くタイミングとそのキッカケを、どうやって知るのか?その答えを、エンリコ・メルリンはマイルス・デイヴィスの「コードを感じさせるフレーズ」にある、としている。エンリコ・メルリンによれば、マイルス・デイヴィスは、次の演奏曲目の「出の合図」を次のように出している。ある曲を演奏している、その最中に、次の曲の特徴的なフレーズなどを発信するのだ。もし核となるメロディがあれば、マイルス・デイヴィスはその「出だしの音をいくつか」吹いて聞かせる。もしその曲の、ベースが即興的に挟み込む伴奏フレーズに特徴があるなら、「それを元にしたフレーズを、出の合図として聞かせる。あるいは、核となるハーモニーがあるなら、そのコード進行を発信することで、出の合図とする」というものだ。「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」の場合、出の合図は、ベースの伴奏フレーズか、トランペットが演奏する下降形のメロディの出だしの数音のどちらかだ。「It's About That Time」の場合だと、曲中にでてくる下降形のコード進行を、それとなく演奏すれば良い。「Spanish Key」の録音バージョンでは、コードが鍵となっていた。こういったやり方は、1970年代の中頃行われ続けていた。 


Testing the Waters 



After the autumn 1969 tour, Davis seemed ready to explore a lineup of musicians different from that of the Lost Quintet. The Bitches Brew album would not be released until April 1970. In the months before that, he brought an expanded group of musicians into the studio between November and early February, playing a more groove-driven music (grounded in a cyclical rhythmic pattern suggesting a dancelike feel) and experimenting with the inclusion of Indian instruments. The rhythmic feel was flavored in part by the presence of the pitched Indian drum, the tabla. Guitar-oriented and backbeat-driven sessions began in mid-February, with the recording that resulted in Jack Johnson taking place in early April. 

1969年秋のツアー終了後、マイルス・デイヴィスは、ロスト・クインテットとは異なるメンバー集めの準備を整えた、とされている。アルバム「Bitches Brew」は、翌年1970年4月までリリースはされない。リリースまでの数ヶ月、11月から翌2月までの間、かなりの規模のミュージシャン達を、一団としてスタジオに招集した。そこでは、プレーヤー同士の絡み合いから発生するエネルギーを推進力にして、音楽を作ってゆく手法がとられ(ダンスのような雰囲気を感じさせるような、同じリズムパターンをグルグル繰り返すものを土台にしている)、更には、インドの楽器をいくつか導入することが試みられている。曲全体のリズムの雰囲気は、インドの「タブラ」とよばれる音程差をつけた対の太鼓を使用することで、部分的に変化をつけられている。ギターを中心に据えて、バックビートを推進力とするセションが、2月中旬に相次いで始まった。この際同時に行われたレコーディングは、後にアルバム「Jack Johnson」として同年4月上旬の収録へとつながっていった。 


A Tribute to Jack Johnson was crafted as a film score about the world champion boxer much beloved by Davis. It is here that we first see full blown the trumpeter's fascination with James Brown, maybe heightened by Brown's appearance at the 1969 Newport Jazz Festival. Funk, particularly as championed by Brown and Sly and the Family Stone, would heavily influence Davis's work in 1972-75, but bass lines from their recordings have a strong presence on Jack Johnson and onward. The April 1970 sessions were joined by Steive Wonder's bass player, Michael Henderson, whose creative funk-oriented playing would help tilt the live band in that direction when he replaced Dave Holland the next fall. 

アルバム「A Tribute to Jack Johnson」は、マイルス・デイヴィスも敬愛するボクシングの世界チャンピオンである、ジャック・ジョンソンについてのドキュメンタリー映画サウンドトラックである。まずマイルス・デイヴィスがフルパワーで吹きまくってくるのが、彼がジェームス・ブラウンに魅了された影響を感じさせる。1969年のニューポート・ジャズ・フェスティバルでジェームス・ブラウンが出演した時に、最高に感化されたのであろう。ファンクミュージックといえば、ジェームス・ブラウンやスライ&ザ・ファミリー・ストーンがその代表格だが、マイルス・デイヴィスの1972年から75年にかけての作品に、大きな影響を与えた、と考えられている。もっとも、このレコーディングから聞いて取れるベースラインの数々は、「Jack Johnson」やそれ以降の作品に大きな存在感を示している。1970年4月の各セッションに加わったのが、スティーヴィー・ワンダーのベース奏者であるマイケル・ヘンダーソンだ。彼の創造性豊かなファンクミュージックの演奏は、後に、このバンドの方向性に変化を与え、翌年秋のデイヴ・ホランド交代へと繋がってゆくことになる。 


But also on Davis's mind was the new band of his former  

drummer, Tony Williams. From a young age, Williams was an aficionado not only of the avant-garde and hard-bop approaches already noted, but also of British rock and roll - the music of Eric Clapton and Cream, the Who, and others. His new band, Tony Williams Lifetime, placed the electric guitar way out front, side by side with Williams's own hard-driving drumming and alongside the organ. It was a high-volume power trio akin to Cream or the Jimi Hendrix Experience. Drummer Lenny White observes: 




In 1969, Tony had the idea to take a traditional concept - the standard organ trio - and put it on steroids. He formed Tony Williams Lifetime with John McLaughlin and Larry Young, and it became the new way, the new movement. I saw that group at Slugs when they first started - it was so great and SO LOUD. They were so good Miles wanted to hire Tony's band and call it, “Miles Davis introduces Tony Williams Lifetime.” Tony said no, he didn't want to do that. So Miles went ahead and got Larry and John for Bitches Brew. Tony was not happy with that but I think he had definitely made the decision to go off on his own by then anyway. 

1969年、トニー・ウィリアムスは、従来からあるオルガントリオのコンセプトを元に、更にこれを強化した構想を立ち上げる。彼はジョン・マクラフリンラリー・ヤングらとともにトニー・ウィリアムス・ライフタイムを結成、これが音楽界の新たな手法・動きとなっていった。結成当初の彼らを、私はニューヨークのライブハウス「スラグス」で見かけた。大変素晴らしく、そして大変な大音量であった。彼らの演奏の素晴らしさに、マイルス・デイヴィスはバンドごと丸抱えにし、自分がこのバンドを世に紹介する、と銘打とうとした。トニー・ウィリアムスはこれを拒否、望まないことを言明する。するとマイルス・デイヴィスは、トニー・ウィリアムス以外の2人を「Bitches Brew」制作に召喚する手に出た。トニー・ウィリアムスはこれが不満だったが、いずれにせよ彼は独自のやり方で行く、ということを既にしっかりと心に抱いていたのではないか、と私は考えている。 


With Williams forming Lifetime, Jack DeJohnette became drummer of the Lost Quintet, with Billy Cobham, soon to join McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra, playing on Jack Johnson, which was released in 1971. In the meantime, Bitches Brew was newly available to listeners, and Davis was on the road with the Lost Quintet, which expanded to a sextet and then an octet, continuing to present its repertoire. 

トニー・ウィリアムスが「ライフタイム」を結成した頃、ジャック・ディジョネットがロスト・クインテットのドラム奏者となり、ビリー・コブハムジョン・マクラフリンマハヴィシュヌ・オーケストラに参加して「Jack Johnson」(1971年リリース)の収録に関わる。そうしている間に、「Bitches Brew」が新たに音楽ファンに届けられ、マイルス・デイヴィスはロスト・クインテットとともにツアーを敢行、バンドの規模を6人から8人へと拡大し、自らの音楽を発信し続けた。 


Up and Down, In and Out 



As Chick Corea describes the flights of the Lost Quintet: 



We always took the audience on a roller coaster kind of trip. When Miles would play, everything would get very concentrated and to the point, and I'd see the audience come up because there'd be one line of thought being followed: Miles would play a melody, and then another melody that made sense after it, and suddenly a composition was being formed and there was an accompaniment that made sense. It would be happening, and the audience would get into it, and he'd stop playing, and the whole thing would blow up; and the audience would go down and not understand it. 



What Corea means here is that the audience's attention would wax (”come up”) and wane (”go down”) based on how directional and conventional the band's presentation was. When Davis played, his melodic focus, supported with an easier logic, would be easy for concertgoers to follow. But when Wayne Shorter or Corea stepped forward, the solos might follow a more abstract logic, and the rhythm section might go its own direction, juxtaposed to more than supporting the soloist in an obvious way. Audiences expecting a one-to-one correspondence between soloist and accompaniment would cease to follow the logic and could get distracted or even uninterested. 



By “roller coaster,” Corea is describing the general organizing pattern for the music that came about as the new band evolved. What it created was a more extreme version of what had happened in the 1960s quintet. Like the earlier band, the rhythm section developed a pattern of playing simpler, more beat-driven structures during Davis's solos, but would grow freer in his absence. In the previous lineup of musicians, Herbie Hancock recalls Davis complaining as early as 1963 that he wanted to be accompanied in the more complex, freer way that the group backed its saxophonist, George Coleman. The result was what Hancock refers to as “controlled freedom”: “He'd take the inherent structure and leave us room to breathe and create something fresh every night.” 



In the new band, DeJohnette relates: “When Miles played, there was more of a beat to grab hold to, and then when Wayne would play, it would get more abstract, and then when Chick and Dave would play, it would get even more abstract.” There were times when, after a remarkably abstract segment with Davis, the trumpeter could return and play a lyrical, melodic solo line, as if nothing remarkable had happened moments prior. Or as if he were still playing in the previous band. 



Writing in Rolling Stone, Langdon Winner offered a listener's perspective, in the context of his review of Bitches Brew. He compares the recorded Holland-DeJohnette “amorphous rhythmic patterns .... a new way to cook, a way that seems just as natural and just as swinging as anything jazz has ever known,” which supported soloists who “are fully accustomed to this new groove and take one solid solo after another,” with a later, mid-spring 1970 performance of the Corea-Jarrett two-keyboard band, in which “fully one third of the audience at Davis's recent Fillmore West appearances left the hall in stunned silence, too deeply moved to want to stay for the other groups on the bill.”  

ラングドン・ウィナーは、「ローリング・ストーン」誌に寄稿した「Bitches Brew」の書評で、音楽ファンの視点からこの曲を見てゆこうと提案している。彼が比較するのは、一つは、デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットによるレコーディングバージョンの、「明確さを避ける伴奏のリズムパターン。リズムの処理としては新しい考え方で、従前のジャズ音楽が経験してきたどんなものと比べても、自然で、ノリが良い。これに支えられるソリスト達は、この新しいグルーヴ感に完全に馴染み、そしてしっかりとしたソロを次々と発信する。」もう一つは、後の1970年春頃のチック・コリアキース・ジャレットというキーボード2人体制のバンドによる演奏で、「これを聞いた最近のマイルス・デイヴィスフィルモアウェストでの公演を聞きに来た聴衆の内、まず1/3は確実に驚いて言葉を失い、深く感銘を受けて、当日の他の出演者の演奏はもう聴きたくない、と思って会場を後にしてしまったほどだ。 


Musical Example 4: Antibes, July 1969 



As an example, in “Directions,” the opening tune played at the Antibes Festival in Juan les Pins, France, on July 25 and 26, 1969, we hear the rhythm section shifting gears when Davis's solo winds down and Shorter's begins. First, DeJohnette's driving drums press Davis's energetic solo forward. As Davis concludes, Corea departs from a more strictly rhythmic accompaniment to reach for a rising, terraced series of chords, preparing for the transition to Shorter. Now, Corea and DeJohnette seem to move in opposite directions - as the drummer pushes rhythmically ahead, Corea plays a series of slower, syncopated, longer sustained chords. The combination of these opposing forces quickly increases tension, which is released a half minute later when Corea speeds up his repetitions and then plays a series of varied chordal ostinati, some multiply repeated and others rising in series. Soon, toward the end of Shorter's solo and into Corea's, it is Holland who gradually changes speeds. The bassist alternates between a walk, sometimes unsteady, a series of rapidly repeated notes, and a groove. 



Holland credits the eclectic approach he adopted to trend-setting bassists and other musicians he was observing: “What I did with Miles was influenced by the things that I heard around me at those times, what Jack Bruce was doing with the Cream, what Jimi was doing with his band and of course there was the influences of James Brown music and a lot of the other things that were going on at that time.” Holland's assessment is extremely modest. The genius in his playing with Davis in 1970 indeed incorporates techniques of his electric peers, but it is equally grounded in the open-improvisational approaches he learned and pioneered during his earlier career in London's free music scene. Thus, the abstraction of the Lost Sextet and Octet of 1970 is due in equal measure to the members of the bands' rhythm section, in which Holland played an integral and decidedly inventive role. 



Who's in Charge?


The adventuresome nature of the rhythm section no doubt pushed the envelope on Miles Davis's musical conception. At Antibes and elsewhere during this period, he often remained onstage only while he played, moving offstage during everyone else's solos. From the perspective of Hancock's experience of Davis's nondirective leadership, the trumpeter's departure from the spotlight would seem to project a message to the band: “Go wherever your collective logic takes you.” Holland explained Davis's leadership mode to Toronto-based drummer and artist John Mars in a 1975 conversation. According to Mars, “Dave said that all Miles would do is just say 'play C' or something, and those were the total instructions. Miles just ambled up onto the stage and started playing at the concerts, and everyone was supposed to just file in and begin” - something that Mars describes as “a baptism by fire.” 



But one wonders whether the rhythm section had gone beyond the bounds of Davis's comfort zone. Shorter recalls that after he'd solo and join Davis offstage, the trumpeter would say to him: “What the fuck is going on out there?” Yet when Corea and Holland left the band, it was at their own choosing, having been urged by Davis to stay on beyond the point when they had given notice. 



There were exceptions to the template of “simple accompaniment for Davis, but then all hell can break loose.” One of many moments of exquisite engagement between players came later, during a March 1970 show at the Fillmore East in New York City. In the midst of a solo by Davis, he and Corea lock “horns” until Davis breaks away to play a rising figure, only to land back in tandem with Corea. The interplay between the two is exhilarating: they take turns, one playing a line that lifts off while the other provides ballast, pulling it back down to earth with an incessantly repeated phrase. Then, as Corea and the rhythm section move into a prelude to the theme of “Directions,” the band is off and running. And this is before Davis leaves the stage to make space for the intense, busy, abstract improvisations within the Corea-Holland-DeJohnette rhythm section, which promptly go their own mercurial way. 



From Davis's perspective, at least in retrospect, as bandleader he was always in charge of organizing the music: 



Sometimes you subtract, take away the rhythm and leave just the right sound. Or take out what you know belongs to somebody else and keep the feeling. I write for my group, for something I know Jack can do, or Chick. Or would want to do. What they've got to do is extend themselves beyond what they think they can do. And they've got to be quick. A soloist comes in when he feels like it. Anyway that's what he's being paid for. If it's not working out I just shut them up. How? I set up obstacles, barriers like they have in the streets but with my horn. I curve them, change their directions. 




Chick Corea acknowledges this: 



Miles had quite a lot of direction in what he did. It wasn't a free-for-all. When we were touring on the road, he would very often let the musicians play and play longer, because he knew that they were stretching out and experimenting. But, he knew what he wanted and he knew when the music was getting a little bit too self-indulgent and when it needed some form. He would walk back up to the stage and put some form back into the music redirecting the course of it with his horn. In the studio, he was very aware of what he was trying to get. 



From this perspective, Davis was comfortable when accompanied in the style he desired for his own solos, yet he allowed the band to play more abstractly when it didn't inhibit his own playing. As Dave Holland recalls: “Miles liked things to be kept fairly clear behind him. He liked the groove to be kept consistently, not messing with the groove or making it too elastic. And also, he adhered to the form of songs. Obviously there's a lot of freedom in his playing, but Wayne by contrast was just ready for anything to happen. We sensed that, and it gave us a sense of a little more freedom with Wayne in the music.” 




There were times when Davis reined in his band members. Holland remembers Miles offering a constructive “reality check” on the young bassist's approach to his instrument. Within a year in the band, Holland began “feeling like I could do what I wanted to do. I started to maybe take too many liberties with the music as a bass player. So Miles just came over to me at the end of the concert and said to me, 'Hey Dave, you know you are a bass player.' That kind of gave me a reality check.” This intervention led him to consider “how to maintain control of the bass and free it up somewhat so that it can have a freer role and a more interactive role with the band.” 




Clearly, the music could be complex and volcanic. Corea remembers finding it difficult at times to find a role for his piano in what could be a dense morass - what he later referred to as “out in the ozone, but happily so.” “Sometimes Wayne would be taking his solo and Jack and Dave's playing would become so vigorous that playing the piano wouldn't make much sense to me. So I'd jump on the drums, and Jack and I would both go at it, making all kinds of wild rhythms, creating even more energy. Jack and I had some fun with that for a few gigs, and Miles seemed to let it go for a while - he was willing to let anything go for a while - then he said, “That's enough.” 



We can see the two drummers, Jack DeJohnette and Chick Corea, playing during Wayne Shorter's solo and then moving into a drums duet, starting around seven and a half minutes into the filmed performance of “Bitches Brew” in the second set at Salle Pleyel in Paris on November 3, 1969. The duet leads into a driving but highly abstract electric piano and drums duet when Corea returns to his usual station. The activity calms substantially a minute later, when Davis enters with a somber muted trumpet, eventually returning to hints of the tune's opening section and building toward a brilliant, virtuosic, more linear trumpet solo. Following Shorter's solo on “It’s About That Time,” Jack DeJohnette takes a solo on the Fender Rhodes, accompanied only by Corea on drums. He begins simply but builds into a construction no less complex and abstract than what Corea might have played. 

1969年11月3日の、パリのサル・プレイエルでの2回目の公演の「Bitches Brew」の映像を見ると、演奏開始後7分半程のところで、ドラムがジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアの2人になり、ウェイン・ショーターのソロの間中それで演奏している。ソロが終わると、ドラムのデュエットになるのがわかる。この2人の演奏は、チック・コリアが自身の電子ピアノに席を戻した時、推進力がありつつも相当に明確さを潜ませた演奏になっている。1分後、一気に演奏は穏やかになり、マイルス・デイヴィスが陰鬱でミュートを用いたトランペットを演奏し始める。最終的のは、曲の冒頭で提示された各動機へと戻り、やがてきらびやかで技を駆使した、明快でわかりやすいトランペットのソロへと繋がってゆく。ウェイン・ショーターの「It's About That Time」のソロに続いて、ジャック・ディジョネットフェンダー・ローズでソロを弾く。これにはチック・コリアがドラムで伴奏をつけるのみだ。ジャック・ディジョネットのソロは無駄のない内容だが、チック・コリアが弾いたとしてもそれより複雑さや表現の抽象性は、一歩も引けを取らないフレーズの構築を進めてゆく。 


Continuous Evolution 



As the quintet matured as an ensemble, its performances began to explore more fully the implications of the “new directions” promised by the studio recording Bitches Brew. This would include bringing the electronic - rather than simply electric - sonic exploration into live performances, and reconciling the central role of the beat in light of open form. In the band's first year, Davis had begun to consider how to square his conception of a beat-centered music with a highly exploratory group of musicians. Yet just as his interest in the beat was continuing to grow, so also was the band's interest in the freer elements. His test for the next year was how to reconcile the challenges of a beat-centered music with sonic and improvisatory complexity. This would remain an issue throughout Davis's work until his first retirement in 1975. 

ロスト・クインテットが合奏体として成熟度を増してくると、「Bitches Brew」の収録で確たるものとなった「新たな方向性の数々」が見いだせないか、バンドの演奏が模索し始めた。これには、電子的な音響の掘り下げ(単に「エレキ」楽器群を導入するだけでなく)をすすめて、これをライブ演奏にも取り入れられないか、そうなった時に、オープン形式の演奏という観点から、拍感の持つ役割を中心に据えようという動きにもなってくる。ロスト・クインテット1年目に、マイルス・デイヴィスはすでに、探究心旺盛なミュージシャン達で構成されるバンドを手兵として、拍感を中心に据えた演奏に対する自らのコンセプトの構築を模索し始めていた。マイルス・デイヴィス自身がそうする一方、バンド自体の興味関心は、より自由な素材の使い方へと膨らんでゆく。2年目は、拍感を軸とした音楽作りと、音響面やインプロヴィゼーション面での複雑さを求めてゆくこととの両立を図った。このことは、1975年にマイルス・デイヴィスが1回目の引退をしてゆくときまで、ずっと解決できなかった。 


The premise of this book is that Miles Davis's Lost Quintet, even as it expanded in personnel, did not operate within a vacuum. It increasingly embraced but was not limited by the jazz, rock, and funk worlds. Its members were highly conscious of their more experimental predecessors and contemporaries. Then, during the height of the band's free-form and electric excursions, Chick Corea's and Dave Holland's more exploratory interests were heightened when they encountered a future collaborator, Anthony Braxton. さて、本書が是とする所は、マイルス・デイヴィスのロスト・クインテットは、人数が拡大しても、他との関連性を絶った状態で機能していたわけではない、ということだ。ジャズやロック、そしてファンクミュージックの世界については、これを包括するも足かせとはならなかった。メンバー達は、自分達よりも実験心旺盛なミュージシャン達が、当時もそれ以前も存在することを良く認識していた。そして、このバンドがフリー形式や電子音楽関連に対する模索が、その極みに達した頃、チック・コリアにせよデイヴ・ホランドにせよ、彼らの探究心は、その後共に音楽作りをすることとなるアンソニー・ブラクストンとの出会いによって、更に高められてゆくことになる。

第2章(3)The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

“Bitches Brew”: Structure  

Bitches Brew楽曲構造訳注ここではアルバム」と区別) 



The basic elements of tune “Bitches Brew” remain relatively constant, starting with the recorded version and continuing throughout the live band's performances. How Miles Davis and his band made use of these materials changed over time, from the initial “construction” of “Bitches Brew” in postproduction through the next year of performances. Opening the work is a series of motifs; the performers move from one to the next as if they were modules to be assembled. On the recording, the full set of modules is on display; later, the material was treated more flexibly. 

Bitches Brew」の基本的素材は録音時のものがライブ演奏においても、形はそのまま維持されている。その使い方は、変化を遂げている。マイルス・デイヴィス本人、そしてバンドのメンバーとも、録音後から発売までの「組み立て」から、翌年に数々のライブが行われる間に、変化している。曲の冒頭は、モチーフがいくつか次々と提示される。そのモチーフを、メンバー達は、部品をピッキングして組み立ててゆくかのように、次から次へと演奏してゆく。そうやって全て組み立てた一セットが、作品として提示されたのが、レコード制作時のもの。その後のライブ演奏では、「部品」の組み立て方は、柔軟的になっていった。 


On the recording, “Bitches Brew” is organized into five sections (time units here are approximate). During subsequent live shows, Chick Corea embroidered various forms of musical commentary and filigree around all the opening figures. 

レコード制作時には、「Bitches Brew」は5つのセクションに分かれるよう構成されている(下記演奏時間は目安)。その後の行われた、数々のライブ演奏では、チック・コリアが、冒頭に出てくる様々な音形に、色々と口を挟んだり飾り付けをしたりしている。 


1. The opening motifs (2:50) 

2. First series of solos over a vamp (10:30) 

3. Return of the opening (1:30) 

4.Second series of solos over the vamp (4:00) 

5. Coda: Exact repetition of the opening (2:50) 







In live performances, a more malleable form of a coda, in which elements of the opening motifs are reiterated, replaced the repetition. 





Opening Motifs 



The opening section consists of a series of five interconnected motifs. On the recording, the sequence becomes fixed, because the repetitions are copied from the session tape. In live performances over time, the elements were treated more freely. 



1. “Pedal”: A pattern of repeated low Cs separated by silences 

2. “Alarm”: Rapid-fire pairs of high Cs played on trumpet, with an accent on the first 

3. “Crashing chord” A sustained chord with a short attack, played by the rhythm section. Harmonically, it is ambiguous. The chord is a C-minor+7 in three simultaneous flavors: diminished, minor, and augmented. It can be thought of as much a tone cluster as it is a highly unstable chord. 

4. “Staircase”: Three pairs of descending minor thirds (sometimes harmonized as three pairs of major triads), each pair beginning a major second below the previous pair - as if descending a staircase. The upper notes of the chords are [F D] - [Eb C] - [Db Bb]. On the recording and in some live performance, each chord is repeated twice before descending to the next. 

5: “Clarion call”: A melodic phrase played on trumpet that concludes with descending notes of a C-minor chord; the penultimate note bending, following blues conventions, to suggest ambiguity about whether it is a minor or major third. 




4.「階段」:短3度が下降形になっている2つの和声が3組あって、(時々、2つの長3和音が、3組あるような形で、和声が組んであるものもある)どの組も、その前に鳴っている和音の、長2度下の音から始まる。こうすることで、階段を降りてゆくような印象を与える。各コードの上の音は、それぞれ[F D] - [Eb C] - [Db Bb]なっているレコード制作時と、ライブ演奏のいくつかは、いずれのコードも、2回鳴ってから、次のコードへ移っている。 





Vamp and Solos 



In “Bitches Brew,” the vamp is a simple, repeated bass line - G-C-pause-F#-B-pause-G#-E-pause-B - that underpins a lengthy section of solos. 

「Bitches Brew」では、即興伴奏のベースラインは、シンプルで繰り返しによるものだ。G→C→間をおいて→F#→B→間をおいて→G#→E→間をおいて→B、となる。ソロが出てくるこの部分は、演奏時間が比較的長めで、その下支えとなっている。 


The studio recording of “Bitches Brew” includes two sets of solos, played over the vamp. These solo sets are separated by a repetition of the opening section.  



In the first series, Davis plays two solos, each two and half minutes long, that sandwich one of the same length by John McLaughlin. A curious aspect of McLaughlin's solo is an extended pause in the middle as the vamp continues. Wayne Shorter follows for one minute, Dave Holland for just several seconds, and then Chick Corea for nearby two minutes. Corea's first solo is introduced by ten seconds of a Jack DeJohnette solo. 



A quotation generally said to reference “Spinning Wheel,” a hit song by the jazz-rock group Blood, Sweat and Tears, appears during Davis's first solo, around six minutes in. The quotation seems to emerge logically from the melodic material he is playing, and it nicely offsets the vamp; McLaughlin hints at the motif, quickly responding to one of Miles's phrases while comping early in Davis's solo. Davis briefly referred to this recorded quotation during a concert at the Fillmore West in San Francisco, on April 10, 1970. Might he have also been thinking about “Lulu's Back in Town,” a song featured in a movie and performed by both Fats Waller and Thelonious Monk, which opens with related thematic material? Was Davis signifying on his relationship with the jazz-rock ensemble or on its musical world? 

マイルス・デイヴィスの最初のソロから6分ほど経過したところで、耳に入ってくるのが、通称「Spinning Wheel」という。ブラッド・スウェット・アンド・ティアーズというジャズ・ロックグループの代表曲の一つである。彼が吹くメロディの素材から、理にかなった出現の仕方をしているように思えるし、いい感じで、即興伴奏を埋め合わせてゆく。ジョン・マクラフリンがモチーフを提示する際に、これを暗示し、マイルス・デイヴィスのソロの最初の方で、伴奏を合せている間に、マイルスのフレーズの一つに素早く反応しているのだ。マイルス・デイヴィスは、このレコード制作時に使用した引用を、1970年4月10日の、フィルモアウェスト(サンフランシスコ)でのコンサートでも、短く使っている。ファッツ・ウォーラーセロニアス・モンクが、映画の中で特に取り上げて演奏した「Lulu's Back in Town」についても、使用を検討していたのだろうか?そのジャズ・ロックアンサンブルと、あるいはその音楽の世界と、関係を持ったことを世に示そうとしていたのだろうか? 


In the second series of solos, Dave Holland opens, then Bennie Maupin takes over, followed by an additional Davis solo (the general length of solos is around two minutes) and then a quiet, extended collective improvisation in which there are segments when Maupin moves forward in the collective mix. There is an ebb and flow in the brief vamp segments between solos, which serves to connect them all into a more coherent whole. In between the two sets of solos played over the vamp and again afterward lies a coda, which consists of an exact repetition of the opening 2:50 of the work. 



Maupin's contribution on bass clarinet is one of the most distinctive aspects of this recording. His playing lurks beneath the surface in a couple of places: during the opening, and in the opening seconds of the vamp (a recorded segment that is repeated several times). The addition is both textural and contrapuntal. Maupin also provides an added ingredient juxtaposed to Shorter's solo. Holland's solo, which opens the second set of solos, is enhanced by Maupin's presence within the quiet comping that includes guitar, keyboards, and drums; Maupin gradually emerges more prominently partway into the solo, shifting the balance from accompanied solo to duet. He adds a layer beneath Davis's solo in section two, continuing underneath as counterpoint during the brief vamp that bridges Davis's solo and his duet with Corea, under which Maupin plays long tones. A bass vamp, soon with drums, becomes a collective improvisation featuring Corea, McLaughlin, and Maupin. Joe Zawinul emerges with soloesque lines through the second solo, and the vamp then fades in its final seconds into just bass and drums, providing a segue to the coda. 





Comparative Structure 



The structure imposed on “Bitches Brew” by Teo Macero is in an ABABA form: three repetitions of the introduction are wrapped around two series of solos. This approach was immediately abandoned in live concert during the fall 1969 European tour; as evidenced in the recording, the opening section is followed by solos and then by a coda. The distinction is practical: there are fewer soloists and thus fewer solo segments to shape within the context of a coherent whole. 

テオ・マセロが「Bitches Brew」の基本構造としたのは、ABABA形式である。冒頭部分が3回繰り返され、それが2回のソロ提示部を包む形になっている。この形式は、1969年秋に開催されたヨーロッパツアーでのライブでは、直ちに廃された。レコード制作時に行われているように、冒頭部分が、2回のソロ提示部の間と、曲を締めくくるコーダで繰り返されているのだ。これには実用的な意味がある。こうすることで、曲全体の一貫性を保ちつつ、ソリストとソロの数を減らすのである。 


In neither case is a standard bebop head-solo-head form present. The opening and the coda do not provide a melody or chord sequence from which the solos take off, and the soloists spend little time reflecting further on the motifs as they solo on the seven-note bass vamp and metric beat. This format continues through the spring of 1970 and even at Freeport, Grand Bahama Island, in August of that year. The band returned to Macero's ABABA structure during the August 1970 dates at Tanglewood in Lenox, Massachusetts, and the Isle of Wight Festival in England. At those concerts, a repeated single note sometimes replaced the vamp. 





“Bitches Brew” as an Impetus for a Shift in Musical Direction 

音楽界の方向性を変える力としての「Bitches Brew 


“Bitches Brew” was a core part of the band's repertoire during its final year, through August 1970. Rhythmic riffs and vamps were already on the mind of Miles Davis when his new band played the Newport Jazz Festival in July 1969. But the new kind of composition introduced with the tune “Bitches Brew” helped instigate a more open approach to performance. Davis had already experimented with minimalist composition in “It's About That Time.” That tune introduced the idea that a Miles Davis composition could be based on a pulse, a bass vamp, and minimal melodic (or other) motifs. More than a vamp (such as “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” or “Spanish Key”), “Bitches Brew” could be thought of as a series of moods or textures. It suggested a different kind of trumpet solo, pairs of stuttered notes or fractured lines strung together, with as much space between them as there were notes. 

「Bitches Brew」は、このバンドにとって最後の1年間、1970年8月は、レパートリーの中心に位置するものだった。この曲に使用されているリズム上のリフや、即興伴奏は、1969年のニューポート・ジャズ・フェスティバルで、マイルス・デイヴィスが新たに結成したバンドを率いて演奏した際には、既に構想にあったとされる。だが、「Bitches Brew」といった作品に、曲作りの新しい方法を導入したことで、音楽の演奏のあり方に、より多様で制限を持たないアプローチを促すこととなった。これに先立ち、マイルス・デイヴィスは、ミニマリストの作曲法を「It’s About That Time」で試みている。この曲で、マイルス・デイヴィス流の作曲法として、一定のリズムを刻む鼓動や、ベースによる即興伴奏、そしてミニマル音楽のメロディー(あるいはそれ以外も含めて)モチーフを土台に音楽を作ってゆく方法を、世に示した。また、「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」や「Spanish Key」にも見られるように、マイルスは即興伴奏だけでなく、「Bitches Brew」については、魅力的な音の響きを創り出し、それを連続させたものという捕らえ方をしていた向きもある。自身のトランペットのソロについても、口ごもったような音形や、バラバラなメロディラインを、つなぎ合わせてゆく時に、間を十分にとって、そこにも音符があるかのような今までにない演奏の仕方を、世に問うている。 


The studio performance of the material that became “Pharaoh's Dance” - the creation of many segments of constantly changing multilayered textures - seems to have particularly impacted Chick Corea. If his performance goal before this recording was more linear and in close relationship to the vamps, it now shifted to crafting changing textures and abstractions that could emerge from or be juxtaposed to those vamps. His performances necessarily became more deeply embedded within the textures collectively created in the moment by the full band, particularly the rhythm section. 

「Pharaoh's Dance」の素材となったスタジオでの演奏は、目まぐるしく変化する多重構造の部分を多く抱える楽曲作りとなって、特にこれにインパクトを受けたのが、チック・コリアだったようである。本作の収録前に、もし仮に、彼が目標としていたものが、即興伴奏と明確かつ密接な距離を保つことだったとするなら、収録後これは変化している。こういった即興伴奏から発生したり、あるいはそれと一緒に提示される、目まぐるしく変化する音の響きや抽象的な表現を作り上げてゆくことへと、シフトされている。だから必然的に、彼の演奏は、バンド全体、特にリズムセクションが一丸となって、その瞬間ごとに生み出される音の響きの中に、しっかりと深く根を下ろしている。 


The shift to a band with a single electric keyboardist, bassist, and drummer netted a very different sound from the recording, but the electronic qualities introduced by Macero's effects reappeared and were expanded when Corea adopted a ring modulator to process his electric piano. The device generates from an existing sound, such as a guitar or electric piano, far more complex sounds. The result was a broader and more electronic sonic environment. The sound of the band moved even further in this direction during its final months, when in spring 1970 percussionist Airto Moreira was added (he had appeared on the studio recording, and his cuica sounds blended well with the electronics), and finally second keyboardist Keith Jarrett joined. Also during this period, Dave Holland increased his use of the electric bass, often with wah-wah. Consequently, at this point half the band was playing electric instruments with electronic processing. 



The instrumentation was new, but so was Davis's approach to performance. While the studio sessions were conducted piecemeal and assembled in postproduction by Macero, the live performances did not utilize the released recording as a template. The modular motivic approach to composition remained, but not the assemblage of larger structures that emerged from Macero's editorial razor blade: beginning with, repeating, and concluding with verbatim segments. While “Bitches Brew” opened and closed with elements selected from the same cluster of motifs, the exact components, their order, and their emphasis varied. The primary musical mission was the unfolding of an organic form, not a preconceived or standardized one. 

刷新されたのは使用する楽器だけでなく、マイルス・デイヴィスの演奏に対するアプローチも同様であった。スタジオ収録というものが、断片的に行われるようになり、集められたものをマセロが収録後手をかけてゆく、という流れになると、レコードとして出来上がったものを元にして、ライブ演奏をするということをしなくなる。組み立て部品として、モチーフを使用するという、曲の作り方はそのままだが、マセロが辣腕の編集術を駆使して大作へと組み上げてゆく手法、すなわち、スタジオで収録したまんまの素材から取り掛かり、それを繰り返し、そしてそれで締めるというやり方は、ライブ演奏ではできない。「Bitches Brew」は、曲の初めと終わりに用いる素材を、同じモチーフの引き出しから取り出してくるのだが、厳密に言えば、使用する部品にせよ、その順番にせよ、メリハリの付け方にせよ、様々に変化する。一番大事な演奏の目的は、曲を作る際に、予め準備したり、何かの基準に従って行うのではなく、音楽自体が生き物であるかのように、有機的な曲作りを展開してゆくことなのだ。 




“Bitches Brew” as a Live Performance Vehicle 

ライブ演奏を推進させるものとしての「Bitches Brew 


Soon after the Bitches Brew album-recording sessions, the Lost Quintet moved into a new phase during its two-week European tour in the fall of 1969. “Bitches Brew” was a frequent show opener, alternating with Zawinul's tune “Directions.” Most apparent in those shows' recordings are Corea's highly angular, nonlinear, atonal solos and comping and, at times, open improvisation by the entire band. The electric pianist creates dissonant lines from patterns of major and minor seconds, far more rhythmic and percussive than melodic in character. Wayne Shorter's solos are less linear than before, seeking to explore endless variants of rapidly ascending melodic shapes. Their rhythms do not follow beats aligned on a grid, but are asymmetric and fragmented. Each repetition shifts the beat ever so slightly in a different direction, yet rarely aligned with a specific pulse. Dave Holland and Jack DeJohnette find a sense of balance, however unpredictable, and a particularly strong chemistry is developing between Holland and Corea. 

「Bitches Brew」のアルバム収録を終えると間もなく、ロストクインテットは新たなフェーズへと進む。1969年秋に実施された2週間のヨーロッパツアーである。「Bitches Brew」と、ジョー・ザヴィヌルの作曲した「Directions」は、交互に、公演の1曲目に使用された。これらのライブ音源を聞いてみると、チック・コリアの、鋭角的で、対位法を用いない、無調性の、ソロや伴奏、更にはバンド全体で繰り広げられるオープンインプロヴィゼーションが、非常に高度な内容であることが明らかである。チック・コリアは電子ピアノを駆使して、長2度と短2度の和声パターンから不協和音的な旋律を創り出す。これが、旧来のメロディ的なものよりも、遥かにリズムがくっきりとしていて、打楽器的な効果もでている。ウェイン・ショーターのソロは、以前と比べると明快さは影を潜め、急激に盛り上がってゆくメロディの形を、無尽蔵に変化を加えてゆく中で生み出す方法を、切り拓いている。各奏者のリズムは、決められた枠に沿った形を採らず、変拍子であったり、単発的なリズム音形だけであったりする。それらを繰り返す度に、少しずつ異なる方向へ展開してゆくが、まれに特定のパルス(一定の音の鼓動)と距離を維持する場合もある。デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットの両者は、互いに予測し合うわけではないが、絶妙なバランス感覚を二人の間に見出した。そして特に強力な「化学反応」を展開したのが、デイヴ・ホランドチック・コリアの両名である。 




Musical Example 3: Paris, November 1969 



Chick Corea's percussive approach to the Fender Rhodes is exemplified within an electric piano and drums duet during “Bitches Brew” at the Salle Pleyel in Paris (November 3, first set). Holland's restless lines continuously stream in the background. Corea's repeated patterns of alternating tone clusters are reminiscent of Cecil Taylor. Later, fast-moving arrays of notes expand into further tone clusters. DeJohnette follows the entire enterprise very closely, intensely interlocking with the pianist's constructions. In the second set, Corea comps for Shorter with one complex, rhythmic chordal ostinato after the next. Soon, as if to underscore the rhythmic essence of the moment, he abandons the Fender Rhodes entirely, moving from piano to a second drum kit to add another rhythmic layer to DeJohnette's drumming . After a late Coltrane-esque sequence by Shorter, the two drummers and Holland continue alone as a trio, accumulating multiple layers of rolls all around the kit, with DeJohnette in the lead. Even after returning to the Fender Rhodes, Corea continues as if he were drumming, offering cascading tone clusters and abstract runs. 

アルバム「ロスト・クインテット・パリ」のDisc1の2曲目に収録されている「Bitches Brew」(11月3日、パリのサル・プレイエル)では、チック・コリアフェンダー・ローズを用いて打楽器的な奏法が、ドラムとの間で繰り広げられている。デイヴ・ホランドがバックで、常に変化し続ける音の流れを描き続けている。チック・コリアが次々と変化するトーン・クラスターを繰り返すパターンは、セシル・テイラーを彷彿とさせる。それはやがて、動きが細かくて速い音形となって広がり、さらにトーン・クラスターを生み出してゆく。この全体像に、ジャック・ディジョネットはピタリとついて行き、テンション高くチック・コリアの音作りと連携を取る。Disc2では、チック・コリアウェイン・ショーターに伴奏を付けてやるのだが、手の混んで、リズム感にあふれる、ハーモニーを伴うオスティナートを次から次へと紡ぎ出す。程なく、ある間リズムを強調しようと言わんばかりに、楽器をピアノからドラムへと持ち替えて、メインとなるジャック・ディジョネットのドラムに、もう一枚リズムの層を重ねてくる。かつてのジョン・コルトレーン風の一節を聞かせたウェイン・ショーターの後は、2人となったドラム奏者とデイヴ・ホランドが、トリオとして、ジャック・ディジョネットがリードして様々な「役割」を次々と展開して盛り上げてゆく。チック・コリアは、ひとしきり叩き終えてフェンダー・ローズへと戻った後も、引き続きドラムを叩くかのように、トーン・クラスターや、あえて明確な形を持たせない急速な音階パッセージを、畳み掛けるように弾いてくる。 


Corea demonstrates another side of his skill set during Shorter's solo, where his playing is minimal (initially playing variations based on the “staircase” motif), followed by a section in which he lays out to leave space for Holland and DeJohnette to comp with more transparency. Shorter plays rapid runs, separated by pauses. Later, Corea exemplifies his close listening when he imitates Shorter's rapidly repeated notes and then, as Shorter's solo builds toward its peak, moves into pointillistic and staccato articulations. 



In Stockholm on November 5, 1969, Davis's solo is accompanied by drums alone and, for a brief period, bass, with Corea laying out. DeJohnette's highly soloistic accompaniment is one of his most majestic moments with the band, enforcing the beat but adding a wealth of elaboration and filigree. Corea again lays out during Shorter's solo. DeJohnette outlines the pulse on cymbals, crafting variation upon variation. As Shorter's solo builds, the saxophone lines lengthening, DeJohnette's support grows in strength, featuring multiple rolls around the kit, and slashes at the cymbals. Shorter pays limited attention to the beat, while DeJohnette enforces that beat. As Holland plays on and around the vamp, DeJohnette's drumming continues and accentuates the vamp. 


第2章(2)The Mile Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

Postproduction as a Compositional Process 




“Pharaoh's Dance” and “Bitches Brew,” the compositions that open Bitches Brew, are the album's most extended compositions. They are the most densely layered, the most heavily edited and postproduced. Since they lead off the recording, the listener's experience was going to be shaped by these first compositions.  

「Pharaoh's Dance」と「Bitches Brew」という、アルバムの口火を切る両作品は、収録曲全体の中でも、他より大きな規模となっている。多重録音の重ね具合、編集の手のかけ具合、製品化までの工程、いずれも他の作品よりもしっかりと行われている。両方とも最初の曲なだけに、ここから聴手は、作品全体にふれる体験をスタートさせる。 


Constructions might be a better term than compositions, since in this context the word composition is freighted with the question of who the composer was. “Pharaoh's Dance” is credited to Zawinul (albeit substantially reworked by Davis), and “Bithces Brew” to Davis. Yet, as several writers have noted, Macero played a significant hand in the final versions that appear on the record. As Davis observes in his autobiography, Macero recorded every note played during the recording sessions, sometimes multiple takes of those tunes and oftentimes just fragments of varying length; consequently, the material was going to require structuring in postproduction. The new recording shifted the balance between Davis and the band's contributions and those of Macero, who treated the studio recordings as material in search of structure, if not quite operating in the tradition of sonic collage within electronic music. 

この場合、音楽作品を作るという「作曲」という言葉よりも、建物か何かを作るという「建設」という方が適切かもしれない。というのも、本作品が出来上がるまでの状況を見ると、「作曲」と言ってしまうと、誰が「作曲者」なの?という問題がついてくる。「Pharaoh's Dance」はジョー・ザヴィヌル(大部分にマイルス・デイヴィスの手が入って入るが)で、「Bitches Brew」はマイルス・デイヴィスということになっている。だが複数の評論家も指摘するように、最終的にレコードやCDになった段階のものについては、テオ・マセロがたいへん大きな役割を果たしている。マイルス・デイヴィスが自叙伝で述べているように、この収録作業全体を通し、マセロは各プレイヤーの音を、一つ漏らさず記録している。時には、一節丸ごとを何度も録音したものや、よくあるのが、様々な長さの切れ端であり、そうやって集めた材料は、それらを組み立てる必要が生じていた。この、今までにない作品が、その重きをおいたのが、マイルスと、バンドのメンバー達やマセロとのバランスの取り方だ。彼らは、スタジオでの収録作業は、特に別段、電子的に作った音による曲作りのやり方(例:エレキベースや電子ピアノを用いた曲作り)に則って行ったわけではないが、楽曲をどう組み立てるかを模索する素地であると考えていた。 


One point of reference for this discussion is Karlheinz Stockhausen's early electronic composition Gesang der Junglinge (Song of the Youths; 1956). The work is crafted by a process of interweaving recorded fragments of sung texts with electronic sounds. Working in Cologne, Germany, Stockhausen drew from the emerging Parisian tradition of musique concrete pioneered by radio engineer Pierre Schaeffer. Schaeffer had recorded, collected, and edited sounds (objects sonores, sonic objects) on tape, abstracting them from their original source and complex of meaning. He then composed by arranging the sounds according to purely aesthetic criteria unrelated to their original context; his aesthetic roots are in the collage forms of visual artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. 



In Gesang der Junglinge and later works, Stockhausen changes the terms of this process by taking into account the referential meaning of the text and sound material and by adding purely electronic sounds. His sound collage provided a model for early pop music producers - and Teo Macero - who edited studio-recorded material in postproduction. What began first as documentation of performance and then as error correction came to represent a compositional process. As Albin J. Zak III observes: “In their lack of any real world counterpart and their frank artifice, pop records of the early fifties rendered the goal of real life sonic depiction meaningless.” Tape splicing migrated to popular music most famously with the Beatles, as early as “Please Please Me” in 1962.  

「少年の歌」そして、その後の作品群において、シュトックハウゼンは曲作りの仕方を変えてくる。それは、音源が持つ元の姿や意味を「無関係」にしないこと、そして、純粋に電子的に作った音を付け加えることだ。彼が音のコラージュを描く手法をモデルとしたのが、当時ロックンロールから派生したとされる「ポップ・ミュージック」の制作を統括するプロデューサー達、そしてテオ・マセロのように、スタジオで収録した音楽音源に、編集を加えてから商品化へもってゆく者達だった。まず演奏を録音し、その後でエラーを修正する(雑音を消去する等)といった過程は、「曲作り」の一環となる。アルビン・ザックは次のように述べている「ポップ・ミュージックは、「現実世界ではこれ」に相当するものが無く、また、作り手が率直な表現をぶつけてくることから、作曲の目的として、現実世界の姿を音に表すことが、無意味に感じられるようになってしまった。」テープの継ぎ接ぎがポップ・ミュージックの世界へ進出してきた、最も有名な例が、1962年のビートルズの「Please Please Me」である。 


Segments of one take of a song could be edited together with segments of another to create a new track. Beatles' producer George Martin and Davis producer Teo Macero each crafted sound collage, new compositions that drew from what had been recorded in the studio. 



Macero had already begun using editing techniques in his work with Davis in the late 1950s. In his autobiography, Daivs recalls that Macero “had started to splice tape together on Porgy and Bess and then on Sketches of Spain, and he did it on this album, too [Someday My Prince Will Come, 1961]. We post-recorded solos on those albums, with Trane and me doing some extra horn work.” When he adds, wryly, “It was an interesting process that was done frequently after that,” he is referring to a more radical use of the technology. 

実は既に、マセロは編集技術を、1950年代後半に、マイルス・デイヴィスの作品で導入し始めていた。マイルス・デイヴィスは自叙伝の中で次のように振り返る「既にマルセロは、「Pogy and Bess」や「Sketches of Spain」などで、テープの継ぎ接ぎ方式を導入していた。そしてこのことは、このアルバム(Someday My Prince Will Come, 1961) でも実行された。ジョン・コルトレーンと2人で、別途ホーンセクションの録音をして、そうしたソロを、あとからアルバムに録音で落とし込んだのである。」更に、少々苦々しく「この興味深い一連の作業は、その後もちょくちょく行われた」として、この技術的処理が、かなり思い切った使われ方をしたことに触れた。 


In the 1960s, rock musicians and producers grew increasingly expansive in their use of their inheritance from Schaeffer, Stockhausen, and early pop studio engineers, most famously in 1967 recordings; notable among these are the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Frank Zappa's You're Only in It for the Money and Lumpy Gravy, and the Beach Boy's Pet Sounds. Recordings of studio sessions plus, at times, unrelated sounds are sped up, slowed down, played backward - in sum, rock music merged with sound collage. It is that hybrid into which Teo Macero stepped while working on Miles Davis's recordings of the late 1960s. 

1960年代になると、今度はロックミュージシャン達とそのプロデューサー達が、ピエール・シェフェルやシュトックハウゼンから引き継いだものを、大々的に使い始める。そして、ポップ・ミュージックの初期のスタジオエンジニア達は、1967年にレコーディングされた錚々たる作品の数々を世に送る。主なところでは、ビートルズの「Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band」、フランク・ザッパの「You're Only in It for the Money」「Lumpy Gravy」そして、ビーチ・ボーイズの「Pet Sounds」が挙げられる。スタジオでの収録に加えて、時々、それとは関係のない音が、スピードに緩急をつけたり、最初の音形を後ろから逆に弾いてみるなど、そうやって合わせることで、ロックミュージックは音のコラージュの手法とともに台頭してくる。これらを併用したものを、テオ・マセロが、1960年代終盤の、マイルス・デイヴィスの作品のレコーディングに際し使用に踏み切っている。 


The construction of final versions out of recorded fragments may have been the plan from the start, a simple necessity, or both. As mentioned above, Davis later recalled: “I didn't write it all out ... I knew that what I wanted would come out of a process ... This session was about improvisation, and that's what makes jazz so fabulous.” Yet the need for deft tape splicing doesn't explain the use of Echoplex and brief, looped segments, all accomplished in postproduction. The triple repetition of the opening section of “Pharaoh's Dance,” all copies of the same recorded take, before leading into an extended through-performed segment, points to a compositional scheme not evident in advance. Was it part of an advance plan that Davis's solo during the latter portion is really a precomposed theme on which he comments during his opening solo? This is an inversion of the usual head-solo arrangement; here, variations and elaborations appear long before we hear the actual melody. The full compositional details surely emerged in Macero's editing room, where he sought to craft a coherent extended work a half hour in duration. Yet questions remain regarding authorship of the overarching musical structure. The form of side 2 of Davis's previous recording, In a Silent Way, sandwiching “It's About That Time” between two exact copies of the title tune, seems to have provided a working mode that was agreeable to Davis.  

収録した素材を元に、最終完成品を作り上げるという、「物作り」的なやり方は、初めから計画されていたことか、それとも単に必要だったからか、あるいはその両方か。先にも記した通り、マイルス・デイヴィスは後に、次のように振り返る「事前に楽譜に書かなかったこともある。…演奏してみる、その作業の途中でアイデアが浮かぶことを、こちらは知ってたからだ。…今回のセッションは、インプロヴィゼーションそのものであり、ジャズの素晴らしさはここにある。」だが、エコープレックスや、短くてループのように繰り返す素材の使用といった、全部録音後の作業については、器用に録音テープを継ぎ接ぎしなくてもできることだ。「Pharaoh's Dance」の冒頭、同じことを3回繰り返す部分がある。同じテイクを3回繰り返しているのだ。その後、全曲通した部分へと続いてゆく。録音時に前もって3回繰り返そうと、ハッキリ決まっていなかったからである。3回繰り返したあとの部分でマイルス・デイヴィスが吹くソロは、実は、出鼻で彼が演奏するソロの間について、彼が語るところの「事前に用意しておいた主題」の一部分だったのか?これは、通常よく行われる「ヘッドソロ」を、逆さまにしたものだ。つまり、実際の主題であるメロディがでてくるよりもずっと前に、メロディの変奏や、メロディに手を加えたものが、先に演奏されてしまうのである。楽曲全体の詳細は、録音現場ではなくマセロの居る編集室で、確実なものが見えてくる。ここで彼は、演奏時間30分に及ぶ大作を、頭から終わりまで通して作り上げようとする。だがここで疑問が浮かぶ。全体的な楽曲の構造について、誰が権限を持って組んでゆくのか?ということだ。マイルス・デイヴィスが先行してリリースしたアルバム「In a Silent Way」の、サイド2は、「It's About That Time」という曲の前後に、アルバムの表題にもなっている「In a Silent Way」を、全く同じ演奏の音源で配置している。これなどは、こういうやり方をマイルス・デイヴィスも納得している、ということを示していると言えよう。 


Macero testifies to the compositional hand he exerted during postproduction: 



I had carte blanche to work with the material. I could move anything around and what I would do is record everything, right from beginning to end, mix it all down and then take all those tapes back to the editing room and listen to them and say: “This is a good little piece here, this matches with that, put this here,” etc., and then add in all the effects - the electronics, the delays and overlays ... [I would] be working it out in the studio and take it back and re-edit it - from front to back, back to front and the middle somewhere else and make it into a piece. I was a madman in the engineering room. 



Herbie Hancock's producer during the 1970s, David Rubinson, observes that while true partnership between producers and musicians may have been growing within rock music, this was “[less so in jazz, where] the musicians were grist for the mill, and had little or no control or participation in the creative process of post-production or mixing, as little as there was of that then ... [Historically] the structure of the record business is basically a plantation where the white guys ran the record business and the studios.” Rubinson understands the relationship between Davis and Macero as having been in this mode, as Macero himself attests. In his autobiography, Davis alludes to his ambivalence about the substantial control Macero assumed over the final version of his work. He asserts “[I] .... started putting 'Directions in Music by Miles Davis' on the front of my album covers so that nobody could be mistaken about who was the creative control behind the music.” This may reflect a reality that Davis ultimately had limited choice in the production of his music. 



Writer Victor Svorinich places Davis more firmly in the compositional driver seat. He resolves conflicting claims of authorship by citing a contemporaneous letter from Daivs to Macero. In it, Davis explicitly directs how Macero should order much of the recorded raw material for the title track “Bitches Brew.” Davis identifies which segments from two studio takes should begin and conclude the piece, and he insists that continuity be maintained between the opening figures and the entry of the bass clarinet. Improvisatory sections should “run together whether they are high in volume or low in volume.” Svorinich finds support for the Davis letter in an interview with the album's mixing editor, Ray Moore. Moore recalls Davis unexpectedly sitting by his side in the postproduction studio in September during the final edits, going through the entire project with a fine-tooth comb. 

音楽ライターのヴィクター・スヴォリニッチは、マイルス・デイヴィスが曲作りにおいては主導権を握っていたことを、もっとハッキリ記している。アルバム制作時にあわせて、マイルス・デイヴィスがテオ・マセロに宛てた手紙を引き合いに出して、マイルスが「この曲の生みの親は自分だ」と、衝突するかのごとく主張していることに触れている。この手紙の中で、マイルス・デイヴィスがハッキリと示しているのは、マセロがタイトル曲「Bitches Brew」について、録音時に収集した素材の大半について、マセロの意のままにしていたことだ。マイルス・デイヴィスは、2回のスタジオ収録のどの部分から、曲をスタートし、そして終えたのかを聴き取っている。そして曲の冒頭からバスクラリネットのソロが入ってくるまでの間、曲のつながりが維持されるべきだという。インプロヴィゼーションを展開する各セクションについては、「音量の大小に関わらず、足並みをそろえるべきだ」としている。この手紙の裏付けを、スヴォリニッチは、このアルバムのミキシングにおいて編集をてがけたレイ・ムーアとのインタビューで見出している。ムーアによると、9月のある日、収録後の作業中だったスタジオで、編集の最終段階に差し掛かった時、マイルス・デイヴィスが突然となりにすわって、制作過程全体を精査しだした、というのである。 


Svorinich proposes that Macero's memories of postproduction - seasoned with complaints about not being adequately credited - may indeed reflect his frustrations about the amount of detailed legwork Davis had entrusted to the engineers. Further, Macero may have conflated memories of Bitches Brew with his exasperation with the trumpeter's diminished presence in later years. In Svorinich's view, Davis was truly the director, leaving Macero's team responsible for the realization of a wide range of details. These numerous decisions did, however, represent compositional thinking on the part of both Davis and Macero. 

収録後から発売までの間の作業について、マセロはその回顧録の中で(100%信用してもらえていたという訳ではないことに不満をにじませつつ)、マイルス・デイヴィスが録音エンジニア達に対して、膨大な量を事細かく調べるよう依頼していたことに、不満をいだいていたことを伺わせる。更に、マセロは自らの記憶の断片を継ぎ直して、「Bitches Brew」制作の思い出として、後年、マイルス・デイヴィスが自らの存在感を減らしていることに、強い憤りを覚えているとのこと。スヴォリニッチの考えでは、徹頭徹尾、マイルス・デイヴィス音楽監督として、広範囲に渡る詳細な事柄について、これをきちんと実行する責任を、マセロとそのチームに負わせてた。その実行過程で、膨大な数の判断が下されたわけだが、それらは全て、楽曲作りをする者としての発想が、マイルス・デイヴィスとテオ・マセロとで共有されていたことを物語っている。 


Macero's consistent record-producing method can be seen in the distinct similarities found between Bitches Brew and the highly edited Miles Davis Live at the Fillmore East (1970). The net result is that he structured the outcome of Davis's recording sessions in a way that was alien to the aesthetic of the live band. This outcome may have been acceptable to Davis, because the trumpeter personally privileged his live performances over the recordings, and because Macero produced commercial products out of exploratory, structurally amorphous material. Davis wished to release recordings but was most engaged in performing with his musicians, on the road and in the studio. Creatively, he was ever on the move, performing abstract music with the Lost Quintet one day and recording funk-oriented music in the studio the next, rarely if ever looking back. 

「Bitches Brew」と、そして高度な編集が施された「Miles Davis Live at the Fillmore East」(1970年)との間には、特徴的な共通点が色々とあるが、そこには、マセロの堅実で一貫したレコード制作の手法が見て取れる。出来上がったものを見てみるとわかることだが、マイルス・デイヴィスのレコーディングセッションで収録したものを、マセロが構築していった方法は、生身の人間が構成するバンドにとっては、その音楽的価値観からかけ離れた代物だった。でもマイルス・デイヴィスには、許容範囲内だったのだろう。なぜなら、マイルス・デイヴィス自身にとっては、自分で演奏したものはレコーディングよりも優先順位が高かったことと、そして、マセロは、試しに演奏した程度のものや、構造的にハッキリしていないものを素材としても、売り物になる商品を作り出せたからである。デイヴィスはレコードのリリースについては乗り気であったが、彼は専ら、自身が抱えるミュージシャン達との演奏に、ライブにせよスタジオにせよ、かかりきりだった。新しいものを生み出してゆく、という点で、彼は常に前進んでおり、ある日ロストクインテットでは抽象的な音楽を演奏したかと思えば、その次の日には、ファンク色を帯びた楽曲のスタジオ録音に臨んだりした。それらについて、後日検証するということは、彼は滅多にしなかった。 

第2章(1)The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 2 “Bitches Brew,” in the Studio and on the Road 

第2章 「ビッチェズ・ブリュー」スタジオとライブと 



With that band we were playing our butts off, everybody was raising hell. 









Back home in New York after a spring European tour, Miles Davis brought an expanded band into the studio to record Bitches Brew on August 19 - 21, 1969. The sessions included tunes that had been honed on the road - “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down,” “Spanish Key,” and “Sanctuary,” plus two new compositions: the opening track, “Pharaoh's Dance,” and the title tune, “Bitches Brew.” 

春のヨーロッパツアーを終えて、本拠地ニューヨークでしばらく過ごした後、1969年8月19日から21日にかけて、マイルス・デイヴィスは拡大メンバーを擁した自分のバンドとともに、レコーディングスタジオへと入っていった。「ビッチェズ・ブリュー」の収録である。このセッションでは、すでにツアーで演奏した曲がいくつか含まれていた。「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」「Spanish Key」そして 「Sanctuary」。さらには新曲として2作品が加わる。1曲目に「Pharaoh's Dance」そして、タイトル曲の「Bitches Brew」である。 


The band in the studio included three electric keyboardists (Chick Corea, Joe Zawinul, Larry Young); four drummer-percussionists and two bassists (one electric, one acoustic), of which Jack DeJohnette and Dave Holland were core members; and two reed players (Wayne Shorter, plus Bennie Maupin on bass clarinet). A guitarist, John McLaughlin, took a highly rhythmic approach, adding a solo voice and also another percussionist. (He and Young were two-thirds of the Tony Williams Lifetime.) What this expanded band created is the “brew,” shaped by the rich, ever-changing, swirling mix of keyboards and multiple percussion. 



Davis describes the process of conception through recording in his autobiography: 



I had been experimenting with writing a few simple chord changes for three pianos. Simple shit, and it was funny because I used to think when I was doing them how Stravinsky went back to simple forms. So I had been writing these things down, like one beat chord and a bass line, and I found out that the more we played it, it was always different. I would write a chord, a rest, maybe another chord, and it turned out that the more it was played, the more it just kept getting different. This started happening in 1968 when I had Chick, Joe, and Herbie [Hancock] for those studio dates. It went on into the sessions we had for In a Silent Way. Then I started thinking about something larger, a skeleton of a piece. I would write a chord on two beats and they'd have two beats out. So they would do one, two, three, da-dum, right? Then I put the accent on the fourth beat. Maybe I had three chords on the first bar. Anyway, I told the musicians that they could do anything they wanted, play anything they heard but that I had to have this, what they did, as a chord. Then they knew what they could do, so that's what they did. Played off that chord, and it made it sound like a whole lot of stuff.  

「以前から3台のピアノ用に、シンプルなコード変化を作って、これを試しに弾かせる実験をしてきた。超がつくほどシンプルで、おかしな気分だった。というのも、ストラヴィンスキーもシンプルな構成の曲作りに、ある時期回帰していたよな、と実験のたびに考えていたからだ。そんな訳で、例えば拍の頭で構成音全部を同時に鳴らす、それに伴うベースラインも作っておく、など、思いついたことは全部譜面に書き記した。すると、記譜したものは、何回も弾いてみると、その都度違う響きがすることに気づいた。こんな事が起き始めたのは、当時あったいくつかのスタジオ収録のために、チック・コリアジョー・ザヴィヌル、そしてハービー・ハンコックを呼んだ1968年のことだ。このことは「In a Silent Way」収録に際し、色々と組み合わせて演奏することを試していた時にも引き続いてゆく。こうなってくると、ある作品の、より大きなこと、つまり、作品自体の骨格について、考え始めるようになった。あるコードを2拍伸ばすように設定する。するとメンバー達は、2拍音を伸ばす要するに2分音符1,2拍)、2分音符3,4拍ただし4拍目は裏拍で8分音符で「ダ」、次の小節の頭で「ダン」)となるだろう。そして、こちらは4拍目にアクセントを置くよう指示を出す。もしかしたら最初の小節には、コードを3つ設定したかもしれない。いずれにせよ、メンバー達には、好きなように弾いてくれ、聞こえたよう弾いてくれ、そのかわり、こちらはメンバー達が弾いたものを、一つのコードとして処理するから、と言った。すると、メンバー達も心得ており、それを音にしてくれた。そうやって出来上がったコードは、結構大した響きになったと思う。 


I told them that at rehearsals and then I brought in these musical sketches that nobody had seen, just like I did on Kind of Blue and In a Silent Way .... So I would direct, like a conductor, once we started to play, and I would either write down some music for somebody or I would tell him to play different things I was hearing, as the music was growing, coming together. It was loose and tight at the same time. It was casual but alert, everybody was alert to different possibilities that were coming up in the music. While the music was developing I would hear something that I thought could be extended or cut back. So that recording was a development of the creative process, a living composition. It was like a fugue, or motif, that we all bounced off of. After it had developed to a certain point, I would tell a certain musician to come in and play something else, like Benny Maupin on bass clarinet ... Sometimes, instead of just letting the tape run, I would tell Teo [Macero] to back it up so I could hear what we had done. If I wanted something else in a certain spot, I would just bring the musician in, and we would just do it. That was a great recording session, man, and we didn't have any problems as I can remember. It was just like one of them old-time jam sessions we used to have up at Minton's back in the old bebop days. Everybody was excited when we all left there each day. 

これをリハーサルの度にメンバー達に伝え、そうやって出来上がった、いくつもの素描は、まだ誰も聞いたことのないものだ。このやり方は、「Kind of Blue」や「In a Silent Way」の時も同じ。こちらはクラシック音楽の指揮者のように指示をだしてゆく。演奏が始まると、音楽が展開し、合わさり、そうしてゆく中で、こちらは、別に投入するメンバー用に譜面を作ったり、あるいは、演奏中のメンバーに変更した譜面を用意したりする。自由に弾かせたり、こちらが手綱をしめたり、これを同時進行で行う。肩の力を抜いて、でもアンテナは敏感に、するとメンバー全員のアンテナに、実際に音にしたものの中からでてくる、様々な可能性が、感知されてゆく。こちらは、メンバー達の演奏が展開してゆくのを聴きながら、これは更に掘り下げてゆこうとか、これはいらないからカットしよう、というように選り分けていった。そうすることで、収録そのものが、何も無い処から物作りをする行程となる。まさに「楽曲が生き物となる」のだ。全員が、例えばフーガのように、先行する他のメンバーの演奏を聞いて自分が後から追いかけたり、一つのモチーフを聞いてそれを自分なりに展開したりするなど、各自のアイデアをぶつけ合った。こちらは、ある程度まで音楽が展開したところで、それまで控えていたメンバーを投入して、全然別のことを弾かせる。バスクラリネット奏者のベニー・モウピンなどは、そうやって投入された一人だ。時には、ただ録音テープを回し続けるのではなく、テオ・マセロにバックアップをとらせて、じっくり聴き直す。聴きながら、「ここは」と思ったところで、必要なメンバーを呼んで、音を取る。何しろ、スゴい録音セッションだったし、特に問題はなかったと記憶している。かつてのビ・バップの時代に、ニューヨークのライブハウス「ミントンズ」でやっていた、昔のジャムセッションみたいだった。毎日終わって出てくる度に、皆テンション高く盛り上がっていた。 


What we did on Bitches Brew you couldn't ever write down for an orchestra to play. That's why I didn't write it all out, not because I didn't know what I wanted; I knew that what I wanted would come out of a process and not some prearranged shit. This session was about improvisation, and that's what makes jazz so fabulous. Any time the weather changes it's going to change your whole attitude about something, and so a musician will play differently, especially if everything is not put in front of him. A musician's attitude is the music he plays. 

「Bitches Brew」で創ったものを、例えばオーケストラで演奏してみようとして楽譜に起こそうとしても、おそらくムリだろう。事前に楽譜に書かなかったこともある。アイデアが浮かばなかったからではない。演奏してみる、その作業の途中でアイデアが浮かぶことを、こちらは知ってたからだ。そういう訳で、事前に楽譜に書けば良いってもんじゃない、と言っているのだ。今回のセッションは、インプロヴィゼーションそのものであり、ジャズの素晴らしさはここにある。状況の変化に応じて、プレーヤーはそれまでのやり方を全部変えてゆく。そうすることで、どんな演奏もできる。予め決められているものばかりではない状況では、尚更だ。ミュージシャンの演奏に対する姿勢は、そいつの演奏する音楽に「全部」現れている。」 


Jack DeJohnette: 



Miles had some sketches and bass patterns. He'd ask me, “play a groove, play this,” and he'd count off a tempo and if that wasn't it he'd say, “No, that's not it!” and he'd say to try something else. I'd start something and if it was okay he wouldn't say anything and it would continue, then he'd cue each instrument in and get something going. When it would start percolating, then Miles would then play a solo over that and let it roll, let it roll until he felt it had exhausted. Then we would go on to something else. 


On another occasion, DeJohnette noted: 




As the music was being played, as it was developing, Miles would get new ideas. This was the beautiful thing about it. He'd do a take, and stop, and then get an idea from what had just gone before, and elaborate on it, or say to the keyboards “play this sound.” One thing fed the other. It was a process, a kind of spiral, a circular situation. The recording of Bitches Brew was a stream of creative musical energy. One thing was flowing into the next, and we were stopping and starting all the time, maybe to write a sketch out, and then go back to recording. The creative process was being documented on tape, with Miles directing the ensemble like a conductor an orchestra. 

実際に音にして、それを展開させてゆく中で、マイルスは新しいアイデアを次々と出してくる。これはなんともスゴいことだ。録音を始めて、ストップし、その過程でアイデアが浮かび、それをやってみたり、キーボード・プレイヤーの連中に「こんなプレイをしろ」と指示を出したりする。一つの演奏が、別の演奏を引き出すきっかけとなる。このプロセスは、物事がグルグルと循環しているようなものだ。「Bitches Brew」のレコーディングは、創造性あふれる音楽のエネルギーが、あふれ流れるようであった。1つの流れが次に繋がり、立ち止まっては再スタートする、これを繰り返し、下書きを作っては、また録音作業に戻る。こうした創造性あふれるプロセスは、しっかりと記録された。マイルスはこのアンサンブルを、オーケストラの指揮者のように仕切っていた。」 


Various participants in the sessions have pointed out that while the music spontaneously unfolded, there was more advance preparation than Davis acknowledged. Down Beat writer Dan Ouellette quotes Joe Zawinul: “There was a lot of preparations for the sessions. I went to Miles' house several times. I had 10 tunes for him. He chose a few and then made sketches of them.” Paul Tingen quotes drummer Lenny White: “The night before the first studio session we rehearsed the first half of the track 'Bitches Brew.' I think we just rehearsed that one track. Jack DeJohnette, Dave Holland, Chick Corea and Wayne Shorter were all there. I had a snare drum, and Jack had a snare drum and a cymbal. I was 19-year-old kid, and I was afraid of Miles. My head was in the clouds!” 

このセッションに参加した様々なミュージシャン達が指摘しているのは、この楽曲は自発的に展開していった一方で、マイルス・デイヴィスの気づかないところで、事前の準備が存在していた、というものだ。「ダウン・ビート」誌のダン・ウィレットによると、ジョー・ザヴィヌルは次のように述べている「このレコーディングに際して行われた様々なセッションについては、事前の準備が数多くなされていた。私はマイルスの自宅を数度訪問しているが、10曲ほど用意していき、彼はそのうち2つか3つを選んで、その素材を作った。」ポール・ティンゲンは、ドラム奏者のレニー・ホワイトが「最初のスタジオセッションの前の晩のことだった。私達は「Bitches Brew」の前半を合わせてみた。合わせたのはその1トラックだけだったと記憶している。ジャック・ディジョネットデイヴ・ホランドチック・コリア、それからウェイン・ショーターと、みんな集まっていた。私はスネアドラムを持参していた。ジャックはスネアドラムとシンバルを持参していた。当時私は19歳のガキで、マイルスが怖かった。浮足立ってしまっていたのだ。」と語っている、と証言している 

Bob Belden, producer of The Complete Bitces Brew Sessions boxed set released in 1998, lays out the sequence of the three days of recording. On August 19, the order was “Bitches Brew,” followed by the music later titled “John McLaughlin,” “Sanctuary,” the various segments of “Pharaoh's Dance,” and then “Orange Lady.” August 20 began with “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down,” and on the twenty-first, “Spanish Key” and further work on “Pharaoh's Dance.” He also offers a “score” and narrative detailing the various edits involved in the assembly of “Pharaoh's Dance” and “Bitches Brew.” Enrico Merlin's “Sessionography, 1967 - 1991” offers a more detailed analysis of the construction of “Pharaoh's Dance,” noting slight differences between the LP and CD versions. 

ボックスCDとして1998年にリリースされた「The Complete Bitches Brew Sessions」のプロデューサーであるボブ・ベルデンは、この3日間のレコーディングがどの様に行われたか、その流れを示す。8月19日の曲順は、まず「Bitches Brew」、次に「John McLaughlin」とタイトルが付けられる楽曲、そして「“Sanctuary」、更には「Pharaoh's Dance」の部分的な収録と、最後に「Orange Lady」。8月20日は「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」。そして21日は「Spanish Key」と、「Pharaoh's Dance」の残りを収録し完成させる。彼はさらに、「Pharaoh's Dance」と「Bitches Brew」のレコーディングで集められたセッションの数々に含まれる、様々な編集について詳細を物語る「楽譜」とナレーションを用意した。エンリコ・メルリンの「Sessionography 1967-1991」には、「Pharaoh's Dance」の制作について、更に詳しい分析が記されていて、LP版とCD版の僅かな違いの数々についても触れられている。 


The process that unfolded during the studio sessions is apparent within the original session tapes. These can be heard in compilation CDs that have been in unofficial circulation for years. They include fragments of various takes recorded during the sessions. Some fragments are as short as twenty seconds, and most are under two minutes. Some seem to be microphone checks. Particularly tantalizing are those that fade out after a minute or two. Together, they survey the two days of recording, presenting something like an X-ray of the events. Periodically among the in-studio banter, we hear the voice of record producer Teo Macero announcing a code number for the take - “this will be part 2 of CO103745 take 1,” “part 2 take 2.” A phone rings. Dave Holland asks questions. At one point, Miles Davis says, “Hey, Teo, come on!” At the end of his solo on one of the takes of “John McLaughlin,” Davis declares: “Hey, Teo, I can't hear nothing ... I can't hear myself.” 


。電話の受信音が聞こえる。デイヴ・ホランドが何か質問している。「おい、テオ、ちょっと!」とマイルス・デイヴィスが言っている箇所もある。「John McLaughlin」のソロのテイクの一つでは、終わりの方でデイヴィスが「おい、テオ、何も聞こえない、自分の音がぜんぜん聞こえない。」 


We hear the band members trying out various thematic elements, such as Chick Corea experimenting with possible ways to approach material around and about the “Bithces Brew” vamp, varying the degrees of chromaticism. The two bassists try out their parts on “John McLaughlin.” There are two approximately seven-minute runs of the tune, complete with solos. “Spanish Key” receives a range of treatments, some with a lighter rhythmic feel than the one we know. That final version clearly works better than one that begins with a Corea solo, or another, echo drenched, that opens with a denser ensemble, the texture more akin to “Pharaoh's Dance.” Here, the editing process involved more selecting between takes. Some material, such as rehearsals of Joe Zawinul's “Orange Lady,” simply isn't included on the recording. 

バンドンメンバー達が、色々と主題のネタを試しに弾いているのが聞こえる。例えばチック・コリアは、「Bitches Brew」のヴァンプ(イントロや間奏部のリズムのみのパターンフレーズ)用の素材をあれこれと物色している。二人のベース奏者達は、「John McLaughlin」 の自分達のパートを聞かせあっている。色々なソロだけから成る、概ね7分程度の、2つの部分がある。「Spanish Key」は様々に手が加わっていて、その内のいくつかは、最終的に収録されたものよりも、軽めのリズム感が伺える。他にも、チック・コリアのソロから始まるものや、エコーがかかりすぎているもの、かなり分厚いアンサンブルによるもの、曲の構造が「Pharaoh's Dance」に酷似しているものなど、色々あるが、やはり最終的に作品として収録されたものが明らかに良い。素材のいくつか、例えばジョー・ザヴィヌルの「Orange Lady」の試し弾きなどは、単純に録音には含まれていない。 


“Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” receives several rehearsal segments and eight actual takes, some between two to more than nine minutes long. Davis and the rhythm section approach the material in a variety of ways. Several times, Davis opens with a slow, unaccompanied presentation of the theme; elsewhere, it is the rhythm section that begins the tune, similar to how it appears on the recording. Another take features a slow and breezy solo bass opening, and then abruptly ends. On three of the latter takes, Bennie Maupin's bass clarinet immediately joins with the rhythm section. Take 7 has from the start a more rhythmically interlocking funk feel, continuing through Wayne Shorter's solo. John McLaughlin continues in this vein during the first section of his solo. 

「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」は、リハーサルでの部分取りがいくつかと、実際に8回テイクが行われた。これらのそれぞれの時間は、2分のものから、9分を超えるものもある。デイヴィスが、リズムセクションとともに、色々と方法を変えて、一つの素材に取り組んだのである。デイヴィスがゆっくりとしたテンポで、無伴奏で主題を吹き始めるものがいくつかある。他には、リズムセクションから始まるものもあるが、これは最終的に作品として収録されたものに近い感がある。他にも、ゆっくりながらも明るい雰囲気のベースのソロから始まり、終わり方が突然呆気ないテイクもある。8回行ったテイクの後半の方では、ベニー・モウピンのバスクラリネットが、急遽リズムセクションに加わる。7回目のテイクでは、初っ端から比較的連動的なファンクのリズム感を漂わせ、それはウェイン・ショーターがソロを吹いている間中続く。この曲調は、ジョン・マクラフリンが自分のソロの最初の部分でも維持している。 


By Davis's solo, the rhythm section has simplified its beat structure, and the electric piano is limited to long, sustained notes and chords. In Belden's essay, percussionist Don Alias recalls that after a few failed takes, he remembered a drum rhythm he had recently heard at Mardi Gras in New Orleans that he thought would work. Davis suggested that Alias sit at Lenny White's kit, and he ended up leading the rhythm section during the version that appears on the final recording. 



The most interesting takes from the perspective of this discussion are of “Pharaoh's Dance,” in which the band rehearses various possibilities for segments of the tune, moving from section to section. The bassists and Corea try out variants of lines, sometimes in unison, that do not appear on the final recording. There is a five-note unison passage, really a cadence, rehearsed several times, that remains on the editing room floor. Another option is tried a few times, and then a third. Portions of composer Joe Zawinul's original conception, rehearsed and recorded in the studio, don't make it into the final mix. 

ここまでお読みいただいた観点で、最も興味深いテイクは、「Pharaoh's Dance」だろう。この曲では、バンドが、各セクションの間を飛び交う様々な素材を試し弾きしている。2人のベース奏者達とチック・コリアは、いくつかのメロディラインに変奏を加えたものを、いくつか試している。時にユニゾン(全員が同じことを演奏すること)で、これは最終的に収録されたものには入らなかった。5つの音から成るユニゾンのパッセージがあって、実際にはカデンスだが、これも何度か試し弾きが行われたものの、編集室を出ることはなかった。他にも、2度、そして3度と試されたオプションもある。作曲者のジョー・ザヴィヌルが元々 



Tiny phrases are rehearsed in multiple ways. In one instance, after several takes, Macero is heard saying without irony, “Want to do that again?” And that is exactly what happens. Corea's double-time passages near the end of “Pharaoh's Dance” are rehearsed several times. After a particularly successful attempt, Holland can be overheard saying, “Yeah!” Listening with 20/20 hindsight, we can hear some elements, but not others, that will ultimately be stitched together to form the fabric of Bitches Brew. Clearly, Davis rehearsed and rehearsed segments of material, and then moved on to others. The musicians could have no clear sense of what form the music would ultimately take, but they knew what some of its ingredients would be. 

小さなフレーズは、色々な方法で試し弾きされている。その模様を録音したものの一つを聞いてみると、何度も取り直したあとで、テオ・マセロが、別に皮肉でもなんでもなく、「まだやりたいの?」と叫ぶ声が聞こえる。実際にそうなっているのが、「Pharaoh's Dance」の終わりの方で、チック・コリアが弾く速いパッセージだ。これは幾度となく試し弾きが行われた。特に上手くいったものがあったので、デイヴ・ホランドが「やったな!」と言っているのが聞こえる。このように、予め情報を得てから聴いてみれば、色々な素描素材が聞こえてくる。そういう情報がないと、わからないものも沢山ある。これらが最終的に織り上げられて、一枚の織物「Bitches Brew」へと仕上がったのだ。デイヴィスはこうした素描素材を一つ一つ繰り返し試し弾きしてから、新たなものへ移り、また幾度も試し弾きする、これを繰り返した。演奏に携わったメンバー達は、最終的にどんな姿になるのか、全くわからない状態のままだったが、自分達が取り組んでいることが、何かしらの糧となるべきものだ、ということは、しっかりと自覚していた。 



The basic material that ultimately comprises “Pharaoh's Dance” includes a lively melody that appears at the beginning of the recording; a repeated, single-note vamp to ground solos; one or more unison passages designed to conclude sections; and a second melodic theme that is performed by Davis toward the end of the recording. The crafting of the tune involved organizing a coherent structure from bits and pieces of studio takes, a vast assemblage of these thematic elements and ever-morphing textural material. 

「Pharaoh's Dance」の基本素材として最終的に採用されたものは、次の通り:冒頭の快活なメロディ、各ソロの土台となる単音を繰り返すヴァンプ、各セクションの締めくくりとなるパッセージ(一人の奏者もしくは複数奏者のユニゾンによるもの)、曲の大詰めに向かうデイヴィスの吹く第2主題。こうした曲作りをするには、一貫性のある構造を作ってゆくことが必要だ。スタジオテイクでの、小さな部品作りから始まり、そうした主題の素描素材が、膨大な数となって集まってきたら、連続性を維持して姿かたちを変えてゆくように、材料を組み立ててゆくのである。 

第1章(最後)The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

All the Pieces in Place: The Davis Band Develops a New Chemistry 



Jack DeJohnette's presence in the drummer's seat during the band's stand at Duffy's Backstage in Rochester, New York, in March 1969, marks the real beginning of Miles Davis's Lost Quintet. DeJohnette ably continued the tradition of Tony Williams's percussive dynamism, but when he joined, something changed in the chemistry of the group. We immediately sense that the newly formed rhythm section gels in its own way, unique yet parallel to the power of the previous Herbie Hancock-Ron Carter-Tony Williams rhythm section. Both men provided the band's connective tissue and were key to its ability to continuously reconfigure the ever-changing textures at the core of its music. 






The new quintet's rhythm section was more extroverted than its predecessor's. The increased volume level meant not only a louder sound but also different relationships between instruments. The electric piano's more percussive attack, the sound swelling into a longer, richer sustain, the ability to play as loudly as the drums, and the possibility of electronically altering the resulting timbre rendered the instrument a sonic change agent. Corea's newfound timbral variety allowed him to inject his presence within the textural environment of horn soloists. The potential to foreground rhythmic interplay between Corea and DeJohnette increased, and space had to be consciously made for Holland to be heard and for Corea and Holland to interact. 




Finding an ideal balance and synergy between instruments was not going to be a simple matter. Davis's aesthetic was evolving, learning in two seemingly contradictory directions: improvisationally open yet with a strong beat. DeJohnette's experiences attuned him to both of Davis's new musical inclinations, having played rhythm and blues, backed open improvisations by members of the AACM, and engaged in more straight-ahead playing. Although Davis first heard Holland in a relatively conventional musical setting, the bassist was an active participant in London's avant-garde. Corea built a reputation in hard bop and Latin jazz, but he was also a drummer. With Davis he was asked to play a new instrument - electric piano -in a setting unlike what he had experienced. Miles Davis was asking a lot from his new bandmates, tossing them into a setting whose trajectory even he couldn't predict. Yet in its earliest stage, on that March gig, we sense rhythm section cohering and functioning as an integral, organic unit, making compelling music as a team. 





It is difficult to draw firm conclusions about the rhythm section before DeJohnette's arrival simply from the one extant audience recording. What is clear is that drummer Tony Williams was a dominant presence in the Boston Jazz Workshop shows. That four-day stand came amid Miles's first multi-keyboard recording sessions leading toward In a Silent Way, a recording (reuniting Hancock, Williams, and Davis) on which the delicate balance of the previous quintet remains much in evidence. But the Jazz Workshop recording with the new lineup seems quite different. Williams's thundering drumming surges into Wayne Shorter's solo in “Round Midnight,” ebbing and flowing while rarely ceasing to drive hard. It is when Williams lays out after one final drumroll that we hear glimpses of the new quintet: Holland's walking bass line takes over as Shorter's sole partner, eventually leading to Corea's electric piano solo. 

現存するライブ録音1つだけを見て、ディジョネットが加入する前後のリズムセクションについて、きっちり線引を決めてしまうことは、難しい。ハッキリしていることが1つある。それは、トニー・ウィリアムスとは、名ジャズクラブ「ボストン・ジャズ・ワークショップ」では、本番のたびに、ほかを圧倒する存在感を示していた。その4日間は、マイルスが最初に行った複数のキーボードを導入したレコーディングセッション(後に「In a Silent Way」というハンコック、ウィリアムス、そしてデイヴィスが、「ロスト」の前身のクインテットが持っていた繊細なバランス感覚が、依然健在であった録音)へと繋がってゆくものだった。だが、このとき新たな曲目をラインナップした収録は、全く違っていた。トニー・ウィリアムスの雷のようなドラムは、ウェイン・ショーターの「Round Midnight」のソロに襲いかかると、途端に満ち引きを繰り返し、猛烈さをほとんど緩めずにいる。この新たなクインテットの真骨頂が、一瞬耳に飛び込んでくるのが、最後のドラムロールの前に、ウィリアムスが見せつけるその瞬間である。ホランドの「軽快に歩いてゆくような」ベースラインは、ショーターのソロを支えるものとして、あとを引き継ぎ、その後最終的には、チック・コリアの電子ピアノのソロへと、私達をいざなうのだ。 




While the inferior recording quality contributes to the perception that Williams dominates the proceedings, there is little doubt that his role that evening was central. There are hints of both past and future quintets, such as Corea's intuitive approach to comping for Shorter. Here, the pianist responds to the nuance, phrasing, and sound of the saxophonist's lines, providing only hints of the chord changes. Otherwise, the band on this night offers a liner, soloist-centered model closely adhering to the forms of the tunes. It is as if Williams were seeking to provide the glue that holds together what otherwise might be a band lacking the time and opportunity to have developed its own chemistry. His driving drumming on Joe Zawinul's new tune “Directions,” soon to become a core part of the band's repertoire, offers a fascinating snapshot of where his musical instincts were taking him as Tony Williams Lifetime was taking shape. The give-and-take between Williams and Corea, whose sharply attacked chords punctuate the rhythm, is exciting. As Wallace Roney observes: “Tony's Lifetime was the instigator of the electric direction Miles would take.” 





In April 1969, Corea reflected on how challenging it was to figure out what to play in this new band: 



When Tony had called me for the gig, he said that he thought Miles was more interested in an accompanist than a soloist, but the first few weeks I hardly comped at all. I didn't know what to comp. Previously, I had started to play in a very unharmonic atmosphere, using harmonies as sounds and textures rather than as voice leaders in song-like fashion. But when I got in the band the things that Miles and Wayne were playing were so harmonically oriented (single notes they would hang onto would imply so much harmonically) that I was at a loss for what to do ... so I didn't play at all until Miles told me, “Whatever you have, just drop it in.” So I began doing that. Whenever I would have something, rather than hesitating because it might conflict, I would play it, and what started to happen (maybe just to my own ears) was that Miles and Wayne began to play all inside what I would put down. It would seem to be so apropos all the time that there was nothing that could be played which was “wrong.” What is presented always seems to fit. That really makes it very relaxed. 





Heading in a New Musical Direction 



In contrast, the new rhythm section playing together in March 1969 at Duffy's Backstage provides glimpses of a collective cohesiveness that would flower over time. We hear that like his predecessor, Jack DeJohnette's drumming is dramatic and virtuosic. He is well supported by Dave Holland's solid and steady walking bass. DeJohnette plays as if he were a partner in an organic whole, rising and falling in levels of energy, punctuating each soloist's ideas, periodically sparking a rise in intensity. He raises the temperature of the ensemble by subdividing beats, creating variations on a tune's rhythms, tossing in surprising rhythmic accents. He crafts polyrhythms by intently inserting a series of strongly played beats across the bar lines. He attentively follows each soloist, particularly Chick Corea. Listening to the drumming, we immediately sense a high level of interdependence and a growing trust. 



When we listen to the other two members of the rhythm section on this date, we can hear how all three members' contributions cohere. There are moments when one player changes mood, speed, or direction, and the other band members quickly reconfigure in a tightly interwoven manner. Sometimes each musician finds his own way to respond. Two minutes in to Shorter's solo on “So What,” there is a stutter in Holland's bass line, followed by a rapidly repeated three-note phrase, which forms an ostinato. Corea incorporates this particular figure within his chordal accompaniment, which DeJohnette completes with a drum flourish. When Corea contributes a series of two-handed rising and falling melodic lines in contrary motion, the level of complexity increases within the band, interrupting the liner flow of Shorter's solo. After Corea plays a series of brief ostinato figures and one upward glissando after the next, his bandmates build on his musical ideas. Although this is Shorter's solo, it is Shorter who imitates Corea's gesture and DeJohnette who extends it. 

この日の演奏の、他の2人のリズムセクションのメンバーを聴いてみると、3人全員が献身的な姿勢を貫いていることが、聞き取れる。ある者が曲想やスピード感、あるいは方向性を変化させると、他のメンバー達はすぐさま、しっかりとお互いを編み上げてゆく方法で、全体を組み替えてゆく。時には、その奏者独自のやり方で反応してもよい方法を、見つけ出すこともある。「So What」で演奏時間2分が経過したところで、ショーターのソロに対して、ホランドのベースラインが口ごもるようなフレーズをそえて、これに3連符が細かく続き、オスティナートを形成する。チック・コリアはこの特異な音形を、自分のハーモニーによる伴奏にうまく組み込み、これをディジョネットが華やかなドラムのフレーズで華を添える。チック・コリアが音形が対照的な2つのメロディラインを、両手でそれぞれ同時に弾き、全体の演奏の複雑さをさらに増してゆく。そうやってショーターのソロに割って入るのだ。チック・コリアが細切れのオスティナートと、次々とグリッサンド(急激に上昇する音形)を弾き出すと、メンバー全員がこれに乗って音楽を作ってゆく。これはショーターのソロではあるが、ショーター自身が、チック・コリアの発信するものを模倣し、そしてディジョネットがこれを広げてゆく。 


Early in Corea's own rapid and fluid solo, he listens closely to Holland, who is multiply repeating a note, creating a holding pattern. Corea develops the figure further and then also uses the principle of constructing phrases from repeated notes. A dance emerges between piano and bass, while DeJohnette's drums continue steadily behind. At various points, Holland and DeJohnette show remarkable rhythmic elasticity as they change speeds, building and releasing tension. The three members of the rhythm section are engaged in a delicate interplay. 



On this March 1969 recording, we can discern Corea's emerging approach to the electric piano: his solos and comping offer textural variety, rhythmic creativity, and moments of surprise and invention. Ostinati - built from repetitive rhythmic, harmonic, and textural patters - are peppered throughout. At this point, Corea's solos remain generally linear, hinting at the greater chromaticism and complexity to come. His serpentine lines give way to rhythmic figures and whimsical variations of motifs spun from just a handful of notes. In the up-tempo “Paraphernalia” (second set), Corea begins with small amounts of material to construct grand textural events built on thrills or tremolos, or slowing rising chordal structures. In his solo during “No Blues” (second set), he makes use of the tremolo feature on the Rhodes to create a changing delay-like effect that turns sustained chords and then single notes into throbbing, vibrating sonorities. DeJohnette joins Corea with rising and falling levels of drum and cymbal rolls. We can hear Corea's satisfaction confirmed by the increased volume of the Fender Rhodes electric piano, which “really makes me feel like part of the band.” His playing reflects his own vitality and creativity and a keen awareness of his fellow players, a sign of the coming interdependence in the Miles Davis Quintet as it matured. 

この1969年3月の音源では、チック・コリアの電子ピアノへのアプローチに、引き出しの数がますます増えていることが伺える。彼のソロにしても伴奏にしても、音楽の仕組みに多様性が生まれ、リズムに創造性が醸し出され、次々と驚きや新たな発見の瞬間がおとずれる。全体に散りばめられているのが、オスティナートだ(リズムや和声、構成パターンを繰り返すことで作られる音形)。この時点では、チック・コリアのソロは、いずれも概ねわかりやすや明瞭さを保っている。そうすることで、次に来るのは、半音階や複雑さを大いに織り交ぜたものだ、と匂わせるのだ。複雑極まりないメロディラインの次に来る、リズムの音形やモチーフの奇抜なバリエーションは、ほんのわずかな音の数で作り上げたものだ。速いテンポの「Paraphernalia」(セカンドセット収録曲)では、チック・コリアは、冒頭少ない数の素材を使って、大掛かりな構造を作ってゆく。その下敷きには、振動のような音形や、トレモロの音形を用いる。あるいは、テンポを緩めながら上昇してゆく和声の構造を作ることもある。「No Blues」(セカンドセット収録曲)のソロでは、トレモロの音形を用意して、これにフェンダー・ローズ(電子ピアノ)の効果を駆使して、変化を加えながら音が遅れて響いてくるやり方で、コードを響かせ続け、そして次には、一つ一つの音を、鼓動を打つような、そして震えるような響かせ方を聞かせる。そこへディジョネットが入り込み、スネア/トム/シンバルのロールを、音量を上下させて添える。「これでバンドの一員になれた気分だ」チック・コリアのこの言葉は、フェンダー・ローズの電子ピアノで大音量を確保できるようになったことに対する満足感を、伺わせる。彼の演奏は、自身のバイタリティや豊かな創造性もさることながら、仲間のメンバー達を鋭く意識していることを、しっかりと音に出している。それは、その後成熟してゆくマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットのなかで、その後生まれてくる、メンバー同士の相互依存の意識を予見させるものだ。 






The Village Gate as Incubator 



Later that spring, Davis rented the Village Gate, a club on Bleecker Street in Greenwich Village, for several appearances. It was a hip place to fine-tune his new band before taking it on the road. The finger-popping “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” was introduced during these shows, supplementing repertoire from the previous 1960s quintet. This was the first tune developed that would appear on the recording Bitches Brew. 

その年の春、デイヴィスがヴィレッジ・ゲートを会場として借用した。ここはグリニッジ・ヴィレッジのブリーカー通りにあるクラブで、数回の公演を行った。彼の新生バンドが、ツアーに打って出る前に、しっかりと準備をするには、この上ない場所だった。この「数回の公演」期間中に演奏されたのが、後に1960年代のクインテットにとってレパートリーの一翼を担うようになる、ビート感が心地よい「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」。この曲は、「Bitches Brew」の収録曲の中では、一番最初に作られたものとなった。 


Led by the fashion-conscious Davis, the band dressed in the latest “mod” clothing, an analogue to its increasingly electric and exploratory music and the Village setting. Critic Richard Williams reported: “These days Miles wears fringed buckskin waistcoats and flowering Indian-print scarves, and the important thing is that he does it with a natural elegance worlds away from the jowly executive who goes out frugging in order to learn to relate to what the young and the free-spending are digging.” Wayne Shorter remembers one night in particular: “I was wearing a Spanish leather vest, and chopper boots with a heel, in two different colors, brown and black, Spanish conquistador riding-the-horse boots. People in the audience were looking up there at me and Miles, and after the set they were asking, 'which one is Miles.'” Chick Corea wore a “purple headband and the blue corduroy pants, a stick of incense burning on his keyboards; Dave Holland with his curly long hair and velvet fringed shirt.” 




A Musical Affinity Develops between Corea and DeJohnette 



One of the Most striking elements in the quintet's evolution was the close musical connection developing between its electric pianist and its drummer. In part this may have been because Corea and DeJohnette had a background in both instruments, which in turn explains the highly percussive nature of their pairing within the band. 



Musical Example I: Live at the Village Gate 



The extant recording from the Village Gate, possibly from May 1969, opens with the title track of Chick Corea's recording Is. Originally an extended abstract work, the composition is used here as a vehicle for driving solos given shape by Corea's chordal ostinati. At times these are played in sync with DeJohnette's drum hits. We hear this synchronicity between pianist and drummer again on “Footprints,” where coordinated ostinati and drum accents heighten the drama and tension during Davis's and Shorter's solos. DeJohnette's repeated hits, something like a minor volcanic eruption, repeatedly create a pattern of disruption. Later in Shorter's solo, DeJohnette builds waves of energy, calming and slowly building, peaking with multiple bass-drum-pedal hits in a drummer's tour de force. Corea's drummer-like ability to vary his chord articulations - from highly staccato to sustained - adds contour to the band's collective texture. Davis's beautiful, elegiac closing solo backed by the band's textural playing is a high point of the show. 





Davis's “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” lightens the mood from the heightened intensity of the set opener. Holland provides an anchor on the tune's bass vamp, accompanied by Corea and DeJohnette. DeJohnette alternately follows and elaborates on Holland's figures, offering a boogaloo rhythm played with much flourish and virtuoso fills, sixteenth-note hits, and rolls that connect segments. Corea's Rhodes adds a funky flavor. The three work as a team. Shorter's and Corea's solos each develop from small gestures; DeJohnette fills in the spaces between Corea's figures, heavily accenting each beat. Corea's lines soon become lengthy and angular, eventually tossing in contrasting phrases filled with repeated notes. A standout feature of this performance is in fact the close connection between drummer and keyboardist. DeJohnette alternately follows and interlocks with Corea and presides with great energy and invention, varying his choice of accented beats to shift the rhythmic feel. 

「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」は、本番の口火を切る高まったテンションによって、明るい雰囲気を作り出す。ホランドのベースは、ピアノとドラムと共に、この曲の伴奏に安定感を与える。ホランドの伴奏に、ディジョネットが従ってみたり手を加えたりを、交互に行うことによって、ブーガルーのリズムを生み出す。この場合、華やかで技工を凝らしたフィル、16分音符の音形、ロールといったもので、様々な断片をつないてゆく。チック・コリアフェンダー・ローズが、ファンキーな雰囲気を添える。リズムセクションの3人は、一致団結している。ウェイン・ショーターチック・コリアのソロは、それぞれちょっとしたキッカケから展開してゆく。ディジョネットがピアノソロの節目ごとにフィルインを加える。拍の頭一つ一つに重めのアクセントを付けてゆく。ピアノソロのメロディラインは、程なくフレーズが長めに、そして無骨さを呈し始め、最後は繰り返しの音形を多用して、様々なコントラストを含むフレーズとなってゆく。この優れたパフォーマンスの有り様は、実はドラム奏者とピアノ奏者の連携が密であるが故なのだ。ジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアに対して、従ってみたり、手を加え組み合わさってみたりを交互に行い、とてつもないエネルギーと創造力を発揮して奏者としての役割を果たし、リズム感をあれこれと変えてゆく上で、どのようにメリハリをつけるか、その選択をし続けているのだ。 




A better-recorded show from the Blue Coronet, a club in Brooklyn, demonstrates Corea's highly rhythmic approach and the growth of his partnership with DeJohnette. This is most in evidence when he is backing Wayne Shorter's solos. Larry Kart, in his review of the band's early June stand at the Plugged Nickel in Chicago, observes that Corea had assumed the role of “pattern maker in the rhythm section,” partly due to the electric piano's “ability to sustain notes and produce a wide range of sonorities.” Yet Corea was also in many ways thinking like a drummer, which freed Holland and DeJohnette to flexibly vary their roles in the ensemble. We hear evidence of Corea functioning like a second drummer, albeit at the keyboard, even back in Rochester. On the opener to the second set, Jimmy Heath's “Gingerbread Boy,” he peppers the rhythmic flow with percussive staccato chords. This provides a preview of a later point in the life of the quintet, when Corea sometimes actually played a second set of drums. But whether he was at the keyboard or the drums, the sympatico rhythmic relationship between DeJohnette and Corea was an early source of the band's dynamism. 

これより状態の良い音源が、ブルックリンの名店「ブルー・コロネット」というクラブでの公演の模様だ。ここでは、チック・コリアの高度なリズムに対するアプローチと、ジャック・ディジョネットとの更に深化した連携が、しっかりと聞ける。これがハッキリと分かるのが、ウェイン・ショーターの各ソロの伴奏をしている瞬間だ。ラリー・カートは、6月初旬に彼らがシカゴのプラグド・ニッケルで行った本番について、そのレビューの中での分析によると、チック・コリアは「リズムセクションにおけるパターン作り」という役目について、その理由の1つに「電子ピアノが音を長めに残したり、幅広い種類の音色を出せたりすること」と考えている。だが、同時にチック・コリアは、様々な方法でドラム奏者のような物の考え方をするミュージシャンで、おかげでデイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットも、アンサンブルの中で自分たちの役割を、自由自在に変化させることができるのだ。チック・コリアが「第2のドラム奏者」として機能している音源がある。演奏しているのは勿論キーボードで、ロチェスターでのものだ。セカンドセットの1曲目、ジミー・ヒースの「Gingerbread Boy」で、彼は音の立ち上がりを強めにしたスタッカートの和音を使って、リズムのフローを曲の各所に散りばめている。これは、ロスト・クインテットの後の姿の予兆となっている。実際チック・コリアが、本番で2台用意されたドラムのうちの1台を、第2ドラム奏者として叩くことが、時々あったのだ。だが、キーボードにせよドラムにせよ、ジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアが、リズム担当者として好ましい関係を持っていたことは、このバンドが大いに発展した初期の原動力となっていたのだ。 





On Tour 



After the opportunities for its members to bond afforded by a brief but steady residence in New York, the Miles Davis Quintet began to tour steadily. It traveled from New York and Washington, DC, to Chicago, crossing the ocean for a show at the Juan-les-Pins Festival at Antibes, France. By July, Davis's tune “It's About That Time” from In a Silent Way (the recording wouldn't be released until late that month) and Wayne Shorter's “Sanctuary” (soon to be recorded on Bitches Brew) were added to the set lists. The band played a short quartet set (without Shorter) during its July 5 appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. It was on this date that Davis was reportedly taking notice of the audience response and size. He seemed transfixed by singer James Brown's ability to engage the audience through his personal magnetism and the infectiously funky beat of his music. 

ロスト・クインテットのメンバー達は、短い期間ながらも安定した環境をニューヨークで過ごしたおかげで、結束を固めることが出来たことは幸運であった。マイルス・デイヴィスの率いるクインテットは、地に足のついた状態でツアーを開始した。ニューヨーク、ワシントン、シカゴと公演をした後、大西洋を渡ってフランスのアンティーブで開催された、ジュアン・レ・パンジャズフェスティバルへの出演である。ツアー期間中、7月までには、2曲が新たに演奏曲目に加わった。マイルス・デイヴィスのアルバム「In a Silent Way」の収録曲「It's About That Time」(音源自体は同月後半までリリースに至らず)と、ウェイン・ショーターの「Sanctuary」(その後まもなくBitches Brewに収録)である。7月5日にロードアイランドで開催されたニューポートジャズフェスティバルでは、ウェイン・ショーターを除く4人での演奏となった。マイルス・デイヴィスが、観客の反応や規模に関心を示したのは、この日だと言われている。ジェームス・ブラウン人間力が持つ、強烈に人を引きつける力、そして彼の音楽が持つ、影響力抜群にファンキーなビート感に、彼はただ呆然としているようだったという。 



By the July 7 show in New York's Central Park, “Directions” had become the opener and increasingly the vehicle for the band's more exploratory side. Then Davis's clarion calls, driven by DeJohnette's drumming, would usher in “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down.” By this point, the tune had lost its simplicity of prior shows. Corea made increasing use of ostinati in his often highly chromatic chordal accompaniment, inserted when a space opened or wherever he could offer commentary on the proceedings. Holland played repeated fragments and variants of the vamp, creating a steady rhythmic fabric that allowed ample room for DeJohnette's dramatic displays. The lively tempo and high energy continued unabated through “Masqualero” and into “Spanish Key” (also later to be recorded on Bitches Brew). The developing pattern - of Corea comping in a more complex manner behind Shorter than behind Davis - was clearly in play, while rhythmically he remained equally alive and constantly responsive to each soloist. Holland contributed a steady, infectious rhythmic pulse beneath DeJohnette and Corea. 

7月7日にニューヨークのセントラルパークでの公演が行われた頃には、「Directions」はオープニングナンバーとして、そしてこのバンドが以前にもまして積極的に取り組んでいた、新しいことへの挑戦を牽引する1品として、その役割を果たしていた。そして、ジャック・ディジョネットのドラムの腕前に後押しされて、マイルス・デイヴィスの強い決意表明の下、たどり着いたのが「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」である。この時点で、この曲は、それ以前の公演での演奏とは、かけ離れたものになっていた。チック・コリアは、彼がよく使う高度な半音階的和声を使用した伴奏に、オスティナートを以前にもまして使用するようになっていて、演奏中も、スペースがあけば、あるいは曲の進行上可能と判断したら何時でも、これを投入した。デイヴ・ホランドは、断片素材の繰り返しや即興伴奏の変奏パターンを多用することで、安定したリズムの素地を作り、ジャック・ディジョネットが大々的な演奏をしてきても、それが入り込める十分な余地を確保した。活き活きとしたテンポ、そして高いエネルギーが、「Masqualero」そして「Spanish Key」(いずれも後にBitches Brewに収録)の曲の頭から終わりまで維持されている。伴奏の展開してゆくパターンは、マイルス・デイヴィスの伴奏時よりも、ウェイン・ショーターの時の方が複雑な手法をとっており(リズミカルであるかどうかについては、どちらも同じ反応の良さを維持している)、演奏は明確明瞭だ。デイヴ・ホランドは、ジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアの下支えにまわり、安定感があり影響力をもったリズムの鼓動を与えている。 





A Growing Corea-Holland Connection 



While the focus up to this point has been the connection between Jack DeJohnette and Chick Corea, the budding musical symbiosis between Dave Holland and Corea was also developing. 



Musical Example: Live in Central Park 



In a July 7, 1969, rendition of “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” (first show), Holland and Corea create rhythmic ostinato after 4:30; Corea leads by playing tone clusters in groupings of three and later four, and Holland responds in kind. A moment later, Holland plays a series of figures built from rapidly repeated notes; this will become a characteristic feature of his playing during the 1970s. During Corea's solo, Holland closely locks within Corea's repetitive patterns, at one point crafting a several-note phrase that speeds and slows like a roller coaster, spinning with myriad variation. Eventually, the two players become so enmeshed that it is difficult to tell who the soloist is. 

1969年7月7日のライブ、「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」の演奏(1回目の公演)では、開始4分半以降、デイヴ・ホランドチック・コリアがオスティナートのリズムを紡ぎ出す。まず先導として、チック・コリアが、初めは3つ、後に4つのグルーピングをしたトーン・クラスターを弾く。これにデイヴ・ホランドが同様に返す。一呼吸おいて、今度はホランドが、細かい音符の繰り返しによって出来上がっている音形を連続して弾く。後にこの奏法は、1970年代の彼の特徴的なものとなってゆく。チック・コリアがソロを弾いている間、ホランドチック・コリアが繰り返す音形パターンに自分のリズムをピッタリと付けてゆく。そのリズムとは、複数音を有するフレーズで、ジェットコースターのように緩急をつけて、数多くのヴァリエーションを施して紡ぎ出される。最終的には、2人ともガッチリと巻き込み合ってしまい、どちらがソロだか判別が難しくなってしまうほどになる。 



The empathetic, closely interlocking nature of Corea and Holland's musical embrace is on display during “Milestones.” Holland picks up on the smallest nuances and patterns that Corea uncovers, then just as quickly shifts into a walk when the pianist plays more bop-like lines. This requires exquisite attentiveness on Holland's part even within the head of the tune, where Corea tosses off-pulse notes, chords, and clusters. When Corea plays behind Shorter, drawing from pointillism, pantonality, highly angular gestures, and asymmetrical groups of rapidly played notes, Holland has to listen even more closely as he continues to change up the space of his note-pattern groupings, which are interspersed with rapidly repeated single notes. 





The interplay between pianist and bassist is particularly in evidence during the second show, in Corea's solo on “Masqualero.” There, Holland and Corea play nearly in tandem, joined by DeJohnette's cymbals, which provide the source of energy expansion and contraction. Corea builds intensity by repeating short phrases and chordal fragments, pulling from them new phrases. 



Even when the band makes only subtle shifts away from a straight-ahead approach, its members are beginning to display fascinating sleights of hand. After a smart groove has been laid down by Holland and DeJohnette during “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” (second show), the rhythm section plays double time during Davis's solo, creating the perception that the pulse has sped up. Indeed, Davis's lightning-fast lines during the early portion of his solo support this notion. Corea's solo begins in a highly atonal manner, with Holland on arco bass, heavily scraping the strings. A pointillistic dialogue emerges between Corea and Holland, joined soon by DeJohnette. But again, the real action is between the bassist and the pianist before they return to the original groove. 

このバンドのアプローチが、伝統的な4ビートを重んじる手法から移行していったのが、ほんの僅かな振り幅であったとしても、各メンバーとも、手だれた技を見せつけ始めていた。「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」(2回目の公演)で、ホランドとディジョネットが洗練されたグルーヴを聞かせた後、マイルス・デイヴィスのソロに入ったところで、伴奏を2倍速に引き上げた。そうすることで、曲がスピードアップしたような印象を醸し出したのだ。それ以前に、マイルス・デイヴィスが自分のソロを電光石火の速さで吹きこなしていたことも、「スピードアップした印象を醸し出せた」一助となっている。チック・コリアのソロが、高度な無調性音楽の技法で始まる。この時ホランドは、力強いボウイング(弓を使った奏法)を聞かせる。点描画を描くようなチック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドとのやり取りが聞こえてくる。そしてそこへディジョネットが時をおかず入ってくる。だがもう一度、ピアノとベースが元のグルーブのフレーズに戻る前に、二人の間のやり取りが本格化する。 




During the band's fall 1969 European tour, these dynamics show expansive growth. At a November 7 show in Berlin (second set) during “It's About That Time,” Holland responds to Corea's brief, frolicking groupings of notes with sparse figures sometimes imitative of Corea. When Corea crafts a repetitive spinning, textural display, the rhythmic work of a drummer at the keyboard, Holland lays out and DeJohnette takes over, very sparingly, building in response to Corea's more elaborate and intense playing. Holland joins with rapidly played arco figures. “Masqualero” displays the delicate interchange between Corea and Holland, their duet held together by a thread. They both pay breath-long phrases. Holland's bass is barely one step behind Corea, responding to the direction, speed, and density of the pianist's playing. This is a refined form of counterpoint invented on the spot. The level of sensitivity and empathy between the players is substantial. 

1969年秋にこのバンドがヨーロッパツアーをしている間、こうした変化により、大いに成長を見せた。11月7日のベルリン公演(セカンドセット)での「It's About That Time」では、チック・コリアの、短くて遊び心満点のフレーズに、ホランドは薄味の、時にチック・コリアのフレーズを真似したような音形で、これに応えている。チック・コリアが繰り返しを用いてひねりを利かせ、構造が明確なフレーズを作り上げて演奏すれば、それはまるで、ドラム奏者がキーボードを使って、普段担当しているリズムを刻む作業をしているかのようである。チック・コリアの手の込んだテンションの高い演奏に呼応するホランドとディジョネットは、あくまでも控えめに自分たちの演奏を作ってゆく。ホランドは弓を使って細かな音符を弾いて入ってくる。「Masqualero」では、チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドのやり取りは非常に繊細で、今にも崩れてしまうのではないか、というほどである。2人とも息の長いフレーズを作り出してくる。ホランドのベースは、わずかに一歩チック・コリアの後を行き、ピアノの行く方向やスピード、目的地に従う形だ。その場の思いつきで作られた対位法という、非常に洗練された演奏の形態である。2人の奏者には、繊細さと相手を感じ取る気持ちは、高いレベルのものが必要である。 



A Unique Team 



The Corea-Holland-DeJohnette rhythm section had grown remarkably in its own right during this first year of the band. Corea developed an empathetic symbiosis with each of his rhythm partners that would continue to thrive. Together, the three musicians provided lithe and creative support for the horn soloists. But they were also growing as a subunit that functioned according to its own internal logic. Ultimately, this would lead to the band's split, with two of its three members departing to explore further the new directions they had uncovered and Davis reconfiguring the ensemble.  


<1章(3)>The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

A New Pianist: Chick Corea 

新たなピアノ奏者 チック・コリア 


Chick Corea was raised in a musical household; his father was Armando Corea, a trumpeter and bassist who played the jazz clubs around their hometown, Boston, and nearby Cape Cod. Corea notes that his dad was “a musician all his life and he gave me my first instruction. He was really kind and gentle. He got me off to a real safe start. My parents were both always very encouraging and allowed me total freedom to pursue music.” Armando was active from the 1930s through Corea's adolescence in the 1950s. When he was around four years old, Corea “first heard Bud [Powell] play, on my dad's seventy-eight RPM vinyl ... [and] I do remember the spirit of his playing, and 'bubble-iness' of his piano playing attracting me and I just liked it. I kept listening to him.” 



Chick Corea's formal musical education was limited to “a six-year stint that I spent with a great classical pianist who lives in Boston whose name is Salvatore Sullo ... I began to study with him when I was about eleven, twelve years old and stayed with him until I was about sixteen or seventeen years old. Bach, Beethoven, and Chopin were prevalent in my classical music studies on the piano, along with a little bit of Mozart and Scarlatti.” Corea also developed skills as a trumpeter and drummer. 



When he was a teen, it was Bud Powell's musical approach and feel that he was the most strongly drawn to. He became interested in Powell's compositions and “transcribe[d] some of Bud's piano playing note-for-note and I would try to play the notes.” Literal transcription was but the first step in learning to emulate Powell. “I would play the notes, but it still wouldn't sound like Bud. I knew something was missing from the phrasing or the rhythm or whatever.” Corea began to play along with the recordings, “trying to get it so that my playing would just kind of exactly duplicate what was coming off the record. Bud's playing was just completely innovative and interesting to me ― everything he did was so spirited ... and so creative.” 



It was not unusual for a young jazz pianist to view Bud Powell as a model. After all, Powell had played a substantial role in establishing core traditions of bebop, crafting a harmonic grounding of its highly chromatic musical language ― with left-hand voicing of ninth and thirteenth chords ― while backing Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Powell translated the angularity of Parker's horn lines for his right hand. But equally important to Corea was his simplicity, symmetry, and directness. Over simultaneously rhythmically energetic and in equal measures virtuosic and to the point. Corea's solos came to present well-developed ideas, often symmetrical in phrasing. 



During his teen years, the pianist started playing on his father's gigs. In high school, Corea's interests expanded to hard bop trumpeter Blue Mitchell and pianist Horace Silver, whose solos he also transcribed and played in a trio. “Horace's music and his piano playing was a little bit more accessible to me because it wasn't so technically demanding as Bud's.” In the late 1950s, Corea continued to follow many of the leading jazz pianists of that decade: “I listened to John Lewis. I listened to early Thelonious Monk on Miles' records ... Hank Jones played some with Miles, and then finally into the ... mid-fifties somewhere is where Red Garland showed up. And Red's style just, you know, captured me  ― I loved. It. Then, even after that, Wynton Kelly was a real favorite of mine and after that came Bill Evans ― this is all Mile's career. Then after Bill Evans came Herbie Hancock. So all of these guys were tremendous inspirations to me, piano-wise.” And all these pianists had played with Miles Davis. 



After following his father to the senior Corea's gigs, his father hit on his own, “outside of my father's circle,” was as “a junior in high school ― I guess I was 15 or 16 years old ― I was called to do a gig with Cab [Calloway]'s band for a week at Boston's Mayfair Hotel. That was my first real stepping-out. I was stunned. All of a sudden I had to wear a tuxedo and it was like a big show with lights on the stage. It was kind of scary, you know? He had a dance line of ladies who were only dressed a little bit. They seemed huge to me. They were daunting. After a little while I got into the swing of it and started really loving being out on my own like that. As for the entertainment value of it all, I was just thrilled to be there.” 



Corea moved to New York City in 1959 after his high school graduation, and his recording career began in 1962 in the Latin jazz bands of Wille Bobo and Mongo Santamaria. Joining Montego Joe's band in 1964 continued Corea's experience playing Latin. He first recorded with Blue Mitchell that year and joined his band in 1965. Also in 1965, Corea recorded with flutist Herbie Mann (Roar of the Greasepaint). The following year, he played with Latin vibraphonist Cal Tjader. He also recorded his first album as a leader, Tones for Joan's Bones, “a breakout hard-bop date with a modal feel. 

1959年、高校を卒業した彼は、ニューヨークへ向かう。1962年にはレコード制作に関わるようになった。まずはラテン・ジャズバンドの、ウィリー・ボボとモンゴ・サンタマリア。1964年にはモンテゴ・ジョーのバンドに参加、ラテン音楽への取り組みが続く。この年、ブルー・ミッチェルと初のレコーディングを行い、翌1965年には、彼のバンドに参加する。更にその同じ年、チック・コリアはフルート奏者のハービー・マンと「Roar of the Greasepaint」のレコーディングを行った。次の年、彼はラテン音楽を中心に活躍するヴィブラフォン奏者のカル・ジェイダーと共演を果たす。また彼は、自身がリーダーとなって制作した初のアルバム「Tone for Joan's Bones」をリリース。「モードの雰囲気をもつハード・バップの爆発的ヒット作品」となった。 


Corea's jazz interests continued to be augmented by an appreciation of contemporary European art music: “My favorite contemporary composers are Bartok and Stravinsky. Also, I admire Eric Satie's music an awful lot.” We find throughout Corea's mature playing ― particularly as a member of Miles Davis's Lost Quintet and Circle ― rapid runs and other figures built on tone clusters (collections of adjacent notes that are played simultaneously). Many examples can be found throughout this book. These are devices well represented within Bartok's piano repertoire, for example in Microcosmos, volume 5. An overlapping influence in this regard may have been Thelonious Monk, who also made use of tone clusters throughout his work. 



A 1966 stint with Stan Getz was followed by a tour with Sarah Vaughan in 1967, and then his tenure with Miles Davis. Corea's trio recording Now He Sings, Now He Sobs, with Miroslav Vitous and drummer Roy Haynes, followed in 1968. Accepting an invitation from Miles Davis was of course an excellent move for an aspiring jazz musician. 

1966年にスタン・ゲッツのバンドに参加し、その後の1967年にはサラ・ヴォーンとのツアーがあり、そしてマイルス・デイヴィスの下へ、と続く。1968年には彼のトリオ(ベースのミロスラフ・ヴィトウス、ドラムのロイ・ヘインズ)の作品「Now He Sings, Now He Sobs」が続く。向上心に燃えるジャズ・ミュージシャンにとって、マイルス・デイヴィスの誘いに乗るのは、当然のことながら、この上なき選択肢である。 



A Rhythm Section Two-Thirds Rebuilt: The Band's Final Shows with Tony Williams 



On October 5, 1968, Davis's band, now with Dave Holland, Chick Corea, Wayne Shorter, and Tony Williams, played a show at UCLA that Los Angeles Times critic Leonard Feather hailed as “not likely to be surpassed this season by any other group that works at this high level of abstraction ... The sensitivity that bound the five men in a jagged unity often seemed to attain extra-sensory peaks of invention.” Feather also lauded the new band members: “In this new and more challenging context, [Corea] drew on inner reserves of creative strength that were rarely apparent in the relatively conservative groups with which he had previously been heard [Herbie Mann, Stan Getz]. Holland displayed great sensitivity and a rich, big sound. Although meters, accents, volume and moods shifted around with the liquidity of a light show, nothing seemed to phase him.” He referred to Davis as “a spellbinder” and described Williams's drumming as “frenzied.” The repertoire drew largely from 1965-67 Davis Quintet's songbook, largely composed by Shorter: “Agitation,” “Footprints,” “Paraphernalia,” “Pinocchio,” and “Nefertiti,” plus “Round Midnight” and “an oblique, restless up tempo blues excursion based on one of his early records, 'Walkin'.” All in all, a propitious public start for a band that by this time had replaced bassist Ron Carter and pianist Herbie Hancock. 

1968年10月5日、この時のマイルス・デイヴィスのバンドは、ベースのデイヴ・ホランド、ピアノのチック・コリア、サックスはウェイン・ショーター、そしてドラムがトニー・ウィリアムスという顔ぶれである。UCLAでの公演は、「ロサンゼルス・タイムズ」紙のレナード・フェザーが絶賛している「この様に高いレベルの、抽象絵画とも言える演奏は、今シーズン行われた演奏の中でも、ずば抜けているように思われる。彼ら5人を大雑把にまとめる感性は、音楽を生み出す霊感の極み、その様にこれまでも多く評されたものである。」フェザーは更に、新たに加入したメンバー達を称賛する。「(チック・コリアが)これまで参加してきた、どちらかといえば従来型のグループ(ハービー・マンやスタン・ゲッツなど)には、めったに見られなかった、内なる創造力を、この新たなる、そして更に困難不透明な状況下で、見事に引き出した。デイヴ・ホランドは、優れた感性と豊かでよく響くサウンドを聞かせた。拍子や強拍弱拍の設定、音量、そして曲想といったものは、あたかも万華鏡を覗いてみたときのように、目まぐるしく変わっているものの、彼は一切動じない。」彼はマイルス・デイヴィスを「雄弁なる者」と評し、トニー・ウィリアムスのドラムを「熱狂」と記した。当日の演奏曲目は、1965年から67年にかけてのマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットのものから採られていて、大半がウェイン・ショーターの作曲したものだ。「Footprints」「Pinocchio」「Nefertiti」更には「Round Midnight」そして、『彼の初期の音源の一つ「Walkin'」をベースにした、不安で不穏なテンポのブルース形式の一品』。この時点で、ベースのロン・カーターとピアノのハービー・ハンコックを降板させたバンドへと、大衆は概して都合よく目移りしたようである。 


The same outfit, continuing with Williams, appeared at the Jazz Workshop in Boston for a four-day stand on December 5-8. This was four months after Holland's first performances with the band at Count Basie's club in Harlem. Shows from this period represent Davis's first experiments using two electric pianists in concert settings. One track of an audience recording from Boston pairs Corea with Wynton Kelly on “Round Midnight.” Kelly is likely playing a Wurlitzer, but is barely audible until he takes the first piano solo. Around this time, Davis also paired Corea with Stanley Cowell, in Montreal and probably Boston. Cowell views the combination to have been unsuccessful. 

ウィリアムスの加わったバンドは、さらに同じような結果を出す。ボストンでのジャズワークショップだ。12月5日から8日までの4日間開催された。この4ヶ月前に、ホランドの最初のお披露目公演が、ハーレムのカウントベイシーズクラブで行われている。この時期の数々の公演では、デイヴィスが初めて2台の電子ピアノを、本番で使用している。ボストンでのライブ録音の1つは、チック・コリアウィントン・ケリーとペアを組み、「Round Midnight」で共演している。ケリーが弾いているのは、ワーリッツァー社製のものと思われるが、最初のソロが出てくるまでは、ほとんど聞こえない。当時、デイヴィスは、チック・コリアとスタンレー・カウエルも組みにしている。モントリオールと、もう1つはボストンでの本番と考えられている。カウエルは、この組み合わせを、うまく行かなかったと考えている。 


The Miles Davis Quintet was not an easy band for newcomers to join. By 1968, five years of chemistry among the players had been amassed with a distinct experimental trajectory, particularly since 1965. Holland remembers that it took him nearly a year to gain enough confidence in this new setting. Corea, stepping into Hancock's seat, remembers: 




The main challenge [upon joining Miles's band] was to step into a hot-seat that had developed over six or seven years with Tony Williams, Ron Carter, Herbie Hancock and Wayne Shorter, as one of the great, great groups of jazz in live performance ... It was a pretty big challenge to step in there and try and make some sense. Tony was still playing with Miles, he was in his last six months of his tenure and was full-blown in the freedom with which he was approaching the music, and it was a challenge to try and fit in. But, Miles was really encouraging and told me to just play right here, and I did. It was very rewarding. 



Four months after Corea joined the band, on February 18, 1969, Davis returned to the studio to record the groundbreaking In a Silent Way, using three electric pianists in tandem: Corea, Hancock, and Joe Zawinul, with Williams on drums. By this point, the only members of the previous quintet remaining with the touring band were Wayne Shorter and Miles Davis; Williams had already left to form Tony Williams Lifetime. As we shall see, the emerging new quintet remained musically in transition until Jack DeJohnette, who had been periodically subbing for Williams, joined in time for a March date in Rochestrer, New York. 

チック・コリア加入から4ヶ月後の1969年2月18日、デイヴィスは再び録音スタジオへ入り、革新の逸品「In a Silent Way」を制作。本作では、3人の電子ピアノ奏者を同時に投入、チック・コリアハービー・ハンコック、そしてジョー・ザヴィヌル、彼らはトニー・ウィリアムスのドラムの下、足並みをそろえた。ここに至り、残ったのはウェイン・ショーターマイルス・デイヴィスの2人。トニー・ウィリアムスは、既にトニー・ウィリアムス・ライフタイム結成のために去っていた。これを見て明らかなように、新興クインテットは、音楽面では移行期間にあった。決着がついたのが、ジャック・ディジョネットの加入だった。一旦トニー・ウィリアムスの代役として期限付きで入り、その後正式に加入した。時は3月、ニューヨーク州ロチェスターでの公演に間に合うように・・・。 



The New Drummer: Jack DeJohnette 

新たなドラム奏者 ジャック・ディジョネット 


Chicago-born Jack DeJohnette was first a pianist, and only later a drummer. He began piano lessons at age four and took up the drums at thirteen. His musical interests were cultivated by his uncle, Roy I. Wood Sr., a disc jockey. DeJohnette's professional background became as eclectic as the music of the city's South Side, where he grew up. He played rhythm and blues; hard bop, the newly dominant form of jazz in black communities; and open improvisation. His first experience touring was with saxophonist Eddie Harris, who encouraged DeJohnette to focus on the drums: “He thought I was a natural drummer, and he thought I'd be more successful at it and as it turned out, he was right. When I came to New York in '64 or '65, I went up to Minton's, and Freddie Hubbard was there, he heard me play, and he said, “Hey, man, you got a set of drums?” I said, 'Yeah.' 'Well, you got a gig.' That's when I decided, 'Ok, I'm going to make drums be my main instrument.'” 



A highlight of DeJohnette's time in Chicago, around 1958, was playing with visionary big-band leader Sun Ra. “When I had the time I'd always make his rehearsals. I was trying to develop myself as a drummer, and it was a great experience to play with him.” He played a set with the John Coltrane Quartet, sitting in for Elvin Jones in 1962, and joined Coltrane's band again four years later as a second drummer to Rashied Ali. 



DeJohnette was present at the founding of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) in 1965, and he developed a close connection with early members. He attended Wilson Junior College with saxophonists Anthony Braxton, James Willis, and Roscoe Mitchell, who introduced him to reedist Joseph Jarman. DeJohnette recalls playing with these musicians and introducing Mitchell and bassist Malachi Favors to Muhal Richard Abrams, who cofounded the organization. Also among DeJohnette's AACM friend was Steve McCall, the drummer in one of his early trios as a pianist and later a Braxton collaborator. 








It was a time of exploration and changes. There was no outlet for an alternative music. Roscoe and Joseph and I would get together to play our music and our concepts of improvisation. Muhal realized that we needed to have a space and an organization, we needed a structured outlet to get that creative energy out and so he got together a charter and a performance space and formed the AACM, with an orchestra that then spun off smaller groups Muhal was one of my mentors. He helped me a lot with my music and with life problems, and he was the one who encouraged me to come to New York. 



Drummer Billy Hart keenly recalls this circle of musical connections: “I had met Jack DeJohnette and Muhal Richard Abrams in Chicago when I traveled there with Shirley [Horn]. Anthony [Braxton] and I were very close friends for a while [in the mid-1960s], to the point where when I'd go to Chicago, I would actually stay with him. We used to listen to John Cage, David Tudor, and Stockhausen.” 



The AACM can be approached from overlapping perspectives ― aesthetic, cultural, political, organizational, and business. Among its founding principles were black financial and organizational autonomy guided by collective action, and as scholar and AACM member George Lewis observes, “collective working-class self-help and self-determination; encouragement of difference in viewpoint, aesthetics, ideology, spirituality, and methodologies.” Aesthetically, the group championed a broad musical eclecticism, an interest in open musical forms, a balance between composition and new models to relate composition and improvisation, and, in Lewis's words, “new ideas about sound, timbre, collectivity, extended technique and instrumentation, performance practice.” 

AACMは、その芸術的価値観、文化的側面、政治的影響、組織の有り様、そして経営状況といった、様々な視点を重ねて見てゆくことが出来る。設立理念はいくつかあるが、その中には、集団での行動に導かれる形での、アフリカ系の人々による資金面および運営面での自主自立製である。そして学者であり、AACMのメンバーでもあるジョージ・ルイスは、この組織を評して「寄ってたかって、汗水たらして働く人々が、自らを助け、自ら何事も決定し、物の見方/芸術的価値観/イデオロギー/心のあり方/物事の進め方は「人それぞれ異なる」を良しとする」。芸術的価値観、といえば、この組織が大事にしていることとして、幅広く色々な音楽が共存し混じり合うこと、どのような音楽の形式にも寛容に興味を示すこと、既存の楽曲と新しいネタとのバランスをとることで「作曲」という行為とインプロヴィゼーションの「対立構造」を解消すること、そして、ルイス曰く「サウンド/音色/全体のまとめ方/超絶技法/楽器の組み合わせ/演奏の実践 に常に新風を吹き込む」 


The same year that the AACM was founded, DeJohnette moved to New York, choosing the Lower East Side neighborhood where many jazz musicians were living. During this period, he played with Sun Ra (who had moved from Chicago to Montreal and then to New York), Betty Carter, Charles Tolliver, Henry Grimes, Herbie Lewis, and Jackie McLean, with whom he recorded. DeJohnette was playing with McLean at the neighborhood jazz club Slugs when Miles Davis first heard the drummer play. “Miles and Jackie McLean had similar taste in drummers. Jackie always said to me, 'Miles is going to hire you, because Tony [Williams] was with me before Miles hired him, and we have the same taste in drummers.' Sure enough, one night I was in Slugs, and Miles came in to hear me. He'd heard about me, so he came.” 



DeJohnette caught the attention of a broader group of musicians, listeners, and critics while touring internationally with saxophonist Charles Lloyd. Lloyd had been part of the West Coast jazz scene, where he encountered Ornette Coleman's circle of musicians. His quartet was formed in 1965 with DeJohnette plus pianist Keith Jarrett and bassist Cecil McBee, both invited at DeJohnette's suggestion. The band's musical eclecticism, bridging elements of Coltrane's music, straight-ahead jazz, rock beats, Indian musical influences, and open improvisation, was a tremendous commercial success, particularly among young white audiences. The quartet toured rock halls as well as jazz festivals. 



After a stint with Stan Getz in 1968, DeJohnette joined Bill Evans's trio with bassist Eddie Gomez. Their work is documented on Bill Evans at the Montreux Jazz Festival. It was of course on an evening with Evans that Davis first heard both DeJohnette and Holland play in London. During this period, DeJohnette began subbing for Tony Williams in Miles Davis's Quintet. 

1968年、スタン・ゲッツとの契約期間を終えると、ディジョネットはビル・エヴァンスのトリオに、ベース奏者のエディ・ゴメスと共に参加する。この3人の演奏を収めたのが「Bill Evans at the Motreux Jazz Festival」だ。言うまでもなく、ビル・エヴァンスと舞台を共にしたこの夜、マイルス・デイヴィスが初めてディジョネットとホランドの両方を、ロンドンで耳にしたのである。ディジョネットがマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットトニー・ウィリアムスの代役を務め始めたのは、この期間のことだった。 



When Davis was seeking a new drummer, it was DeJohnette's synthesis of many musical influences and sensibilities that captured the bandleader's imagination. “I adjusted what I played to what the musical situation was. I had influences. I had Elvin, or I had Tony, Roy, Max, and all those, but I also knew very consciously that I had to develop my own voice. So I took what I liked from the other drummers, and tried to turn it around into Jack DeJohnette, and basically had the good fortune to be in situations ... where musicians are taking risks and trying different things. I had a chance to experiment.” Key to working with the Miles Davis Quintet was his “concept around utilizing drums as an integral part of the ensemble, as well as solos.” DeJohnette shared that adaptive quality and skill at balancing individuality and collectivity with Tony Williams, his predecessor in the band. Williams had developed a way to engage with and interconnect his fellow band members, as would DeJohnette.  




DeJohnette brought tremendous drive and intensity to his playing. His beat could be simultaneously direct and flexible, in part thanks to his foot dexterity. He listened carefully to his bandmates and brought constant variety and a deep level of complexity to what he played. In Davis's Lost Quintet, Chick Corea's use of the electric piano (and eventually Dave Holland's electric bass) raised the volume level of the rest of the rhythm section, allowing DeJohnette to draw from the full dynamic range of his instrument. The interplay between him and Corea could become one of the first strikingly creative developments to unfold within the new band. Dave Holland told trumpeter and Davis biographer Ian Carr: “When Jack came in the band, a whole new feeling happened for me because I had played with Jack before and I'd felt this affinity with him; so when he came into the band, the whole feeling of the music changed for me.” He noted that he “hadn't been able to make the kind of musical contact” he needed when playing with Williams, whom he felt “was a sort of immovable object to me: he had his place where he played and I was either to play with him, or on my own. But ... I never felt that he came over to my space too much.” 




DeJohnette found a joy to play with Davis: 





It was great to play with Miles, because Miles loved the drum. Everything came from the drums. He liked boxing, he was a big boxing fan, and he saw drums in jazz as having similar aspects. The drums and the horn player have to set each other up. He would talk about that, “Ok, now you've got to set this way ... “ If you play a phrase, you have to know how to set a guy up. The same thing with boxing. You set a guy up, you feint with a left hook and then catch him with an overhand or uppercut right. It's in the rhythm. “