about Keith Jarrett and Miles Davis's ensemble



The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 6 Circle 

第6章 サークル 


Some of the free music that was being played [in the sixties] was not just a need to break rules to try new things, but it was also an assertion that we have the right to do this ... And I was definitely a part of that movement, without a doubt, and so when Dave Holland and I hooked up in Mile's band we shared like minds on that idea. Then we formed our first trio and began to experiment by freely improvising ― basically the modus operandi of Circle was to freely improvise. We would have nothing set, we would have no songs set and we would go on the stage and play a complete concert ― beginning to end ― by just improvising. 







The Trio Becomes a Quartet 



On the night of May 19, 1970, when the Chick Corea, Dave Holland, and Barry Altschul Trio performed at the Village Vanguard ― the same evening as the concert by Anthony Braxton, Leroy Jenkins, and Leo Smith of Creative Construction Company, at the Peace Church ― they played opposite drummer Roy Haynes's band with trumpeter Freddie Hubbard. Peace Church concert organizer Kunle Mwanga recounts: “After we did that concert we all went down to the Vanguard where Chick Corea and them were playing and Braxton sat in with them. That's when that connection was made with Anthony to deal with Circle.” As Altschul puts it: “Then Chick invited him up to play.” Braxton sat in, on the heels of his intense playing at the Peace Church, and a pivotal new connection was made. 



Altschul recalls that after the Vanguard show, “Braxton and Chick started playing chess together. They're both way into chess. So I don't know what kind of conversations they got into while they were playing, but then Chick brought the idea that Anthony join the group, that is the way I remember it.” Chess was at the time a central part of Braxton's life, as he has recounted: “The beauty of chess for me is that it gives a wonderful opportunity to look at structure and relationships, and intentions, and target strategies, and the relationship between target strategies and variables and objectives, and fulfilling objectives. The beauty of chess also extends into physics and pressures ... As far as I'm concerned, chess demonstrates everything.” 



Braxton wasn't the first saxophonist that Corea and Holland had considered to supplement their trio. In June 1970, Melody Marker's Richard Williams asked Holland about a “rumor that Evan Parker, the English saxophonist who was with him in the Spontaneous Music Ensemble would be joining the new band.” Holland responded: “There are no definite plans, because I haven't really talked to him about it yet, but he's definitely one of the people I'm going to be playing with when I come back [to England] ... Chick's heard some tapes of Evan that I have here in New York, and he's very interested and has expressed a desire to play with Evan. I'm hoping that we'll be able to do something soon.” 



But Braxton was ultimately their choice, as Holland recalls: “Anthony came over to talk to us and so we got together a few days later and did a few gigs. We did a concert in Baltimore ... The music was so strong.” Corea: “I remember Dave bringing Anthony to the loft to meet me and play. It was an instant match. Anthony brought a 4th dimension to the band and, a compositional / improvisational approach that gave us more material to work with along with the compositions that Dave and I were bringing in.” Holland adds: “We all came from very different directions. Anthony Braxton came from the Chicago school, with Cage's music and the theatricals ... And of course Chick came from quite a melodic Latin kind of thing and I came from England with all that stuff that's going on there, and Barry was from New York, and had played with people like Paul Bley. There's quite a wide variety of viewpoints that came to me in the music which is why it has got such a lot of attention, and I figure that we had many different directions going on.” 



Corea, Holland, and Altschul were really just coming into their own as a unit of three. Altschul observes: “Deep down inside I would have liked for the trio to stay together a little bit longer, as a trio. I loved Circle, but I was finding another place, kind of, during the trio thing, and I just really wanted to continue with that for a little more. It worked out fine [as Circle!].” Later on, in January 1971, Corea, Holland, and Altschul did record one further trio album, in the midst of an active period for Circle. This came shortly before Circle's famous Paris Concert on February 21, 1971, only three months before its demise. 






First Quartet Sessions 



In a 1973 interview, Holland described the new quartet's first experiences: “We did a lot of playing in the loft that Chick had and the first music we played was very experimental. We really just opened that up, we just broke down all the barriers and said OK, 'we'll just play with any sounds that we can find.' We used things from the kitchen, and bellows and shouting and singing and whistling, we did all kinds of things just to find out how far we could take it. And then it started to get more defined. We started to try and get a bit more precision into the music.” These sessions took place in early August 1970. The band began recording immediately, on August 13, 19, and 21, in Tom DePietro's studio near Corea and Holland's Nineteenth Street loft building. Altschul describes the time in the studio as “a totally improvised thesis. We were playing and everybody had lots of improvisational ideas. They were just flowing out of everybody. The musicians we were made the music. We made that into a music.”  



During the same period, on August 16 and 25, Corea and Holland played their final dates with Miles Davis. The shows at Tanglewood in Lenox, Massachusetts, and the Isle of Wight Festival in England, respectively, were among the most volcanic, technologically electric, and funk infused of their tenure with Davis's band. Sonically, these concerts ― high volume, with ring-modulated electric piano and wah-wah bass ― contrasted dramatically with the freely improvisational acoustic quartet in New York! 



Expanding an existing trio, even one recently formed, into a quartet meant making space for the new member. Corea recalls: “Circle definitely began as a duet with Dave and myself. Our first trio recordings were with Barry ― and I always felt that trio as a partnership. Of course, when 'the new guy' comes in an already established setting, he's the new guy for a while until he's a full-fledged member. This never got really discussed but I think was tacitly felt. The same occurred when Anthony was briefly the new guy but certainly Circle was a cooperative music-making group.” Clearly, the chemistry expanded to incorporate its fourth member rather quickly and organically. 



Two sets of brief duo improvisations were recorded during the quartet's first formal recording session on August 13. The first pair was played by the original duo of Chick Corea and Dave Holland. The second set, by Anthony Braxton and Corea, was titled “Dance for Clarinet and Piano” (No. 1 and 2), and makes clear the new group's terms of musical engagement: open improvisation; changing moods; stylistic and textural diversity, at times tonal but next atonal; and free use of extended performance techniques. 



In its August 21 studio session, Circle recorded three improvisatory works, “Quartet Piece 1, 2, and 3,” comprising most of the Circulus album. These improvisations are exploratory, the ensemble work governed largely by intuition. Each musician creates phrases and patterns that imitate and/or contrast with his fellow musicians. Often, what they all are responding to are the nature of the sound itself and the contours of melodic gestures. A detailed description of some of the improvisations offers a window into how the band members began to explore their possibilities as a group. We can see how quickly they grew comfortable with one another's aesthetic sensibilities and performance techniques. It is difficult ― without some description ― to explain the ways that musicians use sounds to engage in dialogue. 



The opening of “Quartet Piece #1” is textural; each player selects sounds that are similar in timbre: a spinning small object, fragile bowed cello, and bowed cymbal, followed by altissimo sopranino saxophone, cello harmonics, quick piano phrases in the upper register. Sustained saxophone notes are followed by brief, interlocking, rhythmic ostinato patterns on cello and piano. These patterns grow in speed and intensity as Braxton plays a slow series of sustained notes. The textures become more atonal, pointillistic, and energetic. Braxton's solo is accompanied by piano and bass; the three musicians continue the theme of matching the kinds of sounds their instruments make. 



The concept then changes from similarity to difference when Braxton's solo picks up speed. Holland plays rapidly bowed, angular bass figures, with Altschul adding quickly muted cymbal and rapid-fire drum and cymbal hits. Next, with Holland at the fore, Altschul contrasts the arco bass with a thunder sheet and a panoply of percussion sounds. Corea's tinny string-muted piano is met by Altschul's vibraphone and temple blocks, leading to a duet for atonal piano and percussion that grows in intensity as Corea uses the entire span of the keyboard. A more lyrical, pastoral section follows, with Braxton returning on sopranino saxophone. But the next thing we know, the quartet shifts to a fevered pitch. Braxton fires off rapid, angular lines, punctuated by Holland's walking bass, Altschul's soloistic drumming, and Corea's piano tone clusters and then celeste. Repeated-note bass figures and steadily streaming drumming accompany the final section of Braxton's solo, and the piece closes with ringing bells. 



“Quartet Piece #2” is a free-for-all on a vast array of instruments, with “Quartet Piece #3” showing equal sonic diversity. 



What is most striking about these three quartet pieces is the breadth of sonic possibilities deployed by each musician and the collective sensitivity to sound, texture, and mood. Substantial technique is brought to bear, yet always in the service of the collective musical effect. The pieces move from section to section, mood to mood, always intuitively and without advance plan. The total spontaneity that emerges in this early session, quite full blown, presages the collective expression awaiting the band throughout its brief but illustrious life on concert tour. 



It is tempting to describe Circle simply as a furthering of the Corea-Holland trends within the Miles Davis band. And in fact, many of the kinds of textures and give-and-take between the duo reflect ideas they had begun in that setting. Circle's tendency toward open collective expression did extend the work they achieved in dialogue with Jack DeJohnette, but their choice of Barry Altschul and Anthony Braxton as partners set a much freer course. Altschul's drumming was oriented more toward sheer sonic experience than was DeJohnette's, although both were firmly grounded in a solid beat when desired. Braxton was oriented less toward narrative and was more explorative of sound and gesture for their own sake than was Wayne Shorter. Particularly when viewed against Miles Davis's steady move toward beat-focused music, Circle pulled the duo from the Davis orbit and directed it toward music influenced by the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians and late John Coltrane. 







The Impact of Marion Brown's “Afternoon of a Georgia Faun” 

マリオン・ブラウンの「Afternoon of a Goergia Faun」の与えたインパク 


One possible influence on the new quartet ― particularly its textural and coloristic explorations ― may have been Corea and Braxton's participation on Marion Brown's album Afternoon of a Georgia Faun. This work was recorded on August 10, less than two weeks before Circle's sessions at Tom DePietro's studio. Like Braxton, Marion Brown was a saxophonist who had recently returned to the United States from Paris. During the early and mid-1960s, he had been a fixture in New York's free jazz scene, playing with Archie Shepp and on Coltrane's Ascension (1965). Calm and filled with evocative sense impressions, “Georgia Faun” the tune shows Brown employing instruments and textural improvisations associated with the AACM. Braxton was thus an excellent choice to participate. For Corea, the recording was an opportunity to explore sonic possibilities in new ways, in tandem with Braxton as his new musical partner. They are joined by percussionist Andrew Cyrille; Bennie Maupin on tenor saxophone, alto flute, bass clarinet, and percussion; singer Jeanne Lee; and others 

この新たなカルテットに影響を与えた可能性のある要素の一つ(特に音楽の構造と音色作りを模索する上で)は、チック・コリアとアンソニー・ブラクストンが参加した、マリオン・ブラウンのアルバム「Afternoon of a Goergia Faun」である。この作品が収録されたのは、8月10日、サークルがトム・デピエトロのスタジオでセッションを行う前、2週間を切っていた。ブラクストン同様、マリオン・ブラウンはサックス奏者で、その直前にパリからアメリカへ帰国していた。1960年代の初頭から中期にかけて、彼はニューヨークのフリージャズのシーンにおける常連でありつづけた。アーチー・シェップとの共演や、ジョン・コルトレーンの「Ascension」(1965年)への参加も果たしている。穏やかで人の記憶を掘り起こすようなセンスに溢れる表現力により、「Georgia Faun」は、マリオン・ブラウンの楽器のこなしぶりや、楽曲全体の構造を意識しいたインプロヴィゼーションが、AACMと関連があることを見せつけている。そう考えると、ブラクストンが参加するという選択肢は、秀逸と言えた。チック・コリアにとっては、この収録を機に、音楽活動をする上でブラクストンを新たなパートナーとしてタッグを組み、音色音響について新たな手法を模索することになった。この二人に加わるのが、打楽器奏者のアンドリュー・シリル。そしてベニー・モウピンがテナーサックス、アルトフルート、バスクラリネット、打楽器。更にヴォーカルとしてジーン・リー、などといったミュージシャン達が参加する。 


Georgia Faun” opens with a “forest” of tapping sounds produced on wood blocks and other instruments, and sounds of water. Whistling is briefly heard. With a title that ivokes Debussy's Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, Brown describes his composition as “a tone poem. It depicts nature and the environment in Atlanta ... a percussion section that suggests rain drops ... the second section is after the rain.” Indeed, we can imagine the sound of the woods in spring ― birds whistling and woodpecker beaks knocking on trees. 

Georgia Faun」の幕開けは、「森」だ。そこから聞こえてくる様々な物を突いたり叩くような音や、水に関する様々な音が、ウッドブロック等の楽器によって演奏される。ドビュッシーの「牧神の午後への前奏曲」を思い起こさせるような曲名だが、ブラウンはこの楽曲を次のように説明している「これは交響詩だ。描くのは、アトランタの自然とその環境だ。打楽器が主導権を取る部分では、雨の滴る様子を描く。2番目の部分では、その雨があがったところだ。」まさに、春の森から聞こえてくる音がイメージできる。様々な鳥が歌い、啄木鳥があちこちで木を突く。 


At four-minute mark, we hear bell ringing sounds of metal, and clanging cymbals. Soon, a quiet humming voice appears in the distance and then the call of a hunting horn, answered by flutes and winds. Shortly before seven minutes, a soprano saxophone calls out, heralding the beginning of a strikingly simple piano solo, which begins with the scraping of the piano's bass strings, a lovely chorale in quartal harmony. These passages alternate with more pointillistic plucked strings and playing on the keys, followed by a return to the chorale. Jeanne Lee's sprechgesang (quasi-pitched speech song) joins the pointillistic piano, and soon her coloratura soprano vocalization pairs with a lyrical flute line. 



Energy levels and density of sounds increase; piano, flute, and soprano call and respond within the dense mix. Tension builds with high pitches and rapid runs, immediately returning to quiet. Lee offers angular lines, giving way to Corea's chromatic harmonies and, in a different key, a dramatic flute solo. Piano and flute engage in a call-and-response dance, the duet giving way to a return of the busy wood knocking, clicking, and whistling. Voices join and the density of sounds increases, gradually quieting down as the piece concludes. 



Overall, the music is lush and evocative, presented with conviction by musicians sensitive to the nuance of open improvisation. The spare, textural qualities of the improvisation reflect the kind of heightened mutuality and sensitivity to sonic and gestural nuance characteristic of Circle in its finest moments. The band's more textural treatments of Braxton's composition, variously titled “73 degrees Kelvin” or “Composition 6F,” discussed below, provide examples. 

全体を通して、この音楽は、華やかで、人の記憶を掘り起こすようであり、それを届ける自身に満ち溢れたミュージシャン達は、オープンインプロヴィゼーションのニュアンスをしっかりと表現できる感性を持ち合わせている。無駄のない、構造がしっかりとしたインプロヴィゼーションの質の高さは、ある種の高度なお互いのやり取りの仕方と、音質や表現の微細さに対する感性の良さ、そういったものをよく反映していて、これは、サークルが最高の演奏を繰り広げた時に見られる特徴そのものである。ブラクストンの書いた曲をこのバンドが演奏する時は、より曲の構造をしっかりと作ろうしている。以下、その例をご紹介しよう。曲名も様々で、「73 degree Kelvin」「Composition 6F」となっている。 





Circle: Open Improvisation and Musical Form 



The spontaneous organic nature of Circle's music was the core of its musical endeavors. This was no doubt one of the reasons that more traditionalist critics found its music challenging. Chick Corea observes: “To me, Circle was a pretty straight-ahead experiment and joy in improvising new music ― music with little or no pre-arranged form. The results had their absolute highs and lows. 



Each of the band members had core experiences to draw from regarding how to engage musically with others in an intuitive manner. Barry Altschul had performed with Paul Bley and Anthony Braxton with various AACM groups, including his own. Chick Corea and Dave Holland drew from their experiences with Miles Davis. Corea: 




Miles, with Herbie [Hancock], Ron [Carter], Tony [Williams], and Wayne [Shorter], had already established ways of breaking the song form down into little pieces or no pieces at all. It was very refreshing and inspiring to the rest of us ― and always will be. The freedom to play a set way or to not play the way was and is the ultimate freedom of choice and freedom of expression. Miles had already demonstrated that he wanted to free himself up from “forms.” So when Dave and I joined the band, songs like “Dolores,” “Agitation,” “Paraphernalia,” and even the standard ballads like “Round Midnight” were all being treated very, very freely. With Dave and Jack [DeJohnette] and encouraged by Wayne, we took it even further “out.” 


マイルスは、ハービー・ハンコックロン・カーター、トニー・ウィリアムやウェイン・ショーターらと共に、既に様々編み出した方法により、一つの楽曲形式を、細分化したり、それ以上に跡形もなくしてしまうようなことをしていた。私たち全員にとって、いつも新しい気分を味わい、そして創造力を刺激される機会だった。それは今後もずっとそうであろう。あらかじめ決められた方法で演奏するか、それともそういった方法では演奏しないのか、これは、今も昔も表現の自由の中でも究極のものだ。すでにマイルスは、音楽のあらゆる「形式」から自由になりたい、という姿勢を打ち出していた。なので、デイヴ・ホランドと私がこのバンドに加入した際は、「Dolores」「Agitation」「Paraphernalia」それから「Round Midnight」のようなスタンダードバラードさえも、全て、非常に自由にさばいていた。デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネット、そしてウェイン・ショーターにも後押しされて、私達はそれを更に「枠外へ」と推し進めるのだった。 


When the initial trio ― and then quartet ― began its first sessions, it was with an open mind as to what might unfold. Corea recalls: “At first, Dave, myself, then Barry, then Anthony made no decisions on form at all. The decisions were to begin playing ― then end playing.” Slowly, basic ideas regarding how to guide musical direction emerged. Corea: “After doing this for some time, we began to impose some loose form to differentiate one 'piece' from another. Sometimes they were just a set of verbal directions ― an idea of how to change tempo or start or stop a section.” 



One excellent example of the band's use of open forms is the first quartet piece included on the album Circling In: Holland's “Starp,” recorded on August 19, 1970. This piece opens with a theme constructed from several long phrases, each separated by a brieff pause. The four musicians play at a rapid clip, synchronized closely in rhythm. Some brief parallel play between Corea and Braxton leads to a winding piano solo. Corea moves easily between extended lines and brief phrases, which suggest being caught in a thicket yet always finding an escape route. A brief transition crafted by Corea and Holland leads to Braxton's solo. 

このバンドによる、オープン形式を用いた素晴らしい演奏事例が、アルバム「Circling In」に収録された最初のカルテットの為の作品である。デイヴ・ホランドの「Starp」は、1970年8月19日に収録された。この作品の出だしの主題を構成するのは、いくつかの長めのフレーズで、それぞれが短い「間」で仕切られている。4人の奏者が演奏する細かな音符で早いパッセージは、リズムの面でよくシンクロしている。チック・コリアとアンソニー・ブラクストンによる短い同時演奏が何度かあり、これがうねるようなピアノソロへと続いている。チック・コリアのメロディは、長めに奏でられるメロディの数々や、いくつかの短いフレーズの間を縫うように動き、それはあたかも、藪に絡みながらも抜け道を常に見出している、そういわんばかりである。チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドによって作られた短いブリッジにより、アンソニー・ブラクストンのソロへと続いてゆく。 


Altschul remains in contrast motion as Braxton plays, as Holland contributes steadily energetic angular lines ― some of them repeated two- or three-note figures. Holland changes speed suddenly and with urgency, at times building tension by creating a holding pattern through insistent repetition, then releasing it with a rapid stream of notes. After staying briefly out of the fray, Corea returns behind Braxton ― alternately matching and contrasting in force and energy ― with a kaleidoscopic array of tone clusters and chord fragments played in alternating hands, expanding into cascading gestures, before again withdrawing. Holland solos, backed largely by Altschul, who playfully tosses the bassist's rhythmic patterns back at him. A sustained note by Braxton leads to isolated rhythmic strikes by Corea, and then a very spare Altschul solo, which abruptly concludes the piece. 



The opening segment of Braxton's solo (beginning at 1:08) demonstrates a tight, intuitive structural logic within the saxophonist's playing. Note the alternation of three types of motifs: an opening phrase that functions like a call seeking a response, a grainy gutbucket saxophone sound ( “growl” ), and five angular phrases, sometimes incorporating a sustained note, that serve as the response to the opening call. The solo subsequently continues until 3:15, increasingly enmeshed with the playing of his partners. 




The opening segment of Anthony Braxton's solo in “Starp,” 1:08 - 1:35 


1:08 - 1:10 

Braxton “call” phrase ― lyrical gesture ending w/upward leap 

1:11 - 1:15 

atonal “response” ― angular phrase #1 

1:16 - 1:17 

growl #1 

1:18 - 1:20 

angular phrase #2 

1:20 - 1:23 

sustained note with timbral inflection and angular phrase #3 


growl #2 

1:25 - 1:28 

angular phrase #4 


growl #3 

1:29 - 1:32 

angular phrase #5, more frenzied and winding 

1:33 - 1:35 

growl #4, transistioning into a sustained tone 























The quartet's approach to collective improvisation demanded everyone's complete attention. In many cases, one of the musicians would generate a melodic or rhythmic cell, which is open to examination and exploring for its implications. Implicit in the kind of musical gestures a musician would play is a series of “questions” each band member would need to unconsciously ask at every moment. What kind of support or challenge should the others provide? Should additional material be offered or exchanged? Does an evocative moment require punctuation? Is there a space to fill, or, alternately, a silence to respect? Band members indeed held discussions following their performances. Yet these kinds of questions require no explicit discussion; they are the bread and butter of a successful performance: while an individual might instigate activity, tension and release is built communally. Mysteriously and effortlessly, the music all comes together, intuitively and in the moment. 



In essence, the band's name embodies its process orientation, as John Mars observes: “I think of Circle as like a round table with the four of them all around it. You put each guy at his place around the circumference of this table ... all facing each other ... Decisions were made in a 'conference' in a hair trigger of a second with all those groups. When you play like that, there's a little wire hooked up between your heads.” 



Indeed, Circle functioned as a collective. This was a value strongly felt by the entire band, as Corea relates: “I like to be in a group where everyone is free to express themselves freely ― musically and otherwise. It's an ethic that matches the 'equal rights' aspect of the music I love to be a part of.” Altschul notes: “We would discuss the music the minute we came off the set. We went into the back room, discussed the music, and then left it alone. But we talked about what we did, what we didn't do, what's happening, what wasn't happening, all that kind of shit. That was the height of the music, and the tapes show it. Fabulous ... It was everything collective. Everyone had a job to do in the band: librarian, business ... we were also kind of a commune. We were on the road together with our families ― those who had familes ― and we cooked, we had little cookers with us, bought fresh vegetables and brown rice and shit. And anyone who wanted to eat meat, that's what they did, but still, we were all like a family. So, we were very tight.” 



As Circle continued to develop, an unpredictable logic arose from the shared chemistry and history. Altschul: 




When you're playing music where you're relying on each other for the forms that the music becomes, an E.S.P. develops. And the more you do it, the more it develops. It's like any other method. So what then comes into play is your musical vocabulary, and how many places you can go to and how many moods you can set up. We went to Dixieland! There are places where we jumped into some Dixieland shit. You know? So whatever we went. Everyone had a vast musical vocabulary, and everybody was familiar with each other's vocabulary, because everybody's vocabulary, a lot of it was the same. Not necessarily the same concept of the vocabulary, but the vocabulary ... We tried to play fresh every time. The only thing that would have been a kind of a form, though it wasn't thought of as a formulated thing, was within the concept of tension and release. The release used to seem ususally to fall into a time thing. 




One of the band's conscious goals, whether playing off of composed tunes or more freely, was to avoid habits and cliches. For Chick Corea, this had been a priority in his career up to that point: “The direction that I was headed was upwards to a way of being and creating that was free of categories and analysis. When I heard the music of Bud Powell, I was inspired by his musical freedom ― he seemed able to become the music when he played. Monk was the same ― he expressed a complete freedom of personal expression. The same with Bartok's compositions ― the way they broke new ground and fused new elements together.” Barry Altschul had incorporated this way of thinking into his own playing: “As a matter of fact, as part of my development as a drummer, there was a period where if I was to play a Philly Joe Jones lick in my playing, I would say to myself, 'Oh that's Philly Joe, that's not you ― change it.' So, I think it was the same kind of apporach. It was, 'Oh, I used a cowbell on a place ― on a texture like this ― let me play something else.' I didn't think it, but it was an instinct.” 



The Miles Davis Lost Quintet also placed a high value on spontaneity, but might we view Circle's difficult-to-attain ideal of “if you've done it before, don't repeat it” as taking this a step further? 






Circle's Use of Compositional Materials and “Tunes” 



Early in the band's history, written compositions were adopted, at least as boosters to spur improvisation, “almost from the beginning of the formalized band,” as Altschul notes. “Everybody started [composing] ― that was a lot of the rehearsals, getting people's concepts of their compositions down. I was the only one who didn't write, and they all encouraged me to write. I started writing after Circle. But they all encouraged me to write. Everybody was writing, always, from the beginning.” Corea adds: “We always [throughout our time playing together] occasionally used a written composition ― as in a series of notes and/or harmonies ― as a start point.” 



Soon, the band began to integrate more of a metric pulse into its improvisations, to complement the more rhythmically free music of the early sessions. At this point, compositions became useful to spark improvisation, as Corea recalls: “In our desire to have more form in terms of variety of melodies, variety of rhythm, and especially in the desire to have some music begin to groove again, we brought in the program some song forms. It was fun to approach these, at this point in the band's development, from the other direction ― coming from playing free-form music to music with a form. As you can hear, our approach to these songs was extremely loose.” 



Altschul clarifies: “In other words, when the tunes were written, it wasn't so much to adhere to a structure, to a form of a song. There was not a song form: it was improvised to the concept that this melody or rhythm conjures up.” Nonetheless, “we were very well rehearsed, we were very tight, and at the time, how we improvised just fit together in that style. It just was.” Even when an improvisation began with a conventionally organized tune, those structures could break apart from that pretty quickly. Elements of the tune's melodic or rhythmic structure remained in the minds of the players and would resurface, as Altschul comments: “If you listen to it real close, no matter how out everyone goes ― maybe they'll come in on the two instead of the one, or something like that ― the form is back there somewhere.” 



This freewheeling approach to tunes was witnessed by composer Neil Rolnick during one of the band's spring 1971 performances: 




I heard Circle at Jazz Workshop in Boston. The first night, I was so blown away that I came back for the next five nights or so and heard every set they played. What amazed me was the seamless integration of clearly rehearsed and worked-out heads with what seemed like completely free improvisation. They would play very angular, fast, well-coordinated tunes, then seem to drop off into outer space, and then ten or twenty minutes later (or so it seemed) drop back in for a recap of the head. It was just completely mysterious to me, and I loved it. 





The concept of “improvised to the concept that this melody or rhythm conjures up” articulated by Barry Altschul was also a feature of Miles Davis's Lost Quintet. The compositions would segue from one into the next when Miles played a snippet from the latter as a cue to move on. Some tunes began with a recognizable opening: the melody of “Sanctuary,” the bass and drums vamp of “Directions,” or the thematic motif of “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down.” “Bitches Brew” could begin with one of several of its elements described earlier: Chick Corea playing the repeated low Cs or Davis playing the “staircase” motif. Once a tune was under way, the ensemble could treat these materials freely, particularly during the final year of the band. The sonic events of “Bitches Brew” were the most malleable. Vamps such as the “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” theme evolved over the months. Circle continued the notion that arose in Miles's band, that fragments of materials could be used playfully during improvisations. But as we shall see, it took the concept even further. 

「メロディにせよリズムにせよ、それがいつしか瓦解してしまう、そしてコンセプトだけが残る、そんなところまでインプロヴィゼーションをかけてしまう。」バリー・アルトシュルが説明するこの考え方は、マイルス・デイヴィスのロスト・クインテットの特徴でもあった。予め譜面に書き起こしたものが、次の段階へとゆっくり移ってゆくのは、マイルス・デイヴィスが他のメンバーが演奏しだしたその後で、小さなモチーフを「動き出せ」の合図として発信するときだ。楽曲によっては、一聴ですぐに分かる出だしのものもある。「Sanctuary」のメロディや「Directions」でベースとドラムがその場で紡ぎ出す伴奏、「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」や「Bitches Brew」のメロディぽいモチーフ、こういったものは、既に発表された別の曲の中ででてきた「部品」の中から、曲の取っ掛かりとして選ばれることもあった。それは例えば、チック・コリアによる低音域のハ調のコードの繰り返しや、マイルス・デイヴィスによる「Staircase」のモチーフだったりする。こうした様々な素材を、バンドは、ある曲が始まると、自由に使い出す。特にこのバンドの最後の1年の頃は、顕著な現象だった。「Bitches Brew」では様々な音のやり取りが繰り広げられたが、最も柔順なものとなった。「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」の主題に添えられた、伴奏チームの繰り出す様々な「ヴァンプ」は、何ヶ月にも亘る公演期間の間に、どんどん変化発展を遂げていった。マイルス・デイヴィスのバンドの中から生まれたこのやり方を、サークルは引き継いだ。様々な素材の断片は、インプロヴィゼーションの間遊び心満点に使い倒された。だが、聴いて分かる通り、コンセプトだけは、ずっと維持されたのである。 


Throughout their days on the jazz club and concert circuits, Circle's set list also included tunes drawn from the broader jazz repertoire. These were used more as instigators for improvisation than to provide formal structures for organizing those improvisations. The two main tunes of this kind are “Nefertiti” and “There's No Greater Love.” 

サークルの演目リストは、ジャズクラブや舞台での演奏の時代の間ずっと、膨大なジャズのレパートリーからの楽曲も含んでいた。こう言った楽曲の数々は、インプロヴィゼーションを更に煽り立てるために使用されることが多く、インプロヴィゼーションをキチンとした形にするべく、何かしら目に見えるような骨組みをもたらす、そんな役割を持つことは、あまりなかった。「煽り立てる」役割を担ったとされる主なところを、2つ挙げてみよう。「Nefertiti」と「There’s No Greater Love」である。 


“Nefertiti” was a regular piece in Circle's repertoire. First recorded by Corea and the trio on The Song of Singing, it is a Wayne Shorter composition from Miles Davis's 1967 album Nefertiti. The Marty Symes-Isham Jones standard “There's No Greater Love” was a favorite vehicle within the Circle repertory, showcasing how malleably the performance of a jazz standard could move between straight-ahead playing, free-ranging solos, and highly textural abstraction. It received highly extended treatments, from seventeen and a half minutes at the conclusion of the Paris Concert, to twenty-five minutes at Hamburg. A twenty-one-and-a-half-minute version at Iserlohn, Germany, from November 28, 1970, runs the gamut of possible ways this band could address a jazz standard, from remaining close to the chord changes, invoking them, ignoring them, and using the spirit of the tune as a departure for open improvisation. Corea, Braxton, and Holland deliver extended solos, followed by a saxophone and drums duet, each its own composition, yet serving as one portion of a larger, integrated whole. 

「Nefertiti」は、サークルのレパートリーの中でも、良く演奏される曲である。まず、チック・コリアとトリオによって「The Song of Singing」に収録されたこの曲は、マイルス・デイヴィスの1967年のアルバム「Nefertiti」に収録されている、ウェイン・ショーターが作った楽曲である。マーティ・サイムズが作詞をし、アイシャム・ジョーンズが作曲をした「There’s No Greater Love」は、サークルのレパートリーの中でも人気の一品だ。ロックの影響を排除したジャズの演奏、自由に展開するソロ、高度な組み立て方をした抽象的な演奏表現、そういったものの中で、彼らがジャズのスタンダードを演奏すると、こんなにも柔軟かつ順応性満点にやれるんだ、ということを、まざまざと聞かせてくれる。この曲は完成度を高く保った状態で、長時間の演奏時間を費やした。パリ・コンサートでは締めくくりの曲として17分半、ハンブルクでは25分だった。ドイツのイーザーローンで11月28にから行われた公演では21分半。この時は、このバンドがジャズのスタンダードを演奏する際の、持ちネタをずらりと勢揃いさせた。コードを変化させる際に1オクターブの中に収めたままにする手法や、それを無視したり発動したり、元歌のエッセンスをオープンインプロヴィゼーションのきっかけに使ったり、と繰り出してゆく。チック・コリア、アンソニー・ブラクストン、それにデイヴ・ホランドが長いソロをきかせると、次はサックスとドラムのデュエットが続く。2つとも、それぞれが独立した楽曲であるのに、大きな全体のその中の一部としての役割をはたしているのだ。 





New Beginnings 




The idea wasn't to start out and play free; the idea was to play this music. It wasn't about playing free, or playing avant-garde, or anything. It was that there's this concept of playing music, and we are going to write music to stimulate those concepts. 






For Anthony Braxton and fellow Circle members, the second half of 1970 promised to be a heady time. The saxophonist looked forward to his new musical associations, and Circle was to open new creative opportunities. As he later recalled: “The most fundamental axiom that I grew up with was the importance of finding something of your own, and when that happens, either everyone can hear it or they can't. Fortunately for me, many of the musicians and percussionists I hoped would be open to my music were, in fact, open to it.” 



Circle's initial recording sessions bore fruit, and it began performing in public in the fall of 1970. The “jazz pedigree” of its two recent alumni of Miles Davis's band paved the way for bookings across the American and European jazz club circuit. Barry Altschul: “We had an agent in America who was out in California, and she booked the circuit. She was getting us gigs. We consider ourselves jazz musicians, [who played] on the circuit. At that time, I'm not sure if Braxton did or didn't consider himself [a jazz musician], but we were on the jazz circuit. We played the circuit, and we were asked back. We played some concerts too.” 



Altschul continues: 

[Chick's presence was helpful in the booking of the band.] Yes, we knew his name power was stronger than ours. Chick himself wanted to make it Circle, where his name wouldn't seem that [out front], because it was a cooperative band. But yes, we all were aware of his publicity. He was out there. I mean, he was with Miles at the time. A lot of attention was on him, let's put it that way. So sure, we talked about it, we said, “Yeah, let's use it,” of course. Chick and Dave ― 'cause when they were playing together ― people were wondering what was happening; what happened after Miles. So we were aware of that. 





Indeed, as we will see, Corea and Holland's reputation was a double-edged sword. Their association with Miles Davis brought opportunities to Circle, but often led critics to place highly conventional expectations on the band. This is of course ironic, given the unconventional nature of the Lost Quintet; in the popular imagination, Davis remained the trumpeter who created Kind of Blue in 1959 and, maybe, the 1960s quintet. There was little relationship, in other words, between what critics were looking for and the actual highly unpredictable, open musical presentation that Circle offered. It treated tunes that critics expected to hear, whether from the Miles Davis repertoire or jazz standards, no less broadly than it did its own members' compositions. The band traveled with a large amount of gear, suited to create a wide range of musical sounds and textures. Altschul recalls: “We had two cars. We drove. There was a time I was carrying almost twenty cases of instruments. That was just the percussion shit ― not counting the bass, the cello, the guitar, and all the saxophones.” 

この後お読みいただくように、チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドの評判は、諸刃の剣といったところだった。マイルス・デイヴィスとの縁のおかげで、サークルには次々と活動の機会がもたらされた。だがそのことは、往々にして評論家達にとっては、このバンドには型にはまった演奏を期待させる原因にもなった。皮肉な話である。なぜなら、ロスト・クインテットは「型破り」なバンドだからだ。音楽ファンの多くのイメージとしては、マイルス・デイヴィスとは、依然として、1959年に「Kind of Blue」を世に送り、1960年代にクインテットを率いたトランペット奏者であった。別の言い方をすれば、批評家達がサークルに見出そうとしていたものと、サークルが世に見せつけた、実に完成度が高く予想外が連発するオープン形式の演奏と、ほとんど何も関連性などなかったのだ。サークルは批評家達が期待する曲を扱ったが、それは、メンバー達の自作曲を扱うよりも幅広く、マイルス・デイヴィスのレパートリーだの、ジャズのスタンダードナンバーだのを採り上げた。このバンドがツアーを行う際は、膨大な機器を持ち運んだ。これによって、幅広い演奏上のサウンドと曲の作り方が可能になった。バリー・アルトシュルはこう振り返る「私達は移動の際は、車を2台出した。運転は自分達でした。時には私は、楽器ケースの数が20個位になることもあった。それも打楽器関連だけでの話だ。ベースやチェロ、ギターや、アルトだテナーだといったサックス群は別にして、である。 


Among Circle's early shows was an extended stand at the Lighthouse, in Hermosa Beach, California, from September 29 through October 11, 1970. These concerts coincided with the first tour of the retooled Miles Davis band: Dave Holland had been replaced by funk-oriented bassist Michael Henderson, with Keith Jarrett continuing on electric keyboards, Gary Bartz on saxophone, and Airto Moreira on percussion (supplemented by Jumma Santos). A couple weeks earlier, Chick Corea had made a studio recording, The Sun, with Holland and two former colleagues from Davis band, Jack DeJohnette and Steve Grossman. Circle's Lighthouse appearances were followed by a jazz workshop it held at the University of California, Irvine. 

サークルが初期に行った公演活動の中には、1970年9月29日から10月11日という長期間に及んだ、カリフォルニア州ハーモザ・ビーチの「ライトハウス」での出演があった。これは、メンバーが入れ替わったマイルス・デイヴィスのバンドの最初のツアーと時期を同じくしている。デイヴ・ホランドの後釜には、ファンク出身のベース奏者マイケル・ヘンダーソンが入り、キース・ジャレットは引き続き電子ピアノを、サックスにはゲイリー・バーツ、そして打楽器にはアイアート・モレイラ(ジャムマー・サントスが更に加わっていた)。これに先立ち、2,3週間ほど前には、チック・コリアが行った「The Sun」のレコーディングには、デイヴ・ホランドと、マイルス・デイヴィスのバンドで一緒だった2人の元メンバーであるジャック・ディジョネットとスティーヴ・グロスマンも加わっていた。サークルは「ライトハウス」での出演に続き、カリフォルニア州立大学アーヴィン校で行われたジャズのワークショップへ参加した。 


While Circle had many positive experiences during its tours, the Lighthouse shows were neither well received nor well attended, as a Down Beat reviewer reported: “The Lighthouse reported a noticeable drop in business as the Chick Corea Quartet, known as Circle, followed Joe Henderson. The diet seemed to be too avant-garde for the Hermosa Beach crowd.” Remaining on the West Coast, the group appeared at the Both/And in San Francisco on October 17-24. A month later, Anthony Braxton performed without his bandmates as part of a multimedia performance, “Communication in a Noisy Environment,” in New York on November 19-20. 

サークルはツアーにおいては、数多くの経験を得たものの、「ライトハウス」での公演は、客受けも集客数も振るわなかった。「ダウンビート」誌のある評論担当記者は、次のようにレポートしている「チック・コリアの率いたカルテット、通称「サークル」は、ジョー・ヘンダーソンに引き続き、「ライトハウス」の舞台に立つも、興行的には明らかな右肩下がりを示す結果となった。ハーモザ・ビーチに集まった観客達のテーブルに出される料理としては、彼らは少々アヴァンギャルド寄りだったようである。」サークルは引き続き西海岸にとどまり、10月17日~24日にサンフランシスコで行われた公演もこなした。1ヶ月後、アンソニー・ブラクストンは、マルチメディたパフォーマンスの一部として、他のメンバーを伴わずに公演を行った。「Communication in a Noisy Environment」と銘打ったこの公演は、ニューヨークで11月19日~20日に行われた。 


In later November, Circle embarked on an extended European tour that took it to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. A November 28 show in Iserlohn, Germany, was recorded by German radio for broadcast and released on a Japanese label as Circle 1. Following these quartet dates, Braxton made a piano recording, and in early January played his own concert in Paris. 

11月下旬、サークルはヨーロッパへの長期間のツアーに出る。行き先は、ドイツ、オランダ、ベルギー、そしてフランスだ。11月28日にドイツのイーザーローンで行われた公演は、ドイツのラジオ局によって放送され、日本のレーベルで「Circle 1」としてリリースされる。ブラクストンは、サークルでのツアーに続いて、ピアノでの演奏の収録に取り組み、翌1月初旬には、パリでの自身のコンサートを開催する。 


On January 11-13, 1971, the original trio without Braxton recorded A.R.C. for ECM Records. The album's title is a term in Scientology that means “affinity, reality, communication,” said to be the components of understanding. Corea had recently become involved with Scientology and took inspiration from its founder, L. Ron Hubbard. 



In early February 1971, Braxton recorded The Complete Braxton, which included three duets with Corea; Holland and Altschul appear on three other, quartet tracks (with trumpeter Kenny Wheeler, but not Corea). Also included on the album are two solo saxophone pieces, one multi-tracked, and a work for five tubas. The recording, made in London on February 4 and 5, represents the beginning of Braxton's string of LPs on the Arista Freedom label. The compositions are drawn largely from Braxton's 6 series, which may also be found in his repertoire with Creative Construction Company and Circle. Complete simultaneously represents a summation of his earlier work and an opening to what was to come in the next decade. 

1971年2月初旬、ブラクストンが収録した「The Comptele Braxton」には、チック・コリアとのデュエットが3曲、他の3曲にはデイヴ・ホランドとバリー・アルトシュルも加わってカルテットでの演奏になっている(トランペット奏者のケニー・ウィーラーが加わっているが、チック・コリアは入っていない)。またこのアルバムの収録曲の中には、無伴奏サックスのための作品が2つ(内1つはマルチトラックレコーディング)、そしてチューバ5重奏曲が1つある。2月4日と5日にロンドンで行われたこの録音は、その後アリスタ/リーダムのレーベルでの一連のLP制作の口火を切るものとなった。収録曲の多くは、ブラクストンの「6」と銘打った作品群からであり、彼がCreative Construction Companyやサークルで演奏したレパートリーにもありそうなものだ。「The Comptele Braxton」は、同時に、彼が音楽活動を始めてからここまでの総括であり、同時に、次の10年の幕開けでもあった。 


Circle's only widely released recording, The Paris Concert, was made later that month, on February 21, at Maison De L'ORTF. The concert had its logistical challenges, as Barry Altschul remembers: 




We went through an aggravating time just before that ... They wouldn't let us in, 'cause we didn't have our badges with us. We were standing next to our posters saying, “Look, it's us! It's us!” and the security wouldn't let us in. Finally, the promoter came looking for us ― and I think he fired that security guard ― because eventually the concert was forty-five minutes or an hour late, by the time we started. And then we had guests with us. We had people from America that were with us and we had a guest list and everything, and they didn't let the guest in. Security ― the same thing. So we went onstage and we announced to the audience the situation, and we're not gonna play until we see our guests sitting in the audience. So this was while we were on the stage just before we started playing. So that's how we approached that concert. And that was supposed to be the concert everybody talked about. 




The band was back in Germany in March 1971. Shows documented by radio broadcast and recording include concerts at Jazzhaus in Hamburg (March 4, Norddeutscher Rudfunk [NDR]) and in Bremen (March 5, Radio Bremen). A third German concert may have taken place, followed by shows in Italy. A March 19 performance at Third International Jazz Parade at Bergamo was both radio broadcast and recorded. I have heard only fragment of the Bergamo show, a recording of “Neferititi.” 



In April 1971, Anthony Braxton performed in Paris while Chick Corea made his own solo piano recordings for ECM. Circle was back on tour and in the studio at the end of that month, including the Jazz Workshop in Boston in early May; the Village Vanguard in New York; a recording session for the multi-section, extended work The Gathering at Upsurge Studios in New York, and a stand at Slugs, the East Village jazz club. 

1971年4月、アンソニー・ブラクストンはパリで公演を行う。この間、チック・コリアECMで自身のソロのレコーディングを行った。同月末に、サークルはツアーとスタジオ収録活動を再開した。5月初旬にはボストンのジャズワークショップでの公演、ニューヨークのヴィレッジヴァンガードではマルチセクションのために行われたレコードセッション、ニューヨークのアップサージスタジオでの大作「The Gathering」の制作、そしてイースト・ヴィレッジの名門ジャズクラブ「スラグス」での本番 等である。 


The band returned to California for its final shows in the summer of 1971. Two of these took place in early July at the Both/And in San Francisco and in early August at Shelly's Manne Hole in Los Angeles. Not one to spare criticism of the group, critic Leonard Feather observed: “Their voyages of discovery are liable to create singularly hypnotic moments of unity, followed by atonal passages that are notable more for the intuitive intergroup communication than for their comprehensibility.” In summary, while impressed by the virtuosity, Feather expressed disappointment: “Circle's music represents a certain eclecticism, a straining for totality of sound experience that loses some of its emotional impact in the process.” 









The life of a touring ensemble is rarely a long-term affair. Circle and the trio that preceded it had a yearlong run, a respectable length of time for a band that brought unconventional music to mainstream commercial venues. According to Corea, “It ran its course as so many high-spirited and creative groups of artists do. We had a good run and made some memorable recordings. There came a point where our musical goals went in slightly different directions.” For him, “Circle was a deep and meaningful part of my life. My musical association with Dave has always been dear to me. We seemed to spur each others' inclination towards musical discovery and freedom of musical expression. There was always a great joy in our duet improvisations. This was the spirit that became Circle with Barry, then Anthony.” 



Perceptions between band members often differ, and such was the case with Circle. Altschul: “There was tension toward the end, yes. The music that we were playing, we wanted to continue to play; Me, Dave, and Anthony, but Chick was changing. We didn't realize at the time. There was just tension in the band. But when it [the music] was happening, it was really great. We had an audience, and for us at the time, it was enough. We would have liked bigger audiences, but the Jazz Workshop was full up every day of the week when we played there.” 



Braxton believed that some level of conflict is an inherent and unavoidable part of musical life: “We already have some very interesting music and it's very nice to work with Chick. It seems to me ... that once we started travelling and touring we lost something. Relationships in different situations tended to have too much stress, the personal relationships, but with this band we seem to have good personal relationships and this is very important when you're travelling. We have a desire to understand each other ― seemingly, and it's important. I mean, it definitely wouldn't 'hurt' the music if musicians liked each other!” 



Interpersonal challenges may have contributed to Circle's demise, but these are more the concern of a gossip magazine than the present musical study. Whatever the exact source of Corea's changing interests and sensibilities, his musical plans were changing. After a stint with Stan Getz, he formed the first Brazilian-tinged Return to Forever. The pianist's interests were in transition to a simpler presentation that was more accessible to audiences. Dave Holland continued to keep one foot in the aesthetics of Circle, joining Sam River's band, and the other in more straight-ahead jazz, joining Stan Getz in 1975 (along with Jack DeJohnette and pianist Richie Beirach).  



Holland felt that were it not for the conflicts, Circle could have continued musically and economically: 




Well, that particular group [Circle] I think could have survived had we stayed together. You see there were enough people who knew who the people in the group were, so we were assured of a certain number of people coming to hear us. With the right kind of handling of a group of that kind, and with enough travelling, you could cover yourself between albums that you might do. You could go to Europe for the summer, doing concerts over there, coming back to make it to a university, doing things like that. We had a very large following from young people, partly from the fact that they knew Chick and I from Miles, and had heard some of those albums, and wanted to come and find out what we were doing on our own. And the music seemed to appeal to them, it wasn't just idiom that we were using, it was the feeling that we produced as a group.” 




But it was not to be. Holland and Altschul became two-thirds of Sam Rivers's band, and for a time worked as Braxton's rhythm section. Altschul: 




So Anthony goes back to Chicago and then I think goes back to Europe. I go back to New York, and Dave goes up to Seattle for a while and then his wife was pregnant, so they went up there for a while, and then they came to New York. While I was in New York for the first year I was there, I got a gig ― I took Billy Cobham's place with the Paul Winter Consort. I'm on their album Icarus. It was before [Dave Holland's] the Conference of the Birds. And it was a great gig because they only went to colleges on weekends. So that was good for what was happening in my life at the time. And I was also playing with Sam Rivers, but I couldn't really leave town at that time, so the weekend thing was cool. And Sam Rivers's thing included Cecil McBee playing bass. So then Dave comes back to New York, and eventually I hook Dave up with Sam, and that becomes the trio. 


そんなわけで、アンソニーはシカゴへ戻る、その後ヨーロッパへ帰っていったんじゃないかな。私はニューヨークへ、そしてデイヴはシアトルへしばらく逗留し、奥さんが妊娠されたから、またしばらくそこに居て、その後ニューヨークへ行った。私が初めてニューヨークに居を構えた最初の年、ある本番に出演する機会を得た。ビリー・コブハムの代打で、ポール・ウィンター・コンソートに参加したのである。彼らのアルバム「Icarus」に私も関わっている。(デイヴ・ホランドの)「Conference of the Birds」より前の話だった。素晴らしい本番だった。というのも、彼らは週末に大学へ行くだけだったのだ。当時私の身の回りで起きていたことを考えると、都合が良かった。私は同時に、サム・リヴァースとも一緒に演っていたが、当時はニューヨークを離れることができず、週末のことは、非常に良かった。そして、サム・リヴァースのバンドには、ベースにセシル・マクビーがいた。その後、デイヴ・ホランドがニューヨークへ戻ってくる。私はデイヴ・ホランドとサム・リヴァースとを引き合わせて、これがトリオとなってゆくのだ。 


Altschul continues: “And then Anthony comes back [from time in Chicago and then Paris], and says he wants to form a quartet with me and Dave and Kenny Wheeler. And we said, 'Okay!' So we are working both ends [simultaneously with Rivers and Braxton's bands] at the same time.” What was first called the Sam Rivers, Dave Hollandn Barry Altschul Trio was renamed the Sam Rivers Trio, a collective improvisation ensemble in which “whoever had the most creative energy could dictate the direction ... We gave up our egos to the music ... Any given night there were no compositions, nothing, just the trio improvising. Everybody was a composer.” Ultimately, Holland and Altschul felt the need to choose between Rivers and Braxton, “and we both decided to go with Sam ... because it was closer to more of our musical experience. Braxton's was more written out, more compositional ... And then Braxton went and became Braxton; he was already Braxton ― he became more Braxton.” 



Braxton and Holland would again cross paths with Jack DeJohnette when vibraphonist-educator Karl Berger formed Creative Music Studio and began to run workshops in Woodstock, New York, in 1972. The organization was established in conjunction with Ornette Coleman. Berger, Braxton, Holland, and DeJohnette, all living around Woodstock, were among its core master teachers. Berger developed a curriculum based on his experience teaching at the New School. The principles similar in spirit to Circle's: improvisation that was not limited by genre or stylistic concerns. 



Looking back on his experience with Circle, Holland concluded: 




And this is something that I've noticed happened with the music, is that no matter what kind of music you play, it doesn't matter what the style, if the spirit is in the music, if there's really a spirit in the music, it communicates to people. The people sense that, and we really had a unified feeling going on for a while, and people immediately caught fire because of it. They saw what happened on the stand, which made them feel good just by virtue of the fact that they could see that kind of closeness and communication and love between people was possible. The music kind of represented that, and so that took them beyond the idiom that we were working with, whether we were using strange or common sound, it didn't seem to matter, it just could relate to the feel of it. So in that sense, I think survival means that, survival means flowing. Survival means doing, and I think Circle was doing and was flowing while it existed.   




But long-term musical survival also engages economic issues. Circle was never going to be able to inhabit the economic world of Miles Davis's bands. Chick Corea's change of direction had economic implications in that it gradually moved him into a more mainstream position in the music business. Anthony Braxton's, Barry Altschul's, and Dave Holland's choices solidified their connection with a more informal, less commercial and thus economically marginal musical enterprise. Examples of musical collectives that have remained economically viable for longer periods of time are rare. The Art Ensemble of Chicago will be discussed briefly in the pages that follow. The Revolutionary Ensemble, one of the most economically marginal yet long-lasting groups, is the focus of the next chapter.  



The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 5 

Miles Davis's Increasingly Electronic 1970, and a Reflection on His 1971 - 75 Bands 


マイルス・デイヴィス 1970年代の急ピッチな電子楽器の導入と、1971年~1975年のバンド活動についての考察 



Oh, man, I heard some of the freest playing coming out of that band. Man, with Keith [Jarrett] and Chick in the band, when Miles stepped off the bandstand, these cats went out, and not only that, they were switching instruments, because Chick and Keith played drums very well. Jack plays piano, Keith plays saxophone; so everybody was switching instruments. It was incredible, man. 








An Increasingly Electronic Sound 



Chick Corea found a solution to the difficulty of placing an electric piano within a dense, loud swirl of sound and distortion. Josef Zawinul's tune “Directions” opens the recorded March 7, 1970, performance of Miles Davis's sextet, Live at the Fillmore East, as it did most of the band's sets. Jack DeJohnette and Dave Holland prepare the ground with a circular groove of seven notes (four-and one-and-two-and-three ... ), awaiting Corea's arrival. And what happens next is about neither the groove nor playing that is free of harmonic constraints. It is about the pure sonic experience. And it is wild and otherworldly. Even this repeated listener continues to experience surprise at being greeted by the harsh, maybe even shrill sound of Corea's electric piano. 

チック・コリアは、かねてから音が密集し大きく渦巻くサウンドとその歪みの中にあって、電子ピアノをどう位置づけてゆくか、困難を抱えていたが、ここに至り、その解決方法を見出した。ジョセフ・ザヴィヌルの「Directions」で幕を開けた、1970年3月7日の、マイルス・デイヴィスセクステット(6人編成のバンド)の演奏は、「Live at the Fillmore East」として収録された。このバンドの本番の多くが、ここで行われている。ジャック・ディジョネットデイヴ・ホランドが、7つの音で構成される繰り返しのパターンによるリズムの絡み合いで、土台をお膳立てする。そこへチック・コリアが飛び込んでくるのを待つのだ。そして何と、次の瞬間、これに絡み合うでもなく、といってハーモニーの制約を取り払った演奏でもない、ただただ純粋に音の響きを体験してもらいましょう、と言わんばかりの演奏になる。そしてそれは、荒々しく、別世界のもの。筆者のように、こう言った演奏をさんざん聴いている者でも、チック・コリアの電子ピアノがかき鳴らす、攻撃的で、聞き方によっては甲高いという印象さえ持つようなサウンドのお出迎えに、ひたすら驚きの連続を体験することになる。 


The outlines of the narrative told by Herbie Hancock and Corea as to what led to their adoption of the electric piano are similar. Each of them, a year apart, arrived at a session with Davis (Hancock's was in the studio, Corea's at a club date; Corea thinks it might have been the old Jazz Workshop, on Boylston Street in Boston). Davis points to an electric piano and says in his whispery voice: “Play this!” Hancock skeptically plays a chord but becomes entranced by its lush, sustained tone. He remembers thinking: “He wants me to play that toy over there? I had heard about the Fender Rhodes electric piano from some other musicians, piano players, and they were saying: 'It's not an acoustic piano.' So I went in with that kind of skepticism, which was kind of negative. But I had never heard it. So I said: 'OK.' I turned it on and played a chord and much to my surprise, I liked the sound.” 



Corea, on the other hand, 




struggled with it for a while, because I really didn't like it. And I was struggling with it because I was with a maestro, a hero of mine; all of these guys were. And here I am with an instrument I hated the sound of. It just ate me up ... But as we continued to tour, I got more the idea of [what] Miles was doing. And the Fender Rhodes, I started to figure it out; started to see how to work it and how to bring it more into the sonic thing that Miles was looking for ... the sound of youth; it was the sound of pop and rock, too. But yet I could play jazz on it. 





In an interview with Marc Myers, Corea recalled: 




Before joining Miles, I had been pretty much a purist in my tastes. I loved Miles and John Coltrane and all the musicians who surrounded them. But I didn't look much further into rock or pop. I listened to a little bit of classical music, but that was it for me. When Miles began to experiment, I became aware of rock bands and the energy and the different type of communication they had with audiences during a show. I'd see young people at rock concerts standing to listen rather than sitting politely. It was a different vibe and more my generation. It got me interested in communicating that way. People were standing because they were emotionally caught up in what they were hearing. I related to that. 



He [Davis] sensed early that something big was shifting in the culture. Miles didn't want to give up his form of jazz expression but he wanted to communicate with that new crowd, to a younger, more emotional audience. So the sound and the rhythm of his music changed. The band I was in with Miles starting in '68 was pretty wild. It was transitional in the fusion movement, and we were doing all kinds of stuff. 




When the first electric Miles Davis recording, Filles de Kilimanjaro, appeared in 1969 (recorded in 1968), audiences were already familiar with the electric piano thanks to Ray Charles and Joe Zawinul's work with Cannonball Adderley. The warm, funky sounds of the Wurlitzer and later the Fender Rhodes were appreciated for both their sharp attack and their long sustain. The “attack” added a percussive quality, and the “sustain” offered a rich choral feel that could fill out the harmonic richness of an ensemble. But Corea's sound on this March 1970 date was something of another order. The Fender Rhodes at first sounds like a bus honk, sharply articulated and insistently repeated. It is more an electronic than an electric sound, calling to mind more of the electronic music avant-garde than rock, pop, or funk. Its level of distortion is different in kind from fuzz guitar. Fuzz emphasizes a sustained albeit “dirty” sound; these articulations are brief and sharp edged. 

マイルス・デイヴィスが初めて電子音によるサウンドを導入したレコーディング「Filles de Kilimanjaro」は、1969年に登場する(収録は1968年)。この時、聴衆はすでに、レイ・チャールズとジョセフ・ザヴィヌルが、キャノンボール・アダレイと共に取り組んだ演奏のおかげもあり、電子ピアノの音には、耳が馴染んでいた。ワーリッツァー製の電子ピアノが醸し出す、温かみがあり、野性的で躍動感のあるサウンド(後にフェンダー・ローズ製を採用)は、切れ味のより音の立ち上がりと、長い持続音が、その良さとされた。その「立ち上がり」が、打楽器のような打突音的効果を、そして「持続音」が、バンドの和声の豊かさを、それぞれもたらしてくれるのだ。だが、チック・コリアの1970年3月付とする録音を聞いてみると、もう一つ別の取り組みが伺える。この時使用したフェンダー・ローズの電子ピアノは、まずは、バスの警笛のように、音の立ち上がりが切れ味良く、執拗に繰り返しのパターンを聞かせる。そのサウンドは、単なる「電子音」というよりは、電子的な操作によって作り込んだものであり、どちらかというと、ロックやポップス、あるいはファンクミュージックというよりも、アヴァンギャルドの音楽を彷彿とさせる。音の歪ませ方は、ファズ・ギターとは異なる。ファズ・ギターの場合、持続音だが、サウンドに「汚し」がかかる。音符の処理の仕方は、短めで、立ち上がりや切り方も鋭いものになる。 


One might think “synthesizer,” but this was early 1970, when few audiences had heard that instrument in live performance. Early recordings featuring the Moog synthesizer, such as Bernie Krause and Paul Beaver's Zodiac Cosmic Sounds (1967) and Wendy Carlos's Switched on Bach (1968), were both melodious and created within the security of a studio. The first live synthesizer performance took place in 1965 at Town Hall in New York City, featuring Herb Deutsch and his New York Improvisation Quartet. The first that was widely publicized, “Jazz in the Garden,” took place before a packed crowd at New York's Museum of Modern Art Sculpture Garden. The August 28, 1969, event featured two quartets and relatively conventional sounds. Both groups included a noted jazz pianist, respectively Hank Jones and Hal Galper. Guitarist John McLaughlin, recently arrived from England and active in Davis recording sessions, was with Galper (Cris Swanson led the group). 

「これはシンセサイザーの話ではないのか?」と思う読者もおられると思うが、時は1970年、観客を入れての演奏の場で、シンセサイザーを耳にすることは、殆どない時代だ。初期の音源で、ムーグ製のシンセサイザーを前面に押し出したものと言えば、バーニー・クラウスとポール・ビーバーによる「Zodiac Cosmic Sounds」(1967年)、そして、ウェンディ・カルロスの「Switched on Bach」(1968年)が、ともにメロディを楽しむことが出来る作品で、制作においては、スタジオという守られた環境で行われた。最初に生演奏でシンセサイザーが使用されたのは、1965年のニューヨーク市にあるタウンホール、ハーバート・ドイチと彼が率いるニューヨーク・インプロヴィゼーション・カルテットの演奏だ。最初に大々的に宣伝されて実施されたのが、「ジャズ・イン・ザ・ガーデン」と銘打ったものだ。会場はMoMAニューヨーク近代美術館)のスカルプチャーガーデン(彫刻の庭)。当日は、大勢の聴衆が詰めかけた。1969年8月28日、カルテットが2団体、どちらかというとサウンドは保守的な方である。それぞれ著名なジャズピアノ奏者を擁していた。かたや、ハンク・ジョーンズ、もう一方は、ハル・ギャルパーである。当時イギリスから帰国したばかりで、マイルス・デイヴィスのレコーディングセッションで活躍中だった、ギター奏者のジョン・マクラフリンは、ハル・ギャルパーのバンドの方にいた(バンドのリーダーはクリス・スワンソン)。 


The relatively conservative nature of the sounds is suggested by two critical responses. Bertram Stanleigh wrote in Audio: “These were real musicians playing real music, and it was clear that their message was getting to the audience ... that was having too much fun to quit.” Allen Hughes of the New York Times observed: “Actually, not too much happened that really held the attention. Much of the time, the music sounded like a rather clumsy imitation of jazz.” A reprise jazz performance with a Moog synthesizer was given a year later by a quartet fronted by Dick Hyman, around the same time as synthesizer events that captured a larger public: the premier performances by Emerson, Lake and Palmer in August 1970. ELP's eponymous album featuring the famous Moog synthesizer solo on “Lucky Man” appeared at the close of 1970. Emerson's sound highlighted the synthesizer's lyrical capabilities, but not its sonically outside-the-box timbres.    

この2団体の、どちらかと言えば本質的に従来型のサウンドについては、2人の音楽評論家がコメントを寄せている。バートラム・スタンリーが「オーディオ」誌に掲載したのがこちら「生身のミュージシャン達が、生身の音楽を奏でる、ミュージシャン達のメッセージは、しっかりと聴衆に伝わっていた…聴衆の方は、聞き所やお楽しみが満載で、その場を離れがたい様子だった。」ニューヨーク・タイムズ紙のアレン・ヒューズは、次のような見方を示した「実際の所、さほど目を引くものはなかった。ライブの間、聞こえた音楽は、概ね、どちらかと言えばジャズをぎこちなく真似た、という印象。」この1年後、ムーグ製のシンセサイザーを用いたジャズの公演が、再び行われた。このときのカルテットは、ディック・ハイマンが率いていた。これとほぼ同じ頃、比較的集客のあったシンセサイザーを用いた公演といえば、エマーソン・レイク・アンド・パーマーのデビュー公演だ。1970年8月のことだった。ELP命名のきっかけとなったアルバムは、収録曲「Lucky Man」の有名なムーグ製のシンセサイザーによるソロを含め、1970年末にリリースされた。ELPサウンドは、このシンセサイザーのもつ情熱的な表現力が際立っていたが、既存の枠にとらわれない音響の数々は、さほど注目されなかった。 


Emerson's and Hyman's performances occurred during the final months of Chick Corea's tenure with Davis. But, already at the March 1970 Fillmore date, there was something distinctly novel and right in your face about Corea's new keyboard sound, unparalleled even by what larger audiences were hearing created on the Moog synthesizer. 




Soon after Corea's surprising “sonic jab” in the performance of “Directions,” we hear the clang of a sustained chord. In between the two is an angular descending musical line that cuts the air like a knife; then a pause, and a few tentative notes in response. The sound of the sustained chord shifts as it is played, revealing to the listener the source of the unusual timbre ― a rising and falling wah-wah pedal. As we listen, we come to understand the root of the unusual initial sound of the Rhodes, the upward, pivot of the pedal, which brightens the timbre. The intensity of Corea's articulation combines with the volume of amplification through the Fillmore's speakers and some feedback in the sound system, imparting a decided “otherness” to his sound. This effect is further heightened by his periodic use of a ring modulator. 



Corea was growing in his ability to add variety to the electronic sonic environment. During an understated version of “Bitches Brew,” he uses distortion as he adds filigree around the opening themes of the tune. The pianist's low Cs and the abstract web he weaves around Davis's elaboration of those themes create a cloud of sound. This is contrasted later in the tune by the clear, ringing, unprocessed sound of his electric piano as he comps for Davis and performs his own solo. Distortion returns during Corea's fast-paced solo in the next tune, “Spanish Key,” meshing well with Dave Holland's electric bass. The electric sounds of the bass wind around and closely track the many thickers of Corea's distorted, spiraling passages, with both players building spiraling webs from brief ostinati. 

チック・コリアは、電子楽器を使ったバンドサウンドに様々な変化を付け加えるべく、力量を磨いていった。「Bitches Brew」の控えめに抑えられたヴァージョンでは、彼は曲の冒頭の主題に細やかな装飾を加えるべく、音を歪める効果を用いている。マイルス・デイヴィスが入念に吹くそれぞれのメロディに、コリアはハ調(minor/major C)の根音と、抽象的な装飾を織り込んでゆき、それによって独特な音の塊が出来上がる。これと対象的なのが、曲の後半で聴かれる明快でよく響く「何も加工しない」電子ピアノの音だ。これはデイヴィスのソロの伴奏と、自身のソロに用いられる。そして再度「加工した音」が聴こえてくるのが、次の曲「Spanish Key」である。コリアのテンポの速いソロは再び歪ませられ、デイヴ・ホランドエレキベースと実にうまく噛み合う。チック・コリアの歪み、渦巻く様々なパッセージのぶ厚いプレイをエレキベースならではのサウンドが包み込み、2人は短いオスティナートで互いに絡み合うように音楽を織りなしてゆく。 


The Fillmore East date was the start of a spring 1970 tour for Davis's group that included several shows at each of Bill Graham's famous rock halls, the Fillmore East in New York's East Village and the Fillmore West in San Francisco. The tour introduced a new saxophonist, Steve Grossman, who replaced Wayne Shorter. Moreover, the addition of percussionist Airto Moreira heightened the rhythmic dimension. Drummer Jack DeJohnette describes how he and Moreira worked together: “The role of the drummer at that time was laying down the groove, and also embellishing the groove. Keeping a steady pulse but changing and shifting it, making subtle changes in it; and providing the fire, stocking the fire, putting the heat of it. Airto was putting the colors on what I was doing.” 



The strong rhythmic pulse throughout this set is heightened during its closing tune, “Willie Nelson,” from the Jack Johnson album sessions. In addition, Holland's wah-wah electric bass drives “Bitches Brew,” as he moves further forward within the mix than before. The beat-centered approach could be a reflection of where Davis was heading musically, or of his desire to reach the young rock audience at the Fillmore East. The band's “look,” as evidenced by photographs included in the 2001 CD release, suggests the latter possibility. In these photos, the musicians are dressed in less exotic, more informal rock-audience-friendly attire such as simple shirts and sweaters, and Corea wears a bandanna. 

この組み合わせにより、力強いリズムの鼓動が生まれる。これが力を発揮するのが、アルバム「Jack Johnson」の最後の曲「Willie Nelson」である。他の曲でも、「Bitches Brew」では、この組み合わせに加えて、デイヴ・ホランドのワウワウ装置付きのエレキベースが、更に音楽を前にすすめる推進力となる。一定のビートを刻み続けるというやり方は、マイルス・デイヴィスの音楽的方向性や、ロックコンサートに集まる若者の客層にお近づきになりたいという、彼の希望が、そこには反映しているように思える。「お近づきに」の方は証拠がある。2001年リリースのCDに封入された写真の数々に見受けられる、バンドの「見た目」だ。写真を見ると、当時流行のアフリカ民族衣装の風合いは強調されず、気さくな雰囲気の、ロックの客層におなじみの服装である。たとえば、シンプルなシャツにセーター、チック・コリアなどは、バンダナを巻いている。 


Ironically, Moreira's acoustic instruments served to heighten the electronic aesthetic. The high-pitched, squeaky sound of his friction drum, the cuica, suggests a rather electric or even electronic kind of sound. The New York Times' John S. Wilson referred to Moreira as “the most provocative of the sidemen in this group,” who played the cuica “with devastating virtuosity ... producing various gradations of cries, moans and whimpers.” He appreciated the “brilliant counterpoint” Moreira offered “to some of Mr. Davis' solos and to provide startling accents in other passages.” 



Between Corea's electronics, Holland's electric bass, and the percussion-boosted team of DeJohnette and Moreira, the band seemed to be heading more than ever toward a rock aesthetic. Composer Neil Rolnick, at the time a Berkeley graduate student, recalls of the Fillmore West concerts: “The free improvisation aspect was fascinating and beautiful, but I think the thing which really got me was Miles figuring out a way to put a real rock groove under the kinds of long lines I heard on the jazz recordings I was listening to, like Jackie McLean, Lee Morgan, Art Farmer, and the classic Miles Davis Quintet recordings with Herbie Hancock. At the time, I was playing in rock bands and folk-rock bands, and listening to these Blue Note records, Bithces Brew, and In a Silent Way.” The band was now synthesizing musical worlds, reinventing jazz traditions through a new rhythmic lens. 

チック・コリアの電子的な操作、デイヴ・ホランドエレキベース、打楽器群の後押しを得たジャック・ディジョネットアイアート・モレイラのチーム、これらにより、バンドはこれまでにない勢いで、ロックの方向へと向かっているように見えた。当時バークリー音楽大学の大学院生であった作曲家のニール・ロルニックは、フィルモア・ウェストで行われた数々のコンサートを、こう振り返る「フリーインプロヴィゼーションの要素が見られるのは、魅力的だし、素晴らしいと思う。だが私が思うに、私を魅了するのは、マイルス・デイヴィスの手腕だ。彼が発見した方法により、本物のロックのグルーヴ感が長めのフレーズに添えられたことだ。私もジャズのレコードで聞いたことがあるような、長めのフレーズだ。例えば、ジャッキー・マクリーンリー・モーガンアート・ファーマー、そしてハービー・ハンコックがいた頃のマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットの音源などがその例だ。当時私は、ロックバンドやフォーク・ロックの各バンドに参加し、そして「Bitches Brew」や「In a Silent Way」といったブルーノート・レコードを聴いていた。このバンドはここに至り、様々な音楽の世界を融合させ、リズムの要素を見つめるための新しいレンズを通して、ジャズの伝統を新たに生み出しつつあった。 


Anticipating the final three months of Corea's tenure in the band, Davis designated a keyboard replacement, Keith Jarrett. Following a stint with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, Jarrett had made his mark as a member of Charles Lloyd's band, which had a strong following among young, white rock audiences. Miles Davis had now reunited two-thirds of the Lloyd rhythm section, Jarrett and DeJohnette. The two keyboardists sat on opposite ends of the stage, each projecting very different kinds of sounds and textures, more juxtaposition than duet. The combined sound was distinctly electronic in texture. 






1970 Performances of “Bitches Brew” ― Increasingly Rhythmic and Electronic 

1970年代の「Bitches Brew」の演奏:リズムの「メトロノーム化」とサウンドの「電子化」の加速 


In the band's recorded April 1970 appearance at the Fillmore West, Corea makes effective use of his evolving distorted wah-wah sound to create a more complex sonic backdrop. He and Holland engage in a cat-and-mouse chase, joined by Moreira's tambourine in the midst of the section; Corea soon engages in call and response with Davis, joined by Holland's wah-wah bass and DeJohnette's drumming. Davis plays the “starcase” motif, answered by a dramatic, loud response from the rest of the band; and when Davis returns to it, Corea, Holland, and DeJohnette play a pointillistic accompaniment that builds in intensity. 



With Jarrett in the band as a second keyboardist, the texture of the rhythm section's sonic mix grows in complexity and internal contrast and tension. At the recorded Fillmore East performance on June 17, Jarrett can be heard playing sustained organ chords that are juxtaposed to Corea's boisterous and dramatic use of wah-wah and ring modulation. On June 19, the “sound” of the low Cs is shaped by heavy wah-wah and distortion. Corea's filigree ― the electric piano phrases he wove around the motifs back in 1969 ― has expanded into a multilayered web, with each player moving at his own rate. Here, the section ends with a collective open improvisation that draws from elements of the various motifs, moving through a range of textures and moods. Swirling keyboards create a rich sonic tapestry during the “Coda” on that date. 

キース・ジャレットが、2番キーボート奏者として加入したことにより、リズムセクションの音響の混ぜ合わせ方が、その複雑さ、メンバー同士の違い、そして演奏全体としての緊張感が、更に増してゆく。6月17日付のフィルモア・イーストでの演奏では、キース・ジャレットがオルガンの持続音、チック・コリアがワウワウ装置とリング変調器による荒々しくドラマチックな演奏、これらの対比が示されている。6月19日の演奏になると、ハ調(minor/major C)の根音に、ワウワウ装置による加工が、かなりしっかりとかけられている。チック・コリアの飾り付けは、遡ること1969年に彼が様々なモチーフから作り上げた電子ピアノのフレーズを用いていて、更に拡大し、幾重にも重なるものに仕上がっている。それぞれが、自らの演奏を展開してゆく。締めくくりは、2人のオープンインプロヴィゼーションである。色々なモチーフを用いて、様々な物理的/表現上の枠組みの中で、演奏を繰り広げる。このように渦巻き旋回する2人のキーボート奏者の創り出す、芳醇な音の織りなしが、この日の「コーダ」(幕引き)である。 


At Freeport, Grand Bahama Island, on August 2, Jarrett's sustained organ, shaped by a wah-wah, creates a pedal point. The rhythm section periodically accents the low Cs, and moves into a pulse on which Davis solos before returning to the opening motifs. At Tanglewood in Lenox, Massachusetts, on August 18, and at the Isle of Wight Festival in England on August 29, Corea creates abstract electronic sounds with his ring-modulated Fender Rhodes; the pitch shifts as he returns the modulating frequency dial. Jarrett adds a layer of a much thinner-sounding RMI electric piano, providing a disjunctive combination. At Tanglewood, Davis and Holland play overlapping staircase motifs. 

8月2日、グランド・バハマ島のフリーポートでは、キース・ジャレットがキーボートで、ワウワウ装置で加工した持続音が、コードの最低音となる。リズムセクションが周期的に、そのハ調(minor/major C)の根音にアクセントを付けて、一定の鼓動を発信する。その上に、マイルス・デイヴィスがソロを乗せて、その後、冒頭のモチーフへと戻ってゆく。8月18日、マサチューセッツ州レノックスの、タングルウッドでの演奏、および、8月29日のイギリス・ワイト島でのフェスでは、チック・コリアがリング変調器を用いたフェンダー・ローズで、抽象的な電子的に手を加えてサウンドを生み出す。彼は周波数変調により、音程を操作している。キース・ジャレットRMI電子ピアノにより、より薄さのある音を、幾重にも重ねてゆく。これにより、チック・コリアとは切り離したサウンドにより、2人のコンビネーションを作ってゆく。タングルウッドでは、マイルス・デイヴィスデイヴ・ホランドは、互いにオーバーラップする階段状のモチーフをいくつも用いて演奏している。 





Turning On the Funk 



During the June evenings at the Fillmore East, Davis solos over the steady vamp and many wah-wah sounds, and layers of organ and Fender Rhodes. On June 17, the first of those shows, his second solo is played over the bass vamp and Jarrett's wah-wah organ composing; Corea's arrival heightens the funky environment before the concluding section of Davis's solo, which becomes an elegy over sustained chords. In Freeport on August 2, 1970, Corea's playing is as highly rhythmic, tied to the vamp, as his ring-modulated sounds ― angular, atonal, with seemingly quasi-randomized pitch ― are electronic in timbre. 



During the band's final performances at Tanglewood and the Isle of Wight (August 18 and 29, 1970), the vamp during Davis's solos will become highly minimal. What remains is a repeated single pedal note, played on Holland's wah-wah bass, Jarrett's RMI electric keyboard, Corea's ring-modulated Fender Rhodes, and, locked into a groove, DeJohnette's drums. At Tanglewood, the comping has become heavily rhythmic. The two percussionists, two keyboard players, and the electric bassist, with lots of wah-wah, function like a cluster of drummers. Davis's second solo at Tanglewood returns over regular vamp. 



Davis had previously explored the idea of a bass line pivoting on a single repeated note in the band's treatment of “Spanish Key.” On the studio recording, starting around the three-minute mark, the drumming varies in its subtle details, fills, and layering. Variety is created through adjustments in the dynamic range of the drumming to suit each soloist. Tension is built through the repetitive (multi) electric piano ostinato, Corea's imitation of soloists, between-the-beat conga beats. A lively and funky rendition was performed as an encore on June 19, 1970, at the Fillmore East. Ironically, it was not included in the original recording of the concert, but can now be heard on Miles at the Fillmore (2014). 

これらに先立ち、マイルス・デイヴィスは既に、「Spanish Key」の演奏に際し、ベースラインを繰り返し演奏される一つの音を軸に旋回させる構想を進めていた。スタジオ録音では、演奏開始3分経過のあたりで、リズムの刻みが変化を醸し出し、細かな細工を施したり、フレーズ毎の間に即興で作ったリズムの音形をを入れたりして、音を重ねてゆく。そういった変化をつけるに際しては、各ソロ奏者達に適応するよう設定された、リズムを刻む音量幅の範囲内に、ちゃんと収まるようになっている。曲の緊張感を高めてゆくのは、電子ピアノによって繰り返される(2つ同時進行する別々の)オスティナート、チック・コリアによる各ソロ奏者の模倣、拍の間を狙って打ってくるコンガである。生き生きとした、そしてファンキーな演奏が繰り広げられたのは、1970年6月19日のフィルモア・イーストでの公演に際してのアンコール。皮肉にも、この演奏は当日の元の音源には収録されず、現在これが聞けるのは、「Miles at the Fillmore」(2014年)である。 




Collective Improvisation 



Open-ended improvisations were a regular feature of the Fillmore East shows in June. One striking moment within the opening-night performance of “Bitches Brew” (June 17) features a highly textural, free-form trio improvisation consisting of Steve Grossman's flute, Airto Moreira's chimes, and Keith Jarrett's organ. This grouping emerges from a Chick Corea solo that seems to undergo a structural collapse. 

6月のフィルモア・イーストでの各公演では、完全に各奏者が自由に展開できるインプロヴィゼーションが、お決まりになっていた。初日の晩の公演で演奏された「Bitches Brew」(6月17日)で、衝撃的な瞬間が訪れる。高度に組み立てられた、フリー形式による、トリオでのインプロヴィゼーションだ。メンバーは、スティーヴ・グロスマンのフルート、アイアート・モレイラのチャイム(チューブラベル)、そしてキース・ジャレットのオルガンだ。この組み合わせの発生元は、チック・コリアのソロだ。このソロは、全体の構造が崩れる中を通ってきた感がある。 


Steve Grossman's solo on June 19 unfolds into a multilayered madhouse of rapid streams of notes. The proceedings speed up and slow down; bass and drums move at multiple tempi, part of an amorphous sound mass. Jarrett's wah-wah organ and Moreira's bells match timbre. The keyboardists play faster and faster, not quite in sync. As the textures slow and thin out, the performance calms, leading into Davis's sparse solo. While the accompaniment becomes quieter and more clearly synchronized, it remains no less playful than during the collective improvisation, in part thanks to Moreira's squeaks. Soon, the keyboard wah-wah sounds of Jarrett's organ ramp up the energy level. 



On June 20, the final evening of the Fillmore East stand, the distinct sounds made by each of the keyboards maintain their unique identities. Then, out of a thicket of sound, the two ― Jarrett's organ and Corea's ring-modulated Fender Rhodes ― somehow, though uneasily, coexist, or we might say collide, within the same sonic space. Open improvisations occur elsewhere within these shows; “Directions” was regularly a vehicle the band used for this approach. 



Sometimes in the absence of open improvisation, seemingly unrelated sounds could be juxtaposed. During saxophonist Gary Bartz's solo at Tanglewood on August 18, the mood of Jarrett's organ accompaniment is elegiac, while Bartz is playing in an earthier and more blues-based realm. (Bartz had replaced Grossman shortly before this show.) 



And abstraction and funk could coexist as well. At the Isle of Wight, the various layers in the rhythm section behind Bartz's solo begin to move out of sync. Only Jack DeJohnette holds the pulse, to which Bartz remains tied, allowing the groove to continue unabated. Jarrett moves at a different clock, Holland's bass slows, and Corea plays abstract sounds that are distorted by the right ring modulator. Jarrett remains slightly out of time sync during Davis's solo. The rhythm section's accompaniment is quite spare. Despite all the abstraction, though, the overall feel reflects the funky beat. When the band is locked in together rhythmically, we hear a clear sense of where Davis was heading: toward an Afro-futurist blend of funk, electronic sounds, and abstraction. His future direction would be a groove with swirling electronic sounds. 








Final Months of the Lost Quintet (plus Two) ― through Summer 1970 



In early April, Chick Corea and Dave Holland recorded their own acoustic session, released as The Song of Singing; Jack DeJohnette also made a record. A few days later, the Miles Davis band performed at the Fillmore West from the tenth through the twelfth. Corea's sound on the set opener, “Directions,” is highly distorted and percussive on the recording, including during most of Davis's opening solo, although less so when new saxophonist Steve Grossman is playing. If an electric sound was not Corea's preference at the moment, it certainly is not apparent in this show. His comping for Grossman is more active, utilizes more ostinati, and is responsive to the abstraction of the saxophonist's angular lines. Yet his sound becomes more distorted once again during his own solo. 

4月初旬、チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドは、独自にアコースティックセッション(電子楽器を使用しない演奏)のレコーディングを行い、「The Song of Singing」をリリース。同じく、ジャック・ディジョネットもレコードを作成する。その数日後、マイルス・デイヴィスのバンドが、フィルモア・ウェストで、10日から12日までの公演を行う。この公演は、1曲目の「Directions」でのチック・コリアサウンドをCDで聞いてみると、しっかりと歪ませたサウンド、そして打楽器のような叩きつけるような発音を確認できる。これらのサウンドは、マイルス・デイヴィスの冒頭のソロの大部分や、若干トーンダウンさせて、この時新加入だったサックス奏者のスティーヴ・グロスマンのソロでも聞くことができる。この時点で、仮に、電子楽器によるサウンドは、チック・コリアの好むところではなかったとするなら、この公演ではそれは、あからさまにはなっていないのは、確かである。彼のスティーヴ・グロスマンのソロに対する伴奏付は、どちらかと言えば活発なフレーズで、オスティナートを多めに使用し、サックスのソロがゴツゴツとしたメロディラインをしていて、更にはその抽象的な曲想、そのいずれにもしっかりと応えている。なおも、自分自身のソロでは、音の歪みに、更にもう一歩踏み込んでいる。 


“Bitches Brew” appears late in the set. Here Corea presents an abstract introduction, leading into a cat-and-mouse duet with Holland that is soon joined by DeJohnette and Airto Moreira. When Corea lands on a chord, he distorts it, again creating a cloudlike sonic event. Grossman's solo becomes another display of interesting lines, this time between him and Corea. There are moments of intense abstraction at the Fillmore West, but they occur in the context of a rhythmically simpler presentation. 

「Bitches Brew」は、この公演のプログラムのあとの方にでてくる。ここでは、チック・コリアは出だしで抽象的な演奏をし、デイヴ・ホランドとの追いつ追われつの2重奏へと進み、ほどなくそこへ、ジャック・ディジョネットアイアート・モレイラが加わってくる。この着地点で、チック・コリアがコードを響かせると、これに歪みを加える。またもや「よってたかって」という音の状態になる。スティーヴ・グロスマンのソロが、またひとつ興味深いメロディラインとして、居場所を作る。ここでは、その相手はチック・コリアである。フィルモア・ウェストでの公演では、抽象的な演奏が、かなり極端になった瞬間が次々と聞こえてくる。だがそのいずれもが、リズムの面ではどちらかと言えばシンプルな演奏の仕方の中で、発生しているものである。 


By early August, Corea and Holland were engaged in further recording sessions, now as a trio with Barry Altschul. Through the rest of that month, Anthony Braxton joined them for the first sessions as Circle. By now there were just two more engagements for Corea and Holland to fulfill with Miles Davis: at the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood, and at the Isle of Wight Festival. 



At the Isle of Wight Festival, a major rock event with an audience of several hundred thousand, the show opens with a rhythmically driven version of “Directions.” Holland and DeJohnette are locked into a solid groove, with growing levels of abstraction flying around them. In both that tune and “Bitches Brew,” Corea creates abstract electronic sounds with his ring-modulated Rhodes; Jarrett seems to be playing a much thinner-sounding RMI electric piano, resulting in a disjunctive combination, but one where the distinction between instruments is clearer. The band moves into a simple vamp for Davis's solo, with everyone more in sync than usual. 

ワイト島のフェスと言えば、数十万人規模の観客が訪れる、ロックのイベントではメジャーなものである。ここでの公演の口火を切ったのは、リズムに推進力を与えた形に仕上げた「Directions」。デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットは、腰を据えて安定感のあるリズムの調和を固める。その周りを飛び交うのが、更に抽象的な度合いを高めたサウンドだ。「Directions」も「Bitches Brew」も、両方とも、チック・コリアが生み出す、リングモジュレーターを駆使したフェンダー・ローズの電子的に手を加えたサウンドの数々と、キース・ジャレットが、いつもより更に音の厚みを薄くしたと思われるRMI電子ピアノの演奏、この2つが、お互いの距離をおいた上でのコンビネーションを聞かせる。コンビネーションをとはいえ、それぞれの違いが、より鮮明になっている。マイルス・デイヴィスのソロでは、伴奏がシンプルになり、全員が、いつもより一体感を出している。 


This pattern of groove plus swirling electronic sounds ushers the septet through the end of the engagement and the conclusion of Chick Corea and Dave Holland's tenure with the band. A door had already opened for Corea and Holland to explore open improvisation in a more collective setting. Another door now opened for Davis, with Keith Jarrett and soon to be joined by Michael Henderson, to create some mighty creative funk ― yet funk not as dance music but as the ground for further creative exploration of unconventional ideas, still under the umbrella of jazz. 






Placing the Lost Quintet in the Context of Davis's 1970s Electric Bands. 



With a new keyboard player and bassist in tow, Davis's sextet settled in for four nights at the Cellar Door, a club in Washington, DC. Thanks to the release of a collection of complete sets from that week, we can listen in on how the band progressed during its public unveiling. With the exception of “It's About That Time” from In a Silent Way and “Sanctuary” from Bitches Brew, the repertoire was new. “Yesternow” from A Tribute to Jack Johnson was joined by new tunes, among them “Funky Tonk” and “What I Say.” The most dramatic change from the previous band is the rhythmic anchor provided by bassist Michael Henderson, particularly on tunes like “What I Say” and “Inamorata.” Henderson keeps an impeccable pulse, but his patterns subtly shift and gradually morph. He interjects a variant for a few cycles, and then returns to the previous ongoing pattern. All the while, he never loses a tightness of groove. 

新規加入のキーボード奏者とベース奏者を従えて、マイルス・デイヴィスの7人バンドは、ワシントンDCのクラブ「セラードアー」での4日間の夜公演をおこなった。その週の公演は全て収録され、CDもリリースされており、この公演期間にどれほどこのバンドが進化していったかがわかる。「In a Silent Way」の「It's About That Time」と、「Bitches Brew」の「Sanctuary」を除いては、新しいレパートリーである。「Funky Tonk」や「What I Say」といった新曲の中に、「A Tribute to Jack Johnson」の「Yesternow」も加えられている。この前のバンドと比べて、最も大きな変化といえば、リズムを取り仕切る者である。ベース奏者のマイケル・ヘンダーソン、特に「What I Say」や「Inamorata」といった曲では、その拍の発信の仕方に、非の打ち所がない。ただし、そのパターンは、ほんの少し方向性を変え、徐々にその形を変えてゆく。彼は変奏を差し挟むことにより、あたらしいパターンを1周分つくり、これを数回繰り返して、そしてまた、それ以前のパターンへと戻ってゆく。この間、各パートの発信するリズムが絡む一体感を維持するにあたって、彼はその手綱を決して緩めない。 


Henderson's solidity offers DeJohnette great flexibility to play on and around the beat. He can lock squarely in the beat, building the intensity by reinforcing Henderson's downbeat. When Jarrett's solos are square on the beat, however lengthy their phrasing (for instance on “What I Say” during Thursday night's second set), Henderson and DeJohnette are right there, providing metric grounding against which Jarrett can push. The rhythmic counterpoint set up between Jarrett's off-the-beat ostinati and Henderson's and DeJohnette's emphasis on the “one” in the first two minutes of “Directions” in Friday's third set (repeated several times) in turn sets up each of the solos. DeJohnette makes use of the leeway he gains from Henderson's metrically solid riffs to create endless variations of rhythmic patterns. The continuous invention the drummer achieved in the Lost Quintet continues, but the knowledge that Henderson will always be there on the beat allows DeJohnette to exercise even more freedom of movement. We hear this in his many fills and rolls during Gary Bartz's solo in “What I Say” and throughout “Inamorata” in Friday's third set. 

マイケル・ヘンダーソンが堅実に仕切ることにより、ジャック・ディジョネットの自由度が大いに上がり、拍の頭や裏で自在に演奏を繰り広げることができる。決められた拍の中で、安定した感じを固定化し、それによってヘンダーソンの頭打ちを強化し、圧を強めてゆく。キース・ジャレットのソロが、テンポにきちんとハマった状態の時は、そのフレージングがどんなに長くなっても(例:木曜日第2部の「What I Say」)、ヘンダーソンとディジョネットは立ち位置を固定し、拍子感の土台を発信し続け、そこへジャレットがピタリと付けることが出来るようにする。金曜日第3部の「Directions」、演奏開始2分で、ジャレットの裏拍を狙ったオスティナートと、ヘンダーソンとディジョネットの「1拍目」を強調したリズムのフレーズ、この両者の掛け合いは(何回か繰り返される)、交互に各ソロのお膳立てとなっている。ヘンダーソンの拍子感をしっかりと維持したリフがもたらす自由度を、ディジョネットがうまく使いこなし、リズムパターンのバリエーションを無限に作り出してゆくう。こうした途切れることのない創造の連続は、このドラム奏者がロストクインテットで身につけたものだ。だが、ディジョネットが更に自由に動き回れるのも、ヘンダーソンが常に頭拍をしっかり刻んでいると、わかっているからこそである。それがよく分かるのが、金曜日第3部の「What I Say」のゲイリー・バーツのソロ、そして「Inamorata」全体を通して、彼が発信する多くのフィルインやロールである。 


The solid pulse from his rhythm section enables Daivs to construct within his own solo brief jabs and longer phrases that remain rhythmically tight within the context of the bass line. The same is true for Bartz's solo playing (on “It's About That Time” during that same set), in which variants of short blues-inflected phrases can be placed within a regular metric reference point. When his phrases lengthen, we can feel the coming downbeat on which he will eventually land being provided by the rhythm section. In an interview with Ted Panken, DeJohnette observes: “Miles liked me because I knew how to anchor. I could be as abstract as I'd want to be, but I knew how to lay out a groove, and Miles loved to play with the grooves I laid down. So I had the technique and imagination that he wanted, but he also wanted something that was going to be rock-steady.” 

リズムセクションから安定したテンポが発信されてくることにより、マイルス・デイヴィスは自分自身のソロについて、短く一発だけのものも、長めのフレーズのものも、ベースラインの流れにのって引き締まったリズム感を保ちつつ、これを構築することが出来ている。同じことがゲイリー・バーツのソロの演奏にも言える(金曜日第3部の「It's About That Time」)。短いブルース形式による抑揚のついたフレーズが、様々なバリエーションをつけられて発信され、曲の拍子の区切りを守って配置されている。そのフレーズが長めになると、リズムセクションが発信し続けている頭拍が聴手に聞こえてきて、最終的にはそこに着陸する。このことをディジョネットは、テッド・パンケンとのインタビューの中で、次のように述べている「私がマイルスに気に入られていたのは、私がリズムの取り仕切り方を知っていたからだ。曖昧な演奏表現というものは、やろうと思えばいくらでも出来たが、私は各パートのリズムを調和させてみせる術を知っていたし、マイルスもその調和の中で演奏するのが好きだったということだ。つまり、彼が望んだ「術」と「イマジネーション」を私が持っていたということ。だが同時に彼は、ロック音楽風の一定感をもたらすものも、ほしいと思っていたのだ。」 


By this time, Davis had begun to play trumpet with a wah-wah, obtaining a more percussive, more electronic sound. The New York Times' Ben Ratliff observes that now “Davis was scraping off the outer levels of the sound that made him famous, masking and distorting his instrument ... Suddenly he wasn't making the trumpet sound like a trumpet ... As much as Davis alters himself, you hear his phrases, and even his tone, at the core of that changed sound. It's still him.” Jarrett, on electric keyboards, often plays the role of third (actually fourth, when including Moreira) percussionist. But when his playing grows more abstract, Henderson, often in tandem with DeJohnette, provides a rhythmic container, holding down the beat. Jarrett's improvisations, interspersed throughout the sets, provide space for greater abstraction not tied to a beat. 



By the time of the extensive October-November European tour, Jack DeJohnette had left the band, replaced by Ndugu Leon Chancler. Percussionists (James) Mtume (Forman) and Don Alias (from the Bitches Brew sessions) stood in place of Airto Moreira. DeJohnette recalls: “I just wanted a change of scenery. I wanted to play a little freer. Miles was moving into a more specific thing that he wanted from the drums. Not as much freedom to elaborate. He was going into the groove, but he liked the way I played grooves.” Davis subsequently returned to the studio in the spring of 1972 (for the first time since 1970) to record On the Corner. DeJohnette returned for those sessions.  

10月から11月にかけての長期間に亘るヨーロッパツアーまでに、ジャック・ディジョネットがバンドを離れ、レオン・ンドゥグ・チャンクラーが代わりに参入する。アイアート・モレイラに代わって(「Bitches Brew」のセッションから)、打楽器奏者としてジェームス・エムトゥーメ・フォーマンとドン・アライアスが加わる。ジャック・ディジョネットはこう振り返る「私はとにかく身の回りに変化をもたらしたかった。もう少し自由度のある演奏をしたかった。マイルスの方向性は、より何か特化したものをドラムに望むようになっていった入念に作り込む上で、十分な自由度があるとは言えないものだった。それがもたらすリズムの調和の中に、彼は入っていこうとしたのだ。だが彼は、私がもたらすリズムの調和が、気に入ってくれていたのである。」その後、マイルス・デイヴィスはスタジオ活動へと戻ってゆく。1972年春(1970年にスタジオ収録を行って以来のことである)、「On The Corner」の収録だ。このセッションに、ジャック・ディジョネットは再加入するのである。 




On the Corner, and Beyond 

「On the Corner」、そして、それから 


The sessions that produced On the Corner took place that June. This was another three-keyboard project. Among the players were returnees Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, and guitarist John McLaughlin. Davis also paired the drummer from Hancock's Mwandishi band, Billy Hart, with Jack DeJohnette and Davis's two current percussionists. Two Indian instruments, the sitar and the tabla, add variety to the texture. The saxophonist is now Dave Liebman, with Mwandishi band member Bennie Maupin on bass clarinet. 

「On the Corner」を制作したセッションは、その年の6月に結成された。こちらもキーボード3人体制である。この中には、出戻り組として、チック・コリアハービー・ハンコック、そしてギター奏者のジョン・マクラフリンらがいた。またマイルス・デイヴィスは、ハービー・ハンコックのムワンディッシュバンドから、ドラム奏者のビリー・ハートを呼び、ジャック・ディジョネットと2人体制とし、更に既に居た2人の打楽器奏者達とチームを組む。2つのインドの楽器が加わる。シタールとタブラ(北インドに伝わる太鼓)が、曲の構成に変化を添える。このときサックス奏者はデイヴ・リーブマン。ムワンディッシュバンドのメンバーであるベニー・モウピンのバス・クラリネットと組む。 


The recording functions on two layers: a relatively static, dense thicket of rhythmic pulse provided by McLaughlin's percussive guitar attack, the multiple percussionists, and Henderson's funky bass lines, plus keyboard swirls on which the horn players solo. Segments of tabla and sitar provide a change of mood and pace. Aside from “Black Satin,” most of the material consists of intense vamps and rhythmic layering. 

この収録は、2つの層の上に乗って機能している。一つは、どちらかと言うと「動」というよりは「静」の、密なリズムを伝える鼓動の茂み。形作るのは、ジョン・マクラフリンの打ちつけるような発音で聞かせるギターと2人掛かりの打楽器奏者。もう一つはマイケル・ヘンダーソンのファンキーなベースラインにキーボードが加わったもの。これが渦巻き、その上に管楽器奏者達が、ソロを展開する。タブラとシタールとが出番を迎えると、曲の雰囲気と進み具合に変化がもたらされる。「Black Satin」を除いては、素材の多くが、圧が強く密度の高い即興伴奏と、リズムフレーズの幾重もの重なりから構成されている。 


Scholar-musician Michael Veal describes Miles Davis's approach to the construction of this work by invoking the influence of German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. Davis had found at least two concepts of interest in Stockhausen's work: the electronic processing of sounds, present in Telemusik (1966) and Hymnen (1966-67), and formal structures created through rules-based expanding and subtracting processes, found in Plus-Minus and related works created between 1963 and 1974. Thus, the concept of layering, of adding and subtracting musicians and sounds, drawn from Stockhausen's compositional ideas provided a conceptual framework to construct gradually changing active participants and thus sound densities. This structure allowed Davis to square concepts of jazz performance, contemporary art music composition, and, as Veal points out, beat-driven dance music to create On the Corner. 

音楽学者でありミュージシャンでもあるマイケル・ヴィールは、マイルス・デイヴィスがこの曲を作っていったやり方を、ドイツ人作曲家カールハインツ・シュトックハウゼンの影響を引き合いに出して説明している。マイルス・デイヴィスは、この収録に先立ち、少なくともシュトックハウゼンの作品に対する彼の興味から、2つのコンセプトを得ていたとされる。一つは電子的操作を加えたサウンドシュトックハウゼンの作品では、「Telemusik」(1966年)、「Hymnen」(1966―1967年)に見られる。もう一つは形式を持った曲の構造。これを生み出したのは一定のルールに基づいて拡大縮小するプロセス。作品では「Plus-Minus」及び、この曲に関連して1963年から1974年の間に生まれた作品群に見られる。このようにして、「重ね」のコンセプト、つまり、ミュージシャン達や色々なサウンドを、足したり引いたりするという、シュトックハウゼンの曲作りのアイデアから参考にされたものは、曲のコンセプトとしての枠組みとなって、演奏しているプレーヤーが次々と徐々に代わっていく状態を作り出し、そうやってサウンドの密や圧が生まれてゆく。この構造のおかげで、マイルス・デイヴィスが企てるコンセプトは、ジャズのパフォーマンス、現代音楽作品、そしてマイケル・ヴィールが指摘するように、拍感によって推進力を得るダンス音楽である。これらにより生まれたのが「On the Corner」である。 


By the September 29, 1972, show documented on Miles Davis in Concert: Recorded Live at Philharmonic Hall, New York, it is clear that On the Corner indicated Davis's musical destination. The show displays a dense layering of interlocking rhythms (with Al Foster now on drums, plus Mtume on percussion and Badal Roy on tabla) a funk-oriented electric guitarist (Reggie Lucas), a haze of synthesizer washes (Cedric Lawson, soon to be replaced by Davis playing electric organ), and a soprano saxophonist (Carlos Garnett here, but later Dave Liebman). 

1972年9月29日に収録された「Miles Davis in Concert: Recorded Live at Philharmonic Hall, New York」、これにより、「On the Corner」が、マイルス・デイヴィスの求めた音楽の、一つの終着点であることが明らかになる。このショーが映し出す、様々なリズムが連結され、そして圧が強く密度も高く重なってゆく中にあるのは(ここでは、アル・フォスターがドラムスで、ここにジェームス・エムトゥーメ・フォーマンが打楽器、バーダル・ロイがタブラで加わる)、ファンク出身のギター奏者(レジー・ルーカス)、シンセサイザーの霧のようなうねり(セドリック・ローソン:その後まもなくマイルス・デイヴィス自身が電子オルガノを弾く)、そしてソプラノサックス奏者(ここではカルロス・ガーネットだが、後にデイヴ・リーブマンに代わる)である。 



Davis's bands in 1973-75 would undergo further changes in the number of electric guitarists (up to three) and in repertoire. Mainstays would be drummer Al Foster and Chicago-born guitarist Pete Cosey, a master of techniques spanning rhythm and blues, distortion, and Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians-oriented open improvisation. In his autobiography, Davis explains that Cosey “gave me that Jimi Hendrix and Muddy Waters sound that I wanted.” New York Times writer Ratliff described a typical scene: “Sitting in a chair behind a row of guitar pedals, with dark glasses, tall Afro and long beard, he used original tunings, sometimes on a 12-string guitar, chopping through the dense rhythm with wah-wah and downstrokes, pushing his solos toward ghostly delicacy or scrabbling arias striped with reverb and feedback.” 



The unexpected conceptual mix of Hendrix and Muddy Waters points to Cosey's melding of traditional urban and rural blues with new technologies, invoking sounds of the late twentieth century: missiles, traffic, and electric power. A new tonal sensibility is invoked, replacing the assonance-and-dissonance binary with a pitch-to-noise continuum. When Davis drew from vamps by James Brown, Sly and the Family Stone, and Jimi Hendrix, the band with Cosey in the mix could dip into a deep well of funk sensibility and repertoire. With the addition of the percussionists and sometimes a second (or third) guitar, the listener experiences a constant haze of sound from which the various soloists emerge. Each soloist can also sound like a percussionist. 



The late pieces, both in the studio and particularly in the live recordings Agharta, Pangaea, and Dark Magus ― Davis's concerts recorded in Japan, in June 1973 and January 22-February 8, 1975 ― are marvels of intensity, surging rhythms, high volume, distortion, and duration. Ratliff describes them as “strange, forbidding obelisks, sometimes prescient and exciting, sometimes interminably dull ... yet within these large blocks of music there were wrenching shifts of tempo and mood. Oddly, the music seemed to be about stasis and quick change at the same time.” 

後期の作品は、スタジオ収録でも、そして特にライブ録音でも、その両方で、「Agharta, Pagaea」と「Dark Magus」(マイルス・デイヴィスの、1973年6月と1975年1月22日から2月22日の日本公演の録音)は、曲の圧力と密度、湧き上がってくるリズムの数々、音の豊かさ、音のひねり、繰り返し、どれもが素晴らしい。ラトリフはこれを称して「聞いたことのない、人を寄せ付けないような尖塔が林立しているようで、時に見通しよくエキサイティングで、時に果てしなくかったるくて…それでもなお、この巨大な音楽の塊がゴロゴロと転がっている中にも、テンポや曲想が厳しい方法で変わってゆく。変な言い方だが、この音楽は、均衡の取れた状態と、素早い変化が、同時に描かれているようにさえ思える。 


Greg Tate beautifully captures this bountiful palate when discussing “Calypso Felimo” from Get Up with It (1974):  

グレッグ・テイトは、「Get Up with It」(1974年)に収録されている「Calypso Felimo」について、その音楽的嗜好の豊穣さを次のように述べている。 



Cosey's staccato guitar simultaneously functions like a second set of congas to Mtume's, a second rush of cymbals to Al Foster, a second steel drum simulacrum to Miles's gnostic organ, a second rhythm guitar to Lucas's, and as one of the three solo voices ... his [Davis's] trumpet and Cosey's guitar improvise a swinging infinity of new colors, lines, lyrically percussive phrases, and needlepoint-by-laser stitchings out of the given melody ... and because Cosey and Miles can continually solo, and enhance rather than rupture the communal fabric of the calypso, they celebrate jazz as a way of life and as an aesthetic model for the human community. [Davis's final 1970s band presents] an entire band of improvising composers onstage creating a pan-ethnic web of avant garde music locked as dead in the pocket as P-Funk 





The title of Davis's compositions, such as “Zimbabwe” and “Calypso Frelimo,” evoke African liberation themes, helping culturally situate the band within the revolutionary politics of its time at least in allegiance if not in action. 

マイルス・デイヴィスの作品群に突いた曲名は、「Zimbabwe」や「Calypso Felimo」のように、「アフリカ解放」を主題としており、そのおかげでこのバンドの立ち位置を、実際に行動は起こさないにしても、少なくとも当時の革命的な政治理念に対して、忠誠を示すところへとキメることになっている。 




Miles's 1971-75 Bands, in Light of the Lost Quintet 



What do Davis's bands, beginning with the Michael Henderson-Keith Jarrett-Jack DeJohnette (and subsequently Ndugu Leon Chancler) configuration and culminating in his final 1970s group with Al Foster, Michael Henderson, and Pete Cosey, tell us about the Lost Quintet? Does the later music suggest that the Lost Quintet should be viewed largely as an entry point through which Davis traveled en route to the later bands? In a sense, we must answer yes. Beginning in 1968, Davis was seeking ways to inject a heavy, steady beat into his music and to engage a contemporary and popular black musical sensibility. From this perspective, he had to experiment ― as he did with the Chick Corea-Dave Holland-Jack DeJohnette band, to which he later added Airto Moreira and Keith Jarrett to form a septet ― to find his way. From this perspective, we could say that the replacement of Holland and Corea with Henderson and Jarrett was a course correctoin. 



However reasonable this analysis may seem in hindsight, it oversimplifies the creative mind and eclecticism of Miles Davis. The Henderson-Jarrett-DeJohnette band was not simply a vamp-plus-solos jam band that leads to its successors but a complex framework designed to offer substantial room for exploration and discovery. On another occasion, when DeJohnette reflected on the changes the band was beginning to go through before he left, he noted: “The music was getting more restricted and more predictable. I left, because I wanted to keep doing freer, exploratory things.” Clearly what DeJohnette appreciated about playing with Davis was the mixture of groove and freedom, but in his judgement the music was changing. The final evening of the December 1970 Cellar Door engagement shows us how the Henderson-Jarrett-DeJohnette band, as it rapidly matured through an intense week of long nights, combined a strong beat with a high level of abstraction. This suggests strong continuity with the Lost Quintet, no less than the Lost Quintet had continuity with the 1960s Miles Davis Quintet including Herbie Hancock, Tony Williams, and the others. 



Listening just as close to the 1972-75 recordings, this listener is struck by not just the intense rhythm and volume but also the high level of abstraction crafted by Davis: the organ “haze,” the sonic distortion, and the open manner in which the musicians navigate this backdrop. These, too were bands functioning on a very high musical level, driven by the beat but also by much more. There are tremendous differences between the first ensemble of Davis's electric period, the Lost Quintet, and the final band, with Pete Cosey. Yet the two groups bookend an enterprise that contains shared sensibilities. Each represented a unique angle on collective musical enterprise that engaged both beat and abstraction. Each was capable of tremendous heights of musical intensity and focus. 



The Lost Quintet was not simply a way station for Daivs. Both the 1960s Miles Davis Quintet and the Lost Quintet that succeeded it were experiments through which he sought to balance his musical values, those already established in his work and those emerging. Fille de Kilimanjaro (1968) represented a pivot point, including segments from Davis's 1960s quintet and the new electric band (before Jack DeJohnette replaced Tony Williams), offering a steady beat within the context of the fragile, open-improvisational environment of the 1960s quintet. The recording Bitches Brew and the Lost Quintet's performances from the fall of 1969 through the summer of 1970 introduced greater abstraction and open forms within a more beat-driven and electric environment. 

ロスト・クインテットは、マイルス・デイヴィスにとって単なる中間点ではなかった。1960年代のマイルス・デイヴィスのバンドと、その後継となったロスト・クインテットは、いずれも、それまでの彼の成果の中に確立されていた音楽的な価値観と、これから生まれてくるものとを、バランスを取ってゆこうとして行われた実験であった。「Fille de Kilimanjaro」(1968年)が示す中心軸には、マイルス・デイヴィスの1960年代のクインテットと、新たに組まれた電子楽器を投入したバンド(ジャック・ディジョネットトニー・ウィリアムスと交代する前のもの)の要素を含んでいて、それは、1960年代のクインテットの置かれていた、脆弱なオープンインプロヴィゼーションの流れの中で、しっかりとした拍感をもたらしていた。「Bitches Brew」、そして1969年秋から1970年夏にかけてのロスト・クインテットの各公演の録音を聞けば、よりしっかりとした拍感によって推進力を与えられ、電子的操作をふんだんに加えた音楽環境の中で展開される、より高度な抽象的表現と、オープン形式が伝わってくる。 


The Henderson-Jarrett-DeJohnette band more intensively explored a steady meter, yet did so in the context of rhythmic complexity and an open-improvisational sensibility. Davis's subsequent bands explored multiple layers of dense sonic material and beats within the context of changing intensities, sound, and an Afrocentric cultural mileiu. The genius of Miles Davis lay in his ability to take in multiple influences ― from African, to African American funk, to open improvisation and beyond ― and shape those materials within his own sensibilities and in the light of his chosen musicians, who listened closely, ever adjusting and composing in the moment. It was music that thrived on a strong beat, yet also on exploration albeit of varying kinds. 



What changed for Davis was an increasing awareness of black identity, his own and that of the younger generation he wanted to reach. At the point he hired bassist Michael Henderson, he realized: 



Black kids were listening to Sly Stone, James Brown, Aretha Franklin, and all them other great black groups at Motown. After playing a lot of these white rock halls I was starting to wonder why I shouldn't be trying to get to young black kids with my music. They were into funk, music they could dance to. It took me a while to really get into the concept all the way. But with this new band I started to think about it ... I wanted the drummer to play certain funk rhythms, a role just like everybody else in the group had. I didin't want the band playing totally free all the time, because I was moving closer to the funk groove in my head.  



The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 4 Interlude 



Musical Rumblings in Chelsea 



The Chick Corea - Dave Holland - Jack DeJohnette trio within Miles Davis's band had traversed much terrain. If Davis's own solos represented a stabilizing force, the rhythm section was continually upsetting the cart. As a whole, and particularly after the addition of Keith Jarrett as a second keyboardist, the band became even freer in its sonic conception. The musical bond between Corea and Holland grew particularly strong. The time approached when they would set off on their own path. 



Corea recalls: 

While we were members of Miles's band, Dave Holland and I shared similar tastes in music and, of course, were playing a very free form of music with Miles. I think that Miles was letting us search out whatever we wanted ― he was observing and waiting to see what happened ― he gave us tremendous leeway. Only towards the end of our tenure did he begin implying that the free form of improvisation was not where he wanted to be headed ... He actually encouraged us to form our own band ― which we promptly did. 




Corea noted earlier: “Dave and I developed a concepts together, and then when Miles wanted to go more into rock and a rock kind of a rhythm section, Dave and I really wanted to continue to pursue free playing.” 




Even when they were not on the road, Corea and Holland crossed paths daily; they were living in the same building in Manhattan's Chelsea neighborhood, between Sixth and Seventh Avenues. The loft building at 138 West Nineteenth Street was becoming a hotbed of creative musical activity. It all began with saxophonist Dave Liebman (who had graduated from NYU, majoring in history), who earned a living by working as a substitute teacher two days a week in the New York City Public Schools. By night, he played jazz-club gigs.  



Liebman recalls:  

I had decided I didn't want to play any more club dates to make a living. I realized that I really had to be pure to get it right, but I had to make a living. That's when I found my first loft. It was January '69 when I moved into 138 West Nineteenth Street in a twelve-hundred-square-foot space ... basically one room with a little toilet on one side and a small anteroom enough for a mattress as part of an open space, straight through. I set it up with a piano, got some drums, and knew that for me, the only way I was going to improve was to physically play a lot. So I had an open-door policy, which went on for the next few years ... I was playing and teaching, and eventually starting to work with [drummer] Pete LaRoca. 




Liebman would soon join the jazz-rock band Ten Wheel Drive; in 1971, he became a member of Elvin Jones's band, and in 1973, he joined Miles Davis. 

リーブマンはその後間もなく、ジャズロックバンド「Ten Wheel Drive」に加入、その後1971年にはエルヴィン・ジョーンズのバンドのメンバーとなり、やがて1973年にマイルス・デイヴィスのバンドに加入する。 


Six months after moving into his loft, Liebman received a phone call from Dave Holland. The two had met in London in the summer 1967. 




I wanted to travel across Europe. My parents gave me a thousand dollars, and a copy of the book Europe on Five Dollars a Day. It was one of those student travel things. The premise was to get cultured, visiting museums and so on, which I did, but of course I also took my tenor and looked for playing opportunities. 




I flew into London. When I got there, I wanted to know what was happening in London. So I made some calls. Someone told me to go to Ronnie Scott's [club]; everybody would be there. That's where I met Dave Holland and John Surman. They invited me to stay with them. After that, I traveled around Europe, came back to London and I stayed over with them again, and then came home.(end) 



Now, in August 1968, “Dave [Holland] called to tell me that he got the gig with Miles and needed a place to live. I talked to my landlord on Nineteenth Street and asked about Dave. There were two apartments free. Dave moved in with his wife and young child. And soon after that, Chick moved in. He had been living in Queens but now divorced from his wife, needed a new place. When Chick came over he played me the master tapes of Now He Sings, Now He Sobs.” Pianist Carl Schroeder also had a loft in the complex. 

さて、時は1968年8月、「デイヴ・ホランドが私に電話をしてきた。マイルスとの本番に参加する機会を得て、住まいを探しているのだという。私は、19丁目に住んでいる私の大家さんに連絡を取り、デイヴ・ホランドからの依頼について訊ねてみた。空室が2つあった。デイヴ・ホランドは奥さんと、まだ小さかったお子さんたちと一緒に引っ越してきた。そしてその間もなく後に、チック・コリアも引っ越してきた。彼は以前は市内のクイーンズ地区に住んでいたが、奥さんと離婚し、新たな住まいを探していたのだ。チック・コリアが引っ越してきた日、彼は私に「Now He Sings, Now He Sobs」のマスターテープを聞かせてくれた。」ピアノ奏者のカールトン・シュレーダーもまた、ここへ引っ越してきた一人だ。 


Corea relates: “Dave [Holland] and I practically lived together for a couple of years ... We were on the bandstand every night. We were talking about music all the time. So there was lots of sharing of ideas and concepts and so forth.” Soon, “Dave Holland and I began to play together as a duet in my loft. I had brought from Boston the Steinway S that my mother and father bought for me when I was 16 years old.” 







Chelsea as a Home for Jazz Musicians. 



The neighborhood of Chelsea, between Fourteenth and Twenty-Ninth Streets on the West Side of Manhattan, was an unanticipated home for jazz or other creative music-making. Although jazz clubs had proliferated in Harlem, Greenwich Village, and midtown Manhattan since 1940s, jazz musicians arrived in Chelsea only in the 1960s. Just as industrial decline brought artists and musicians seeking affordable spaces to the undivided factory floors of abandoned buildings farther down town in SoHo, reconfigured as “lofts,” a similar yet more limited process took place in Chelsea. It still remained a far cry from what the neighborhood has more recently become, home to art galleries and the Highline pedestrian walkway. 



The first to open a studio setting for jazz in Chelsea was Life magazine photographer W. Eugene Smith. From 1957 to 1965, Smith's five-story building at 821 Sixth Avenue (near Twenty-Eighth Street) had served as a meeting place for noted jazz musicians. Charles Mingus, Zoot Sims, Bill Evans, Thelonious Monk, Elvin Jones, Al Haig, Sonny Clark, Eric Dolphy, and future Chelsea loft resident Chick Corea all congregated and played in Smith's apartment. 



Two years later, in 1967, percussionist and composer Warren Smith founded a studio at 151 West Twenty-First Street. Studio  

WIS became one of the longest-lasting musical spaces. What he and his associates Coleridge Taylor Perkinson and Jack Jeffers were seeking in Chelsea was “a studio where we would practice and rehearse away from home. We were all in domestic situations [where] we couldn't play at night. We had children. We needed some place away from that to do what we did.” Assisted by his former student Anton Reed, and an associate, Michael Henderson, Studio WIS incorporated as the not-for-profit Chelsea Performing Arts/Studio WIS. “It ended up being a living/working space for a whole bunch of people. Several people would come in and live there for months at a time. Julius Watkins, Howard Johnson ... We opened it up, started doing a regular series of [public] events. That's how people like Judy Niemack, Walter Thompson, and John Zorn came through, and they were trying to gain more exposure. We would charge maybe $2, 3, or 5 at the door and just put the money up ... People just came to us because there weren't any performance spaces available for alternative music.” Aesthetically, many of the performing musicians had musical affinities to Ornette Coleman, John Coltrane, and the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, and thus are musically linked to the center of this book. 






Free Life Communication 



It was a great time. We were all young, and historically speaking, these were the hippie days in America, so we were all into that kind of vibe as well as free jazz ... It was the early '70s. Things were quite open ... There were a lot of people trying stuff. It was definitely a time to experiment in all kinds of ways, lifestyle, macrobiotics, Scientology, yoga, standing on your head, LSD, eat only rice, whatever. This is what you do. There was a core of people who were like-minded, and eventually many of us went on to become notable in the field, but this was the beginning. 





Warren Smith's Studio WIS and the 138 West Nineteenth Street lofts building where Dave Liebman, Dave Holland, and Chick Corea lived were just ten blocks apart. Liebman's relatively small upstairs space had become the center of an active improvisational setting for a cluster of young musicians. He coyly observes that between the rehearsals in Corea's loft and constant sessions in his own space, “This building got pretty lively with things really happening, as you could imagine.” 



Liebman says he treated his loft as an open performance space. 



Anyone who wanted to play could play. My attitude was “You ring the bell, I throw the keys down.” It was like that. Bob Moses, Steve Grossman, Randy Brecker, Michael Brecker, Lenny White, Al Foster, Bob Berg, George Cables, Ron McClure, John Abercrombie, guys like that would come up, and we would all play all the instruments. We were living that way ... bohemian, hippie, artist ... whatever you want to call it. Like I said, we were all in our early twenties, and on top of what was happening in the music scene. Besides free jazz, what was happening at that time is the beginning of fusion as a style in jazz ... I don't mean just rock influences, but also the beginnings of world music ... It was an exciting period when we were trying a lot of stuff, like electronics and synthesizers. 



Drummer Barry Altschul describes the scene as  



a twenty-four-hour-a-day, free-jazz jam session experimental space in the building ... There were concerts thrown in the loft, and there was also a recording studio directly across the street run by a man named Tom DePietro [Upsurge Studio]. So, sometimes he let us have concerts there, and he'd record us. And there was another cat around at that time named Junior Collins, who was a French horn player ― he's on the Miles Davis record Birth of the Cool. I heard him play with a trio ― bass and drums. Man, it's fabulous. There was a lot of shit happening at that time. All the styles of music were going on at the same time. 

24時間体勢で、フリージャズのジャムセッションが、次々と試されるビルの中の空間、ロフトではコンサートも開かれ、通りの真向かいには、トム・デピエトロ(不動産業者)とかいう人物の経営する録音スタジオ(アップサージ・スタジオ)があった。そんなこともあり、彼はそこでコンサートを開かせてくれることもあった。すると彼が、私達の演奏を録音してくれるのだ。当時もう一人触れておきたいジャズ関係者がいる。ジュニア・コリンズだ。ホルン奏者で、マイルス・デイヴィスの「Birth of the Cool」の録音にも参加している。彼の演奏は、ベースとドラムのトリオで耳にしたことがある。いや、素晴らしかったよ。とにかく当時は色々とヘンテコなことが行われていた。あらゆるスタイルの音楽が、同時に展開されていた。」 


“Us” refers to Corea and Holland, who began rehearsing with Altschul in Corea's loft and at Upsurge Studio in 1970. Within their building, Liebman was also playing with Corea and Holland, usually in Liebman's upstairs loft. He and Corea also talked about music. Liebman recalls: “Chick was into [Thelonious] Monk and [Charles] Ives and Bud Powell at that time. He'd stop by after his gigs with Miles to talk about what had happened that night. Miles came over for dinner one night and ate rice and beans.” 



Liebman describes the music in his loft as “a lot of horns playing all the time, cacophonous, free-form jazz.” In a 1980 conversation with Ronald Radano, he explained: “We played totally extemporaneously. There was very little talking about what to play. We never even set a starting note, we never set a tempo. We rarely played with a steady pulse. And there were many, many people playing at the same time. Sometimes five or six saxophonists would play, depending on who was there. We used any instrumentation, we switched instruments. The most important point is, however, that it was five to six hours of high intensity music.” 



Liebman and his circle were profoundly influenced by John Coltrane's landmark collective improvisational work from 1965: “We played completely free in the language of [Coltrane's] Ascension,” the probing, expressive, and at times fiery music that broke through inherited expectations about form, sound, solo versus ensemble, melody and harmony. It is that combination of cacophony and highly focused solo playing that no doubt attracted Liebman's cohort. In his loft, upwards of six horn players would be playing at the same time. This was also the kind of music he played with Chick Corea, just as “it was the same music we were playing with everyone else who came through my loft.” 



After a short period of private jam sessions, Free Life Communication sought a public. The first step was to develop an organizational structure, as Liebman recalls; “Bob Moses and I called a meeting of all these guys who had been playing in our lofts. I said: 'Guys, we gotta get out of the loft, just playing for each other, we gotta play for people. Somehow we have to get out there.' The point was to play for people this kind of free jazz, a hard call then or now. That was the motivation to form Free Life Communication.” Saxophonist Bob Berg, another future member of a Miles Davis band, in the 1980s, coined the group's name during an organizational meeting. Liebman recalls Berg's explanation: “Free - free jazz; it's our life, and we want to communicate.” Liebman's response in the meeting was “Okay, let's make an organization up. I'll take care of the business, let's do it.” 



But for the young and mostly white musicians on Nineteenth Street, the cultural meaning of “free jazz” and Ascension was quite different from what it meant to Archie Shepp or to the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians. In place of black identity and economic/political self-determination, Free Life associated Coltrane's collective open improvisation with what Ronald Radano terms “a music for non-violent rebellion, for love and community ... blending of the jazz avant-garde and the middle-class counter-culture.” These differences were underscored by a meeting the Nineteenth Street loft musicians held with two AACM members, Leroy Jenkins and Anthony Braxton. Seeking advice regarding musical collectives, the invitation came from Bob Moses, who had grown up, as Liebman recalls, a white musician surrounded by black jazz musicians “in a building where Elvin Jones and Max Roach lived uptown on Central Park West. [Moses's] godmother was Abbey Lincoln ... talking pedigree!” 

だが、19丁目に集う若手の、そしてその大半が白人系のミュージシャンという彼らにとって、「フリージャズ」やAscensionの持つ音楽文化における意味は、アーチー・シェップやAACMのミュージシャン達の認識とは大きくかけ離れていた。アフリカ系文化のアイデンティティだの、政治経済的な側面を反映させた自分達の定義だの、そういった物の代わりに、フリー・ライフ・コミュニケーションが、ジョン・コルトレーンの集団でのオープンインプロヴィゼーションと関連付けたのが、ロナルド・ラダノの定義するところの「非暴力不服従、人間愛、コミュニティのための音楽… アヴァンギャルドのジャズと、カウンター・カルチャー(体制に甘んじることを良しとしない文化)とを、融合させたもの」である。こう言った相違点は、しっかりと、19丁目のロフトで行われたミーティングでは、確認強調された。ここにはリロイ・ジェンキンスとアンソニー・ブラクストンという2人のAACMのメンバーも参加している。ボブ・モーゼスの招待によるものだ。ミーティングに参加するミュージシャン達が、音楽の集合体として「ムラ」や「モレ」をなくすことを考慮して、助言を求めるためだ。ボブ・モーゼスは白人系のミュージシャンだが、アフリカ系のジャズ・ミュージシャン達に囲まれて音楽めでの成長を遂げてきている。リーブマンは次のように回想する「セントラルパーク西のアップタウンにあったそのビルには、エルヴィン・ジョーンズマックス・ローチも住んでいた。アビー・リンカーンがモーゼスのオッカサンみたいなもので、ある意味すごい血統書付きと言えるだろう。」 


Liebman describes the scene: “[At] the first Free Life meeting ... we were twenty-four, twenty-five years old. There were about twenty of us sitting on the floor of my loft ... Leroy [Jenkins] basically said we 'can't do anything unless we got a reason' - kind of like that, which was a drag, as you could imagine. Then an hour later, Anthony came up with the 'peace and love' rap, and after he left we were inspired again.” 



Whereas Free Life members sought a vehicle for shared musical and cultural affinities, they may not have fully appreciated the enormous political stakes involved in their predecessors' pioneering efforts. On the one hand, as a Free Life Communication member, pianist Richie Beirach, observes: “We were all swept up into Vietnam War protests and it was a climate of revolution. Free Life was a statement in support of that revolution,” and an affirmation of values shared by the largely white youth counterculture. Free Life members also knew that their music lacked commercial potential and was not going to be welcomed in jazz clubs. On the other hand, the premise of the AACM was, as discussed in chapter 1, grounded in “notions of self-help as fundamental to racial uplift, cultural preservation and spiritual rebirth [which] was in accord with many other challenges to traditional notions of order and authority that emerged in the wake of the Black Power Movement,” as George Lewis points out. Musically, the AACM was far more diverse than Free Life Communication. Moreover, although both organizations sought to assert control of the circumstances of their performances, for Free Life the need owed more to the early career stage of its members than to the racism undergirding the jazz business, which led the AACM to separate from white-owned jazz clubs, booking agents, and record companies. 




A recorded radio broadcast from the WBAI “Free Music Store” on January 15, 1970, offers a window onto the nature of Free Life Communications jam sessions and performances. The band on that date included saxophonists Dave Liebman and - important to this story, because he would become the saxophonist in the Davis Lost band during four of its final five months - Steve Grossman, plus drummer Bob Moses; Gunter Hampel on vibes, bass clarinet, flute, and piano; and bassist Eddie Gomez. Other performers on that date but not on the recording were singer Jeanne Lee and bassist Miroslav Vitous (who briefly played with the Miles Davis Quintet, filling the gap between Ron Carter's departure and the arrival of Dave Holland and, later, Weather Report.) 

筆者はFMラジオ局「WBAI」の、1970年1月15日放送分の録音を聴いてみた。「Free Music Store」という番組で、フリー・ライフ・コミュニケーションのジャムセッションや公演活動の本質を、垣間みることができる。この日に放送されたバンドは、サックス奏者のデイヴ・リーブマンとスティーヴ・グロスマン、ドラム奏者のボブ・モーゼス、これにギュンター・ハンペルがヴィブラフォンバスクラリネット、フルート、ピアノで加わり、更にベース奏者のエディ・ゴメスが入る(デイヴ・リーブマンがいることが重要なのだ。なぜなら彼は後に、マイルス・デイヴィスのロストバンド最後の5ヶ月間のうちの4ヶ月間に加わることになるからである)。録音では確認できなかったが、記録によると、この日は他にも出演者がいて、歌手のジーン・リーとベース奏者のミロスラフ・ヴィトウスだ(彼はマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットに少しの間だけ参加し、ロン・カーター脱退後デイヴ・ホランドが加入するまでの間をつないだ。自身はその後、ウェザー・リポート立ち上げに参加する)。 


Like the collective improvisations of Coltrane and Coleman, these performances open with composed elements. These works by Bob Moses function as springboards for the open improvisations that follow. Indeed, the horns perform with relentless virtuosity in parallel play, contributing, along with the driving rhythm section, to an intense, dense texture. The players each craft freely flowing, steady streams of musical lines constructed by expanding, repeating and varying phrases, sometimes with great frenzy. 



Organizationally, Free Life developed as a democratic collective that conducted biweekly meetings in Liebman's loft. Its first concerts were presented in art galleries, churches, and other borrowed spaces. It then became a resident organization at the Space for Innovative Development, a new arts center in a renovated church owned by the Samuel Rubin Foundation, located just north of Chelsea. Liebman describes the setting in this way:    

“We had one floor, while another group had another, et cetra. We were given two thousand square feet with a pristine wood floor and a grand piano which we could use as we liked, free.” The extensive and adventuresome programming included “double trios, six saxophone players, dancers and painters - we did it all.” The group worked well together: “There was a palpable feeling of unity, brotherhood, and of common cause,” which was important, since “we knew we were avant-garde, we knew we were underground,” during a period when “jazz was at the lowest point of its whole time, so a kind of 'bunker' mentality was evident.” 

運営面では、フリー・ライフ・コミュニケーションはリーブマンのロフトで隔週で行われるミーティングの意向により、民主的な集団として発展してゆく。立ち上げ当初は、アートギャラリーや教会、その他色々と公演場所として借りていた。やがてチェルシーの丁度北に本部を置く、サミュエル・ルビン財団が所有する、新進気鋭の芸術活動の拠点として改装を施された、とある教会「Space for Innovative Development(革新的発展を試みる空間)」の、常駐組織の一つとなっていった。この拠点の様子を、リーブマンは次のように述べている「私達に1フロア、別の団体にも1フロア、といった具合にあてがわれていた。私達のフロアは、広さが2000平方フィート(約56坪)、床は塗装なしの木製で、グランドピアノが無料で使い放題だった。」彼らが大きな発展を目論んで、冒険的な取り組みを行ったプログラムには、「ピアノ・ベース・ドラムスのトリオを2組と、複数のサックス奏者、複数のダンサー、複数の画家、それらが一斉にパフォーマンスを繰り広げる」といったものもあった。このグループは実に上手く機能した。「彼らの間には、団結、兄弟意識、共通の動機、そんな意識が明らかに見られた。」これは非常に重要なことである。なぜなら「私達は自覚していた。自分達がアヴァンギャルドであり、アングラであることを」。この時期、ジャズは「史上空前のどん底」にあり、ある意味「バンカーメンタリティー(強固な防御に籠り攻撃を受けているかのような猜疑心)が顔に出ていた。」 


Free Life continued to present dozens of concerts each year through the mid-1970s, undergoing changes in leadership and aesthetic after the departure of founders Dave Liebman, Bob Moses, Richie Beirach, and Steve Grossman. Moses tired of what he viewed as a lack of discipline and skill on the part of performers and an inability to curate with adequate quality control. The others returned to more structured musical forms joining established bands directed by one leader: Grossman with Miles Davis and Liebman with former John Coltrane Quartet drummer Elvin Jones (and subsequently Davis's more Afrocentric 1973-74 band, after appearing on On the Corner in 1972). Beirach joined the Stan Getz Quartet (with Dave Holland and Jack DeJohnette) in 1972 and then Dave Liebman's Lookout Farm (with Frank Tusa and Jeff Williams) the following year. After the closure of the Space for Innovative Development in 1974, Free Life moved to the East Village, where it collaborated with fellow downtown lofts, presenting jazz and open improvisation. 

フリー・ライフ・コミュニケーションは1970年代中期には、毎年10数回の公演を行った。創設者のデイヴ・リーブマン、ボブ・モーゼス、リッチー・バイラーク、スティーヴ・グロスマンらの脱退後は、リーダーシップを取る者の考え方や、音楽面での方向性がゆらぐことになる。脱退したメンバー達のうち、モーゼスが辟易してしまったのは、彼の思うところ、けじめ、パフォーマー達のスキル、品質維持の管理能力が、ここには欠けているから、とのことだった。他のメンバー達は、形式を重んじる演奏スタイルへと戻ってゆき、一人のリーダーによって仕切られている既存のバンドへ加わった。スティーヴ・グロスマンはマイルス・デイヴィス、デイヴ・リーブマンはエルヴィン・ジョーンズ(元ジョン・コルトレーン・カルテットのドラム奏者)。リーブマンはその後、マイルス・デイヴィスの元に参加し、1972年の「On the Corner」の後、アフロ系に傾倒していった1973年から1974年にかけても活躍した。リッチー・バイラークは1972年にスタン・ゲッツ・カルテットへ(この時デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットも一緒だった)、その次の年にはデイヴ・リーブマンのルックアウト・ファームに参加した(フランク・トゥサのベース、ジェフ・ウィリアムスのドラムによる)。Space for Innovative Developmentが1974年に閉鎖されると、フリー・ライフ・コミュニケーションはイースト・ヴィレッジに拠点を移し、同じ街区の各ロフトで活動するミュージシャン達とコラボし、ジャズ、そしてオープンインプロヴィゼーションの演奏を発信し続ける。 





Meanwhile, Downstairs in Corea's and Holland's Lofts ...  



The jam sessions in Dave Liebman's loft overlapped in time with Chick Corea and Dave Holland's duets in Corea's loft downstairs. At the same time, Miles Davis - in the studio without Corea or Holland - was increasingly exploring vamp-and beat-driven music (some of it appears on Big Fun, Circle in the Round, and A Tribute to Jack Johnson). As the music of the Lost Quintet/Sextet/Septet grew more and more abstract in its March-June 1970 concerts, Corea's loft became the launching pad for his equally abstract, yet budding acoustic trio with Holland and Barry Altschul. 

デイヴ・リーブマンのロフトで、数々のジャムセッションが繰り広げられていた頃、オーバーラップするかのように、チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドのデュエットも、下の階で自身の取り組みを積み重ねていた。この時期に、スタジオからチック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドがいなくなったマイルス・デイヴィスは、といえば、即興で伴奏を行い、頭拍を強調することで、曲に推進力を与える音楽作りを、更に加速して模索し続けていた(この成果が、Big Fun、Circle in the Round、そしてA Tribute to Jack Jacksonなどである)。「ロスト」の各編成によるバンド(5,6,7人)の音楽が、1970年の3月から7月にかけて行われた各コンサートで見られたように、抽象的かつ難解になっていった一方で、同じように、チック・コリアのロフトは、彼独自の抽象的かつ難解で、それでも徐々に認知度を上げてゆく、デイヴ・ホランドとバリー・アルトシュルらによるトリオのパフォーマンスを世に発信する基地となった。 


Beyond Corea and Liebman's occasional private sessions, however, there was little or no overlap between Free Life and the new trio. Aesthetically, their goals differed. While Coltrane had been an important inspiration for both sets of musicians, the intensity sought by Corea and company could be found in low-volume close listening, not in the thick-density juxtapositions of either Free Life jams or, ultimately, the high-voltage electric band of Miles Davis. The trio, particularly after expanding to become the quartet Circle, indeed journeyed into intensely complex thickets of small-group collective improvisation; but as we shall see, these moments of highly charged interplay could quickly lead to contrasting passages of simplicity and transparency. 



But there were no purists among these musicians. Only one day separated the trio's April 1970 recording of The Song of Singing from Corea's and Holland's performances with Davis at the Fillmore West in San Francisco. Liebman's open collective improvisations coincided with his performances with the jazz-rock ensemble Ten Wheel Drive. After the demise of Circle in 1971, Corea moved to Latin-inflected Return to Forever, while Holland and Altschul continued to pursue musical directions informed, in part, by the AACM, with Sam Rivers and Anthony Braxton. 

だが彼らは、誰一人として、純粋主義のミュージシャンなどではなかった。サンフランシスコのフィルモア・ウェストで、マイルス・デイヴィスチック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドが数々のパフォーマンスを繰り広げていたところから、1970年4月のある日行われた、「The Song of Singing」のレコーディングをこのトリオが行ったことにより、袂を分かつことになったのである。リーブマンのオープンな集団としてのインプロヴィゼーションは、彼がジャズ・ロックアンサンブルの「テン・ホイール・ドライブ」と共演した際にも導入された。「サークル」が1971年に閉じた後、チック・コリアは、ラテン音楽系の「リターン・トゥ・フォーエヴァー」へ移籍、一方デイヴ・ホランドとバリー・アルトシュルは、サム・リヴァースやアンソニー・ブラクストンらとともに、AACMから一部情報提供を受けつつ、様々な音楽の方向性を追求した。 





Toward the New Trio 



Corea and Holland declared their intent to leave Miles's band in late 1969, but agreed to stay on for a few final months following the release of Bitches Brew. Holland told Melody Maker's Richard Williams in June 1970: 

チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドは、1969年末にマイルス・デイヴィスのバンドを離脱する旨伝えていたものの、「Bitches Brew」のリリースを控えていた残り数ヶ月は留まることで合意した。デイヴ・ホランドは1970年6月の、「メロディーメイカー」誌のリチャード・ウィリアムズの取材に際し、次のように述べている。 



Chick Corea and I are planning to leave in October, after we've done six or eight weeks in California with the [Miles Davis] band, and we're going to form a trio with a drummer called Barry Altschul, who's been working with Paul Bley for three or four years. We're going to come to London and live and work there for one or two months, and then we'll be off to live in Europe. I'm hoping that Ronnie Scott will give us a couple of weeks in the club at that time ... We had a recording session with Miles this morning, for the next album, and he asked us both to stay, at least until the end of the year, because the group is more popular than ever and he wants to keep it together. So we may stay till the end of this year, but it's doubtful because we've done so much planning for the trio, and we've thought such a long way in advance, that it's difficult to back out of that now. 

「6週間、あるいは8週間だったか、カリフォルニアでマイルス・デイヴィスのバンドとの契約を終えて、10月には、チック・コリアと2人で脱退する予定だ。そしてトリオを結成する。ドラム奏者に迎えるのは、バリー・アルトシュルという。ポール・ブレイと3、4年ほど一緒にやっていた男だ。まずロンドンへ行き、そこを1、2ヶ月生活と仕事の拠点として、その後ヨーロッパ大陸の方へ進出する。その時は、ロニー・スコットが2、3週間クラブでやらせてくれたら良いな、と思っている。… 今朝はマイルスと、次のアルバムの収録があった。彼から頼まれたのは、我々2人には、少なくとも年末までは居てほしい。というのは、グループとしてはこれまでになく人気が出てきており、これを保ちたいという。そんなわけで、今年の年末までは残るだろうが、ハッキリはしない。というのは、我々もこのトリオの立ち上げに向けて、相当練ってきている。事前準備はかなり進んでいて、今更引き返せと言われても、難しいところだ。」 



Even though the music in Davis's band was quite free spirited, Holland and Corea had actively discussed the idea of forming their own group. In remarks that begin this chapter, Corea recalls that this process occurred organically. It made sense, as Holland told Bill Smith in 1973: “We both wanted to leave the group. I didn't feel that there was anything more to be done with Miles, for my own taste, for what I wanted to do.” The first recording of the new group was made in early April, right before the Davis band's appearances at the Fillmore West. 



Holland articulated aloud some of his frustrations with the Davis band while he was still a member. After complimenting the bandleader - “Miles's music is very strong and has a fantastic dynamic quality plus a certain amount of magic which isn't really magic. It's just that he's such a strong person and has such a clear idea about his direction that he can draw people into it” - he added: “But playing as a sideman in that band is, for me, a little inhibiting. The premise on which Miles's music is built is still largely the old-fashioned one of a soloist and a rhythm section, which is valid and can still be very beautiful,” but clearly not what Holland personally had in mind. He wished for “more of a group participation thing with each player concentrating on producing music that doesn't pinpoint one instrument, so that there's never a 'soloist' in the accepted sense of the term.” He added that in his own music, he didn't see his role as “having the specific function of being the group's bassist. I prefer to feel like an independent voice, and the reason I'm leaving is just that I want more breathing space.” He concluded that Davis's “direction at the moment is one way and mine is another.” 



The distinction between the soloist-accompanist model and one that is more collective was an idea also taking hold within fellow Miles Davis alumnus Herbie Hancock's sextet. As it transformed into the Mwandishi band in the fall of 1970, the combination of a new chemistry between the players and the permissive attitude of their leader (a quality learned from Davis) contributed to an organic quality to their improvisations. As pianist Billy Childs characterized it: “They functioned almost like a chamber group, entirely dependent upon each other, but free from each other. They were free to do whatever, but what one person did affected the whole organism. It was like a living, breathing organism, like a representation of real life.” The desire for this kind of band is understandable. 



Chick Corea: “Dave and I warned Miles that we would be leaving, and after that there was a transition period of some months. Miles did ask Dave and me to stay in the band and be part of the more steady, funky rhythm direction that he was moving into, but he saw that it wasn't our desire. Dave and I wanted to play free music. It was a very natural parting of ways. I sometimes regret leaving the band, but it still seems like it was the right thing to do.” 



The trio in question was to be distinctively acoustic. Corea and Holland had been rethinking their interest in electric music. Holland told a critic: “The electric instruments we've been using destroy a large number of subtleties in the music.” Playing acoustically was becoming more satisfying and refreshing for them. When Corea returned to electric - and then electronic - instruments a few years later, it was with a simpler, more straightforward sonic and rhythmic conception. For Holland, there were stylistic concerns as well. Although he was part of a rhythm section that pushed the envelope toward open improvisation, he expressed the frustration that “Miles needs to control the band, he needs to mold us and give us roles to play so that all the music comes out as his conception. It's still very strong, but depersonalizing it in that way that stops it reaching its real peak.” 




Holland sensed that Miles couldn't have it both ways: beat driven and disciplined, and freewheeling and substantially unpredictable. In 2012, he reflected on the internal process that should guide a close-knit ensemble that performs without a preset structure: 




Nothing can be creative without some structural integrity. You have to just create it as you go ... You shape it and you use your instincts and experience to try and make a coherent musical statement ... What makes it work for me is that communication. You know, musicians playing in their own isolated spaces doesn't make a group for me. When I'm playing open-form music, I am still playing harmony, I am still playing rhythm. I think open-form playing presents a great challenge to the musician to really take responsibility for the entirety of the whole thing, the structure, the form. There needs to be a shared vocabulary. When you improvise with someone on the open form, you know you have to have some points of reference. For instance, what you share with the other musicians, those reference points are what you use to build the form of the music from. 




Eventually, Davis indeed chose a more unified path by replacing Holland with the more funk-oriented bassist Michael Henderson (no relationship to Studio WIS). In the meantime, Holland explored a middle ground between an electric bass with a wah-wah funk sound and his more open tendencies. 



The roots of Corea and Holland's joint departure may be connected to their desire for greater experimentalism and a return to acoustic instruments. But the organic connection between the two players was apparent by the late July 1969 shows in Antibes, France, and as witnessed in our discussion of their moments as a duo during other performances. And their private duets at Corea's loft built on that partnership. 






Becoming a Trio 



To form the kind of acoustic trio they had in mind, Holland and Corea needed to identify the right drummer. Corea relates: “We decided that we would like a drummer that could roll with the free form direction we were interested in and also play with a sound that didn't interrupt the acoustic balance we loved with the piano and bass.” 



In an interview with the author, Corea recalls: “Barry came in and fit the bill perfectly ... Barry was of our generation and liked the approach we were taking.” As a drummer himself, Corea knew what he was after when placing someone else behind the kit. “I was always intrigued by the viewpoint of the drummer in a music group. An intimate connection with what the drummer was doing was always essential to making the music rich, tight, and whole.” 






Becoming Barry Altschul 



Barry Altschul, a New York native, arrived with substantial free-form piano trio experience from his time with pianist Paul Bley. He had learned to improvise as a child, as soon as he took up the drums. He would solo on his drum pad while his older sister, a concert pianist, practiced at home. Altshul recalls: “I wasn't keeping time, I was improvising - soloing, kind of, having a dialogue with what she was practicing at the time, whether it was Beethoven or Bach or whoever ... I did it all the time, to the television, to the radio. When I was listening to the radio and the big bands or something, I would keep time ... I didn't even realize that what I was practicing to my sister was my first introduction to a freer style of music. I didn't realize that until way, way later.” 



Over time, Altschul brought an increasingly deeper sense of jazz roots and history, particularly bebop, to his playing: 




I was very fortunate to have been brought up in a neighborhood [in the South Bronx] that was full of musicians, wannabes as well as professionals. I grew up in a neighborhood that had, on Lyman Place, Elmo Hope, and on Teasdale Place was Donald Byrd. And all the musicians that came to visit them. Jimmy Cobb was living in the Bronx at one point, Junior Cook, Jimmy Lyons ... The neighborhood was full of mixed races and mixed cultures, so it was the true melting pot at the time ... They were very open with their information. You're hanging out at Elmo's house, and Philly Joe walks in, or Frankie Butler walks in, or [Thelonious] Monk walks in, or whoever. So you're getting to meet all these people, and I was very fortunate to have been taken kind of under the wing, in a certain respect, by Art Blakey and Philly Joe Jones. 

「私は幸運なことに、自分が育った近所(サウス・ブロンクス地区)には、プロのミュージシャンや、それを目指す人達が、数多く居た。ライマンプレイスにはエルモ・ホープティーズデールプレイスにはドナルド・バード、そして彼らを訪ねてくるミュージシャン達の居たところで、私は育ったのだ。ブロンクスには、ジミー・コブや、ジュニア・クック、それにジミー・ライオンズ… 多様な人種、文化が混在して溢れかえり、正に当時で言う「るつぼ」だった… 彼らはオープンな情報交換を繰り広げていた。エルモ・ホープの家でたむろしていると、フィリー・ジョー・ジョーンズやフランク・バトラー、あるいはセロニアス・モンクだのが、誰構わず入ってくる。なので、自ずとそういう人達全員と、顔を合わせることになる。そして本当に幸運だったのが、アート・ブレイキーフィリー・ジョー・ジョーンズに、ある意味可愛がってもらっていたことだ。 



I was at Birdland almost every weekend, at least one night a week. The other place was the Apollo Theater. For a dollar you could go in at eleven o'clock in the morning, watch a movie, see the show, which was three bands and a comedian. I remember one show where there was Miles, there was Horace Silver's band, and there was Monk's band, and [vaudeville comedian] Moms Mabley. And you could stay until one o'clock in the morning for a dollar. You brought a hot dog for a quarter, and you were hanging out. So I went to see every jazz show that was at the Apollo. 




His first important break came in a chance encounter with Bley: 




I was, at the time, a janitor at a recording studio. There was the recording studio that Phil Spector used in New York. It was called Mira Sound Studio, and Carole King and Gerry Goffin and all these industry people were using that studio. And I was the janitor and the button pusher - kind of like the assistant engineer ... So I'm a janitor in the recording studio, and Paul Bley comes in to record an album with Gary Peacock. I think Paul was on the date, and there was Don Ellis, the trumpet player, [whose music included] a lot of odd time signatures back in the '60s ... so I was talking to Bley a little bit. Then he came in later on, maybe a year or so later, to do another record date with John Gilmore and the same rhythm section. And we had a long conversation at that time. We were really talking. And he found out I was really a drummer and this and that. And then [somewhat later], all of a sudden, out of nowhere - he says, “You wanna play a gig?” I says, “Shit, yeah!” you know? I said, “Yeah.” He says, “Okay, be at this place Sunday afternoon at such-and-such time, we have a gig.” I said, “Great.” That place happened to be what turned out to be the nightclub Slugs. 

「当時私は、あるレコーディングスタジオで用務員をしていた。ニューヨークにあったスタジオで、音楽プロデューサーのフィル・スペクターが使用してた。名前を「ミラ・サウンド・スタジオ」といって、キャロル・キングやジェリー・ゴフィン等、音楽業界の人達なら誰もが、そのスタジオを使っていた。そして私はそこで、雑用と、録音ボタンを押す係と、ある意味、アシスタントエンジニアみたいなことをしていたわけだ… さて、レコーディングスタジオでは、私は用務員をしていて、当時ポール・ブレイは、ゲイリー・ピーコックとのアルバム作成のため、スタジオに通っている状態だ。運命の日、ポール・ブレイと、他に居たのは、ドン・エリスだ。トランペット奏者で、1960年代に流行った変拍子を多用した(音楽に取り組んでいた)。私はポール・ブレイに少しだけ言葉をかけた。そして、彼は後になってまたやって来た。1年か、あるいはもっと後だったかも知れない。レコーディングの仕事が組まれていた。今度はジョン・ギルモアとの収録で、リズムセクションは、前回と同じだった。この時は、「少しだけ」ではなく、ポール・ブレイとは沢山話をした。本当に色々なことを語り合った。彼の脳には、私が実はドラム奏者で、他にもあれこれと情報がインプットされた。そして(この日から後のことだが)、突然、何のきっかけもなく、彼がこう言うのだ「一緒に本番してみたいか?」私は「チクショー、ヤッタゼ!」という気分で「是非お願いします。」と言った。ポール・ブレイは「よし、じゃあ場所は云々で、日曜日の午後、時間は云々で、本番やろう。」私は「本当にありがとうございます。」と応えた。その本番が、偶然にもこれが、あの名門ナイトクラブ「スラグ」で行われることとなる。 



“Okay,” so he says to me, “do you want to play some standards? Or do you want to play something that I'm into?” and I was an arrogant kid from the Bronx, because I was really taught by the guys. Not just the bigger guys, but my peer group were telling me things about what I should be doing, what I shouldn't be doing, what is a natural tendency for a white guy that might get in the way of the music, or this or that. All these kinds of things I was brought up with, I was told, out there. Everybody was very honest with me with that kind of a neighborhood, that kind of a group of people. Anyway, and I was appreciative of that, it was great. So I was an arrogant kid, so I said, “Play whatever you want!” And he did, and I just responded. This was David Izenzon, Paul Bley, and myself. And that was my first introduction to free music; the first time I ever played it. I tried to keep time to it, but it just didn't work! And then I found a way to play and respond, and did it; that all came very natural. 





As time went by, Altschul would listen closely to the sounds of the city, the rising and falling of the sounds of the industrial era: 




You grow up in New York, you listen to the train rhythms, you listen to the steam heat rhythms, and you're listening to all kinds of rhythms. The radiator and the trains. Which started me in what, I guess, has been termed wave music. And so I learned to play that from the actual waves. But no, I've always listened ― car crashes, listening to when the hubcap flies, and it falls later than the actual crash, so there's extra sound coming. All those kinds of things I listened to. And eventually I listened to them to put them into the music. 




He discovered ways to play more challenging aspects of Bley's music, Annette Peacock's compositions in particular, by listening, once again, to the world. This time, he was at the beach while on an acid trip, “sitting by the ocean and the waves; the tides started coming in. And the waves started coming and hitting and splashing against the rocks. And so the rhythm of the tide and the motion of the waves hitting against the rocks, the splashing effect ― I heard all that shit. Because in the mentally induced state I was in, it broke it down to that level.” 



Also during this period, Altschul had significant experiences performing in Europe with many of the important beboppers: Johnny Griffin, Dexter Gordon, Kenny Drew, Jimmy Woody, Art Taylor, and Kenny Clarke. Chick Corea's invitation came after he returned from a second period of living in Europe. He had been playing with Babs Gonzales, the bebop singer in a band that included saxophonist Clifford Jordan. He had recently rejoined Bley. 



Altschul observes: “I've always considered myself a jazz drummer. I don't consider myself an avant-gardist or a free guy. I would consider myself more free than avant-garde, because to me the definition of free is 'vocabulary.' The more musical vocabulary you have, the freer you are, depending upon your musicianship and how you use that vocabulary and where you use it and so on. [That is what] makes it feel avant-garde or free, because you're not just keeping a standing form, you're not keeping to the tenets of the jazz rules.” That is to say, Barry Altschul's roots are in bebop. His approach to that music draws from an unusually rich and varied sonic vocabulary. He uses the past as grounding and guide, but not as a directive. His strong listening skills support his ability to invent and respond freely in the moment. He can thus begin with a tune, but take it anywhere that his ears might lead him in the moment ― within, around, or away from the tune. This is the quality in a drummer that Chick Corea and Dave Holland were seeking for their trio. 



Drummer John Mars astutely breaks down Altschul's synthetic approach: 




Barry's right-hand work on the ride cymbal was so intricate, and really interesting to me. In terms of the stuff he was doing with his left hand and his foot ― [there were of course] the off beats and bomb drops. But then there was a dance-y, skippy right hand that Barry had, with a bop sort of influence but yet was entirely new. It just flew with those other “birds” in the band. Listen to Barry's quick responses to the twisting and turning of the other players, how they could all turn around on a dime and head in another direction ... At times, as the band fractures, so does Barry's right hand. But then in a way, it stays in that bop sound, too. Barry made up all kinds of new and interesting right-hand bop-influenced patterns. With a free-form drummer like Milford Graves, you don't hear bebop in there anymore; his drumming just floated, and I certainly learned my own sense of freedom from his astonishing example ... 



In Barry's playing, we hear bebop, but we can also hear the influence of John Coltrane's music and that of his drummers ... Rashied Ali, who I think was influenced by Milford's freedom and Sunny [Murray's] aggressive approach, must have influenced Barry, too. Albert Ayler's music, on which Milford played, influenced Coltrane very much at the end of life ... During the whole hippie LSD '60s period, when Albert and John were letting the rhythms get to this free-floating thing, there were also the sound-effect things that came from Pharoah Sanders and Roland Kirk when they weren't blowing their horns. This aspect came into what Barry did a little bit later, in the '70s: rattling bells on chains and blowing whistles and so on, and there was a Varese aspect that I always heard in Barry's work: the incidental, staggered, percussive sounds played on things other than the drum set can have a very dramatic effect. When Dave Holland and Barry played together, you also heard some of those supersonic, fractured bebop patterns that were invented by Ornette's [Coleman's] groups. Although he was deep in a pocket with Dave, Barry was definitely also listening intensely to the notes that flying from Anthony's [Braxton's] agile mind, mouth, and fingers, and his cymbal work was always responding to Anthony's genius for twisting and turning. 





In fact, Altschul joined Corea and Holland instead of accepting a tantalizing alternative offer that was already on the table: an invitation to join Jimi Hendrix's new band. The offer was more lucrative and would have guaranteed steady pay, something unusual for a jazz musician. And it was a chance to play with, well, Jimi Hendrix, who had jammed recently with saxophonist Sam Rivers (with whom Altschul would play after the demise of Circle). Rivers later spoke of playing with Hendrix as not unlike playing with pianist Cecil Taylor. Hendrix was putting together a more experimental group to follow the Jimi Hendrix Experience, and “Jimi wanted me to join his group while he was developing new directions.” 



But Corea's offer was more musically intriguing to Altschul, who saw himself as “very idealistic at the time.” Conceptually, the Corea trio was an expansion of Paul Bley's open-improvisational ideas, this time with a collective, and Altschul indeed viewed himself as a jazz musician, not a rock musician. The finances with Corea would be sufficient, so in either case, “it wasn't about the money. Playing with Chick ― him and Dave coming out of Miles ― the money would have been sufficient for me to support myself as a musician and not have to take day gigs. This was something which I did with periods with Paul Bley; we had to take day jobs, or stay in Europe.” 



The new trio recorded The Song of Singing on April 7 - 8, 1970, immediately before Corea and Holland joined Miles Davis at the Fillmore West on April 9 -12. Steve Grossman had replaced Wayne Shorter on saxophone, and Miles had added percussionist Airto Moreira. Five weeks later, Anthony Braxton would sit in with the trio at the Village Vanguard for its inaugural moment playing as a quartet. 

この新たなトリオが収録したのが「The Song of Singing」。1970年4月7日から8日にかけてであった。直後の4月9日から12日にかけて、チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドは、フィルモア・ウェストマイルス・デイヴィスとの演奏に参加する。この時、サックスはウェイン・ショーターにかわってスティーヴ・グロスマンが、そしてマイルス・デイヴィスは打楽器奏者としてアイアート・モレイラを加えていた。この5週間後、アンソニー・ブラクストンがトリオに加わる。場所はヴィレッジ・ヴァンガード。ここに、カルテットとしてのお披露目と成る。 


In June 1970, Dave Holland discussed the recording that the new trio had made, developed within the context of Corea and Holland's Nineteenth Street Manhattan lofts and Tom DePietro's nearby studio: “We all play regular acoustic instruments in the trio, and we've already an album for Solid State which is really very beautiful. That should be out before the end of the year.”  



Chapter 3 Anthony Braxton 

第3章 アンソニー・ブラクストン 


Leroy Jenkins, Musica Elettronica Viva, and the “Peace Church”  






Another European Adventure: Braxton and Jenkins in Paris 



We now turn to Anthony Braxton and Leroy Jenkins, two musicians from Jack DeJohnette's hometown of Chicago, and both members of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians. While neither was a member of the Miles Davis Lost Quintet, both men were integral to the aesthetic universe from which that group emerged. When Braxton joined with Lost Quintet members Chick Corea and Dave Holland (plus drummer Barry Altschul) to form Circle, he helped further the more exploratory side of the Davis band's legacy. Simultaneously, Jenkins cofounded the Revolutionary Ensemble, an important group of instrumentalists who inhabited a related musical space. Exploring the evolution of both these musicians can help us better understand the musical influences that shaped both the odyssey of the Lost Quintet and the musical world they all shared. 



While the quintet toured Europe and the United States in 1969, a group of young, Chicago-born musicians affiliated with the AACM also had Europe on their minds and relocated to Paris. Since the 1920s, Paris had been a home away from home for African American expatriate artists, among them saxophonist Dexter Gordon and writer James Baldwin. Despite a highly creative atmosphere in Chicago at the time, many musicians on the city's South Side were frustrated by the limited performance opportunities that had led to the founding of the AACM. Drummer Steve McCall led the exodus, soon joined by the core of the Art Ensemble of Chicago: Roscoe Mitchell, Malachi Favors, Lester Bowie, and Joseph Jarman. This cohort in turn was joined by three composer-performers who had formed a trio in Chicago: trumpeter Leo Smith (later Wadada Leo Smith), violinist Leroy Jenkins, and saxophonist Anthony Braxton. They played as a quartet with the addition of Steve McCall. Upon Braxton's return to the United States in 1969 and Jenkins's in 1970, both men played pivotal roles in ensembles at the center of this book. 





Leroy Jenkins 



Leroy Jenkins began playing the violin as a child. Geroge Lewis relates: 



When Leroy was eight or nine, his auntie's boyfriend Riley brought a violin to the house. Leroy was transfixed by the finger-busting classical marvels Riley played, and pleaded with his mother to get him a violin. Soon, a half-size, red-colored violin came from Montgomery Wards by mail order. It cost $25, which his mother paid for on credit. Leroy recalled that at first, he had “a terrible sound. I almost gave it up, but I figured I'd keep doing it and I'd sound like Riley.” 



Born and raised in Chicago, Jenkins played in local churches as a youngster. He was accompanied by pianist-singer Dinah Washington, then named Ruth Jones, and also performed in orchestral settings. Taking up the saxophone in high school, Jenkins became one of the budding jazz musicians mentored by “Captain” Walter Dyett, bandleader at DuSable High School on the city's South Side. Trained in a broad array of musical traditions, he played clarinet, saxophone, bassoon, and violin while attending Florida A&M, one of the historically black colleges and universities, where he completed degrees in music education and violin. After graduation, he taught high school violin in Mobile, Alabama, and then in Chicago, where he returned in 1965 at the age of thirty. 



Soon after his arrival back in his hometown, Jenkins discovered the AACM by attending a concert played by Roscoe Mitchell, Kalaparusha (Maurice McIntyre), Alvin Fielder, and other future colleagues. His college violin teacher ― who had just played a gig with Muhal Richard Abrams ― had brought him to the performance. Jenkins recalled that they “both were quite befuddled as to what was happening. But we liked it. It was very exciting, what they were doing.” At some point during the concert, he brought out his violin and was immediately included in a collective improvisation conducted by Abrams. “Boy, that was really something to me, even though I was playing in a little more orderly fashion than I am now, or let's say a more traditional fashion. These guys were squawking and squeaking and making sounds and doing different things, and I was still playing little snatches of changes because I didn't know anything else.” Jenkins spent four years with the organization before leaving Chicago. 



His year in Paris performing with Braxton and Smith was exciting for him as well: 



Archie Shepp [with whom he played] ... everybody was there. Philly Joe Jones was there. It was great. I played with Philly Joe! I made a record with him. That was great ... Sometimes [the trio] was Anthony's group, sometimes it was my group, sometimes it was Leo's group ― it was one of those kinds of things. But we were the first or second group of our type in Europe in 1969, and we raised quite a bit of Cain. [The Art Ensemble of Chicago, the best known of the AACM-affiliated groups] beat us over there by about a month. 



After moving to New York City in 1970, Jenkins played with Alice Coltrane and Albert Ayler. Kunle Mwanga (whom we'll soon meet) recalls: “People were calling Leroy for gigs. It was almost like Leroy was the first person to come up here and really circulate within the New York musical environment.” 






Anthony Braxton 



Anthony Braxton was raised on early rock and roll, as well as the music of the black church, the blues, and rhythm and blues. He discovered jazz as a teenager, and while serving in the army in Seoul, South Korea, he came to appreciate the music of Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor, John Coltrane, Albert Ayler, and, in equal measure, Arnold Schoenberg, the composer credited with establishing the twelve-tone system in European art music. Schoenberg's explorations of atonality led him to recognize the limitations of that approach when composing longer forms. He recognized the need for a new organizing principle to structure works of concert music that lacked a key structure. 



Discovering Schoenberg helped Braxton claim as his own a larger musical world than he had previously known. He recalls: “Until that time I had always thought of Western art-music as something only relevant to white people; it had nothing to do with me and my life. I played in the orchestra on clarinet, I played my part, I played my Bach, but is never touched me ... Experiencing Schoenberg['s piano pieces Opus 11], however, suddenly made everything more meaningful ... It opened up the next whole aspect of my life. It affected me in as profound a way as anything has ever affected me.” 



Braxton's musical vistas were also broadened at Wilson Junior College, where he became friends with Jack DeJohnette and Roscoe Mitchell (DeJohnette of course would join the Miles Davis Lost Quintet in late 1968). Immediately upon returning home to Chicago from the army in 1966, Braxton made two of the most important connections of his musical life. First he met Muhal Richard Abrams, then a bebop pianist who in the early 1960s had created an “Experimental Band” to explore the implications of the searching work of Coleman and Coltrane. In 1964, Abrams cofounded the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians as a way of black musicians to perform original compositions and collectively create alternative structures to an oppressive jazz business. 

ラクストンの音楽観を広げてくれたものは、他にもある。ウィルソンジュニアカレッジで受けた教育だ。ここで彼は、ジャック・ディジョネットやロスコー・ミッチェルと友人関係を築く(ジャック・ディジョネットは1968年後半にマイルス・デイヴィスのロスト・クインテットに加入することになる)。1966年、兵役を終えてシカゴへ戻るとすぐに、ブラクストンは、その後の彼の音楽人生に置いて重要となる2人との人脈を築いた。一人はムハル・リチャード・エイブラムス。当時ビ・バップのピアノ奏者であった彼は、1960年代初頭には、「エクスペリメンタル・バンド(実験的な演奏に取り組むバンド)」を立ち上げ、オーネット・コールマンジョン・コルトレーンらが模索した音楽作りに係る模索を行った。1964年、the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians(AACM)を共同設立、アフリカ系ミュージシャン達が自らの作品を演奏し、低迷するジャズ音楽の市場に従来の音楽に取って代わるものをもたらすべく、これを力を合わせて創り出そうとする、そんな場を提供する役割を担い始めた。 


Also upon his return to Chicago, Braxton discovered John Cage's Silence, an influential collection of talks and writings about contemporary musical aesthetics that had been published in 1961. Cage's ideas opened Braxton's eyes to a world of musical sound beyond the conventional notion of pitches and metric rhythm. He wrote: “There is no such thing as an empty space or an empty time. There is always something to see, something to hear. In fact, try as we may to make a silence, we cannot. Sounds occur whether intended or not; the psychological turning in direction of those not intended seems at first to be a giving up of everything that belongs to humanity. But one must see that humanity and nature, not separate, are in this world together, that nothing was lost when everything was given away.” Recall, from chapter1, drummer Billy Hart's recollection of having listened with Braxton to the music of Cage, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and David Tudor.  



In 1968, Braxton engaged in a burst of studio activity, recording one of the first albums for solo saxophone, For Alto, and his early ensemble recording, 3 Compositions of New Jazz. The following year, he was one of the younger members of the AACM who participated in the exodus to Paris. 

1968年、ブラクストンは堰を切ったようにレコーディング活動を開始。初のアルバムとして、独奏サクソフォンのための「For Alto」、4人の奏者のための「3 Compositions of New Jazz」を制作した。翌年、AACMの若手メンバー達がパリへ渡ったが、その中にはブラクストンもいた。 


Braxton's Parisian debut in his quartet with Jenkins, Smith, and McCall took place at the Theatre du Lucernaire, the scene of the Art Ensemble's premiere performance in the city. There, like the Art Ensemble, he was accorded numerous performance opportunities, and press attention. He met Ornette Coleman, who eventually became an important friend, and other American jazz notables. Being situated in a capital of the European avant-garde, he attended performances of the continent's new music, developing a particular affection for Karlheinz Stockhausen's work. 



It was Stockhausen who showed me the beauty and excitement of every aspect of music science. In my dark periods, in those times where I was wondering how I could get through, his music would inspire me to keep doing my work ... the philosophical dynamics of [Cage's] music would help me, as an African-American intellectual, to look into my own lineage and develop my own perspective. Experiencing the musics of Cage and Stockhausen would be the final part of my own equation, in terms of understanding what I wanted to do with my life ... I discovered Schoenberg in the army; his music would be just as important to me. 



During this period, Braxton began to assimilate what he had learned from Coleman, Coltrane, Cage, and Schoenberg. The year before, when recording his landmark album for solo saxophone, For Alto, he composed his first notated works in a contemporary art music idioms, moving toward his unique synthesis of musical languages. 

この間、ブラクストンは、オーネット・コールマンジョン・コルトレーンジョン・ケージから学んだことと、シェーンベルクから得たものを融合させることに着手した。その前年に、自身にとって重要な作品となった「For Alto」を制作した彼は、記譜を伴う最初の作品を手掛ける。現代音楽の手法を用いたこの曲は、様々な音楽を独自の手法で融合させるという方向性へと、彼を向かわせた。 


Braxton's early ensemble recording, 3 Compositions of New Jazz, displays the musical eclecticism and experimentalism for which he was becoming known. On “Composition 6E” (the title of the work is represented on the album cover by a schematic diagram), he is joined by Leroy Jenkins and Leo Smith, two members of the group he cofounded, Creative Construction Company. The twenty-minute piece is simultaneously playful and serious, virtuosic, and abounding in complex juxtapositions of sound and emotional tone. 

ラクストンの最初のアンサンブル曲である「「3 Compositions of New Jazz」が示す、様々な音楽の融合と実験的な取り組みに対する意欲的な姿勢は、後に彼の看板となってゆく。「Composition 6E」では(この曲の題名はアルバムカバーには回路図のようなデザインで描かれている)、ブラクストンも創設メンバーであったCreative Construction Companyのメンバーの内、リロイ・ジェンキンスとレオ・スミスも演奏に参加している。演奏時間20分のこの作品は、安定感があって心動かす音色を用いた複雑な曲の作り方をふんだんに用いることにより、遊び心ある所、しっかりと聞き入る所、高度なテクニックを要する所を聞かせる。 


The work defies conventional expectations of genre and aesthetics, opening and closing with a “tra-la-la” vocal chorus complemented by whistling, and leading into Anthony Braxton's lyrical alto saxophone solo. His musical lines display a beautifully pure tone color, accompanied by harmonica, xylophone, hand percussion, and continued singing. Soon, Braxton is joined by Jenkins's violin and Smith's trumpet, all continuing in parallel play. Braxton's martial snare drum enters, as does hand percussion and vocals, while Smith's trumpet continues. Jenkins's violin then returns with steady, mellifluous lines. Such is the opening six minutes of the work. As Chick Corea would later observe of Circle's Paris Concert, 3 Compositions of New Jazz brims with “sharing, creating, loving, freely giving.” Braxton was quickly absorbing everything he knew, all his influences, new and old, and shaping a distinctive personal musical voice. It was eclectic yet increasingly organic, clearly identifiable to the listener as Anthony Braxton. 

この作品は、従来の音楽ジャンルやその音楽観のもつ固定概念を覆すものである。曲の冒頭と終わりには「トゥララ」などと合唱があり、口笛も加わる。そしてアンソニー・ブラクストンの叙情的なアルトサックスのソロへと続いてゆく。彼の奏でる旋律は、非常に美しくありのままの姿を見せる音色を聞かせており、これを支えるのが、ハーモニカ、シロフォン、手拍子足拍子、そして持続音的に人間の歌声も加わる。リロイ・ジェンキンスのバイオリンとレオ・スミスのトランペットが、これと並行して持続的に聞こえてくる。そこへブラクストンの軍楽隊の演奏を彷彿とさせるスネアドラムが加わる。同時に、レオ・スミスのトランペットがなり続ける中、手拍子足拍子が加わる。そこへリロイ・ジェンキンスのバイオリンが、安定感のある甘美な旋律を聞かせてくる。後にチック・コリアが、サークルの「パリ・コンサート」を評して、「3 Compositions of New Jazz」は「共有、創造、愛情、無償の贈与」に溢れている、としている。ブラクストンは、新旧全ての自らの知識とこれまで受けてきた影響を、機を逃さず出し尽くし、彼独自の音楽の発信を作り上げた。それは多様性を持ちながらも、更に有機的であり、聞くものの耳は明確に「アンソニー・ブラクストンの作品である」と届くものだ。 


The peril open improvisation, with its lack of a clear organizing structure, is that it can be long-winded or become stale and repetitive. Many of Braxton's compositions from this early period in his work are conceptualized to provide new structures that can guide and inform the improvisational process, keeping it focused and fresh. 



The score for “Composition 6E” specifies four sections. The first is a “basic use of voice with counterpoint like situation,” followed by what Michael Heffley describes as an “extension of materials,” a “whistle and pointillistic section,” and a “repeat of first section,” all within a context of open improvisation that makes use of little instruments and “with solo possibly inside.” “Little instruments” refers to the hand percussion and other miscellaneous sound sources often utilized within many AACM performances. The form of another of the pieces, “Composition 6A,” includes patterns of accelerando and retard, and changes from duple meter to 9/4. This piece and others in Braxton's “Compositions 6” series would later become part of the repertoire performed by Circle. 

「Composition 6E」の総譜を見ると、4つのセクションに別れている。第1は「対位法的な状態での人間の歌声の基本的な使い方」をしている。これに続くのが、マイケル・ヘフレイが言うところの「素材の利用を広く行う」「口笛を伴う点描画のようなセクション」だ。そして「第1セクションの繰り返し」として、オープンインプロヴィゼーションの手法で、通常脇役とされるような楽器をふんだんに使用し、「主役とされるソロ楽器を極力内側に押し込む」。「脇役とされるような楽器」とは、手拍子足拍子であったり、AACMのメンバー達が多くの演奏の機会に頻繁に利用する種々雑多な楽器のことをいう。「Composition 6A」で使われている別の形式には、テンポに緩急をつけたり、拍子感について、2拍(4分音符2つ)から3拍(4分音符9つ)へ変化させたりする。この作品に限らず、ブラクストンの「Composition 6」のシリーズは、後にサークルのレパートリーとなってゆく。 




Braxton Meets Musica Elettronica Viva in Belgium 



During the summer of 1969, as Miles Davis was preparing to record Bitches Brew and American rock fans were flocking to Woodstock, Braxton participated in an eclectic festival in Belgium. There he met Richard Teitelbaum, Alvin Curran, and Frederic Rzewski, members of Musica Elettronica Viva (MEV). Teitelbaum recalls: 

1969年夏、マイルス・デイヴィスが「Bitches Brew」のレコーディング準備に奔走し、アメリカではロックファンがウッドストックに集結していた頃、ブラクストンはベルギーで、とある電子音楽のフェスに参加していた。ここで彼が出会うのが、リチャード・タイテルバウム、アルヴィン・カラン、そしてフレデリック・ジェフスキーという、ムジカ・エレットロニカ・ヴィヴァのメンバー達である。タイテルバウムは次のように振り返る 


I met Braxton in 1969 in a cow pasture in Belgium, in a place called Amougies, at a big festival [Festival Actuel] that was one of the original attempts to bring jazz [musicians] ― well, mostly rock, some free jazz, and a few wacky token electronic avant-garde types ― to play in the same festival. Braxton played there with his trio with Leroy Jenkins and [Wadada] Leo Smith. The Art Ensemble of Chicago played there, an extraordinary performance; that was the first time I heard them and met them. MEV was part of that. [Before that] I had barely known anything about of those [AACM] guys. 



Anthony Braxton speaks of the cow pasture as “something like five feet of mud in Belgium .... All of us were our 20s, excited about music and the idea of music as a component to change the world. We were going to change the world with our work. We were idealistic and excited.” 



Festival Actuel was a very different kind of event from the festivals where Miles Davis's band appeared. It would be different to imagine an American or British rock event encompassing an aesthetic palate as broad as Actuel's, with its blend of rock bands, MEV, the Art Ensemble of Chicago, and Anthony Braxton. In contrast, Davis's Lost Septet's final show, in late August 1970, was an appearance before three-quarters of a million people at the Isle of Wight rock festival in England. There Miles shared a bill with Jimi Hendrix, Chicago, the Who, Sly and the Family Stone, Emerson Lake and Palmer, Joni Mitchell, and others. That spring, in a shift from jazz clubs, festivals, and concert halls, Davis had given three series of concerts at Fillmore East in New York City and Fillmore West in San Francisco. These were rock halls where his band was the opening act for rock groups. 



Calling the festival in Amougies a “daring project,” Jane Welch wrote in DownBeat: 



Where Woodstock was a social revelation, the first Actuel Paris Music Festival was a musical revolution. This revolution was accomplished in the programming, which included all the kinds of music in which the new musicians and composers of today are involved ... The fact that it was a success (over 75,000 attended during a 5-day period) proves that audiences are ready to hear this type of music and, like the Woodstock masses, are willing to make sacrifices to take part in a musical milieu truly representative of their taste. The music was NOW, the audience was NOW and, despite all business or political opposition which attempted to abort the festival, the time was right and the baby was born. 



In addition to the nearly fifty groups performing individually, a jam session included Frank Zappa, Philly Joe Jones, Earl Freeman, Louis Maholo, John Dyani, Grachan Moncur III, and Archie Shepp. 



The Festival Actuel shows in Belgium were recorded, and additional sessions took place in Paris. Some of the musicians involved, most of them American, were already living abroad, and performed at the Pan-African Music Festival in Algiers. The result was a series of fifty recordings on the BYG label that represented some of the more important documentation of music from that period. Festival Actuel producers Fernand Boruso, Jean-Luc Young, and Jean Georgakarakos (more popularly shortened to Karakos) were the founders of BYG Records (the name was formed by the initials of the founders' surnames), and Anthony Braxton and the Art Ensemble of Chicago would each release recordings on that label. 



The propitious meeting between Braxton and Teitelbaum at Festival Actuel brought together two musicians raised in very different cultural settings, but sharing key musical and philosophical sensibilities. Whereas Braxton grew up on the South Side of Chicago, playing rock and roll and later discovering a broader musical world in the army and through the AACM, Teitelbaum hailed from New York City. He attended Haverford College, where his main interests at that time were Stravinsky and Bartok ... And then I started getting interested in Schoenberg and Webern, more in graduate school [Yale University class of 1964]; and Stockhausen through having met him. And jazz. I liked bebop a lot ... I don't think I got really into Coltrane until 1960 or something like that. [I went to hear his] quartet, that's my recollection, Jimmy Garrison, [McCoy] Tyner, [and Elvin Jones]. But then I heard him several times in the period of “Ascension.”.. And then I also was getting involved with free-jazz stuff. I met Albert Ayler. I went to see him in the Village, and a friend who knew him took me up, shook his hand; that was kind of exciting. 



Then Teitelbaum went to Italy on a Fulbright Fellowship to study composition with Luigi Nono. 



When I got to Venice, I was still writing this instrumental piece, but I was hanging out with [saxophonist] Steve Lacy, [trumpeter] Don Cherry, and others ― Ornette [Coleman] ― and listening to more jazz, really, than to classical or electronic music. I still somewhere have some notebooks where I have pages where I did something like this [gestures in the air with his hand] when I was listening to Coltrane's Ascension. I was really quite obsessed with the notion that noise was a thing that was a common between the jazz of that period, such as Ascension, where there were twenty guys blasting away and ten of them were percussionists, and the others were just blowing their brains out, and noise music ― electronic music. So, it was a very conscious awareness of the connection between improvised music, free improvised music, [and electronic music].   



In 1966 in Rome, MEV was cofounded by Teitelbaum, Alvin Curran, and Frederic Rzewski; all three were Ivy League university-trained American musicians steeped in post-World War II European avant-garde traditions. Curran and Teitelbaum had been graduate school roommates at Yele University, and Curran and Rzewski had met in Berlin. What they all sought was an alternative to the rigorously mathematical serialism of that world. While each musician came to Rome for different reasons, all were drawn to that city's musical and artistic vitality. Rome was the city of filmmaker Federico Fellini, and a home for expat American experimentalists like the Living Theatre and musicians Don Cherry, Ornette Coleman, and Steve Lacy. 



MEV championed music that was collective, spontaneous, and participatory. Its members viewed their music-making as a revolutionary endeavor to empower people in the skill sets they would need during a time of social transformation. They envisioned a truly free society in which groups could function unconstrained by conventional, hierarchical political structures. Curran describes their endeavors as a “utopian challenge.” In works such as Rzewski's “Spacecraft”(1967), “Zuppa” (1968), and “Sound Pool” (1969), MEV thus drew from structures that allowed any number of participants, musically skilled or unskilled, to join in an improvisational experience. Curran writes: “What the group MEV essentially did was to redefine music as a form of property that belonged equally to everyone and hence to encourage its creation freely by and through anyone anywhere.” For this reason, conventional musical skills could be constraining, as Rzewski notes: “Improvisation is a controlled experiment with a limited number of unknown possibilities ... The presence of too much theoretical or analytical knowledge in the conscious mind may interfere with the essential act, so that the perception of the thing being studied becomes distorted.” For Curran, musical improvisation was an exemplar of a generalized approach to life, “the art of constant, attentive and dangerous living in every moment.” 

ムジカ・エレットロニカ・ヴィヴァが取り組んだ音楽は、集団で、自然発生的に、更には音楽以外でもパフォーマンスに加わることができるというものだ。メンバー達は音楽作りをどう見ていたかというと、「革命的な努力」により、人々に力を与える。これにより、身につくスキルの数々で、世の中の変革期を乗り切ってゆくというものである。彼らは心の自由な社会というヴィジョンを持っていた。そこでは、様々な集団は従来型の、階層を前提とした、政治的構造に縛られずに機能してゆく。カランは自分達のこうした企てを「ユートピア的挑戦」と呼んだ。ジェフスキーの「Space Craft」(1967年)、「Zuppa」(1968年)、そして「Sound Pool」(1969年)といった作品では、ムジカ・エレットロニカ・ヴィヴァは従来型の楽曲形式や構造を排除した。そうすることで、人数制限なく色々な人が参加できるようにするのだ。更には、音楽面で専門的な知識や技術があってもなくてもよくて、そうすることで一つの同じインプロヴィゼーションに加わることができるのだ。カランは次のように記している「ムジカ・エレットロニカ・ヴィヴァの取り組みの本質は、音楽を定義し直すことだ。それは、汎ゆる人にとって平等な存在であり、それゆえに、誰がどういう背景であっても自由に作れるよう促す、そんな姿をしたもの、というものだ。」そうした理由から、従来からある音楽の知識や技術といったものは、足かせとなってしまう。これについてはジェフスキーが次のように記している「インプロヴィゼーションとは、限られた数の未知の可能性を用いた、人の手による行為だ。理論や分析した知識を、意識的に駆使し過ぎては、彼らの取り組みの本質にとっては邪魔となる。こうなっては物事の捉え方が捻じ曲げられてしまう。」カランにとっては、音楽のインプロヴィゼーションとは、人生における汎ゆる物事への取り組みを集大成したものの一例であり、人生の、絶え間なく、気の抜けない、そして安穏とはしていられない一瞬一瞬を披露する腕前のことなのだ。 


For Braxton, the late 1960s, highlighted by his sojourn in Europe, was “a very beautiful time. Teitelbaum and Frederic [Rzewski] were moving away from Stockhausen; more and more they were becoming interested in improvisation and the transAfrican restructural musics.” He recalls hearing recordings of Stockhausen's Kontra-Punkte and Klavierstucke X (the latter performed by MEV pianist Rzewski): “I was very curious about the restructural breakthroughs of the post-Webern composers. So we kind of met in the middle of this sector. I learned a great deal about the post-Webern continuum from Mr. Teitelbaum and Mr. Rzewski and Curran.” Braxton refers to the members of MEV “as a part of this underground brotherhood-sisterhood that is permeated with love and respect ― and of course, poverty! That's how I see my work. That is the proper context for my work. It's a part of the old underground.” 



The musical values that Anthony Braxton affirmed at the time were in important ways sympathetic to MEV's call to arms, although maybe not as anarchic. In an MEV performance, social dynamics could unfold that were neither predictable nor alway  

easy to manage. Curran observes: 




Anything could happen ... [There was] a generic problem that was happening in the MEV experience in those years, 68, 69, and 70. Because of, let's call it, philosophic necessity, we found that we had to open the music to anybody. When this went from a mere philosophical, conceptual idea to a practical one, the problems that arose were minor actually, were few. It was more like policing a rowdy crowd on occasion. Other times we're just sitting back and listening to this divine collective harmony that just happens spontaneously because we made it happen, or the people involved made it happen for themselves. 



Braxton wrote sympathetically, in 1968: 



We're on the eve of the complete fall of Western ideas and life-values ... We're in the process of developing more meaningful values and our music is a direct extension of this. We place more emphasis on the meaningful areas of music and less on artifacts, [today's] over-emphasis on harmonic structure, chord progressions, facility, mathematics, the empirical aspects of Art. Our emphasis is on the idea of total music, with each individual contributing toward it totally ... We're dealing with textures, now ― individual worlds of textures. We're working toward a feeling of one ― the complete freedom of individuals in tune with each other, complementing each other. This is going to be the next phase of jazz. 



In fact, Braxton's eclectic musical vision was just beginning to unfold. Six years after his prophetic statement, he urged a younger musicians to listen to Henry Cowell, Paul Desmond, and Charles Ives, referring to the latter as “Father” Charles Ives. And he spoke excitedly about various people whom he felt were “the most incredible _____ on the planet ... The direction he was trying to move into with his own music was composed music. Braxton didn't want to call it classical, just like he didn't want to call his other, small-group stuff with all the improvisation, jazz.” 



At the close of the 1960s, the spirit of the time was being open to possibilities. There was a sense of living on the cusp of a new era of unlimited freedom, where responsible action would be based on mutuality and interrelationship. In this environment, MEV and Anthony Braxton would find shared sensibilities and impetus to collaborate. Chick Corea, Dave Holland, and Jack DeJohnette could push Miles Davis's band toward a greater openness. And soon, that common cause would extend to a musical partnership between Corea, Holland, and Braxton. 






Braxton in New York 



Although Paris afforded better performance opportunities than Chicago, Braxton decided to return to the United States in late 1969. While returning home might literally mean Chicago, New York City beckoned. This was now the center of gravity for new music of all kinds. Braxton and Leroy Jenkins had met Ornette Coleman in Paris, introduced by an entrepreneur from Chicago named Kunle Mwanga. This encounter occurred a decade after Coleman first arrived in New York City, keenly observed at the Five Spot by Miles Davis and John Coltrane. 



Mwanga's chance meeting with Coleman in London, the latter en route to Paris, led to Coleman's organizing a joint Paris concert with Braxton's Creative Construction Company, the Art Ensemble of Chicago, and Coleman's own group. The contacts were now in place for Braxton and Jenkins to reconnect with Coleman when they moved to New York. Once back in the States, Coleman invited Braxton to move into his loft, where Braxton remained for nine months. 






Ornette Coleman’s Artists House 



In the late 1960s, Coleman moved into the upstairs floor of a formerly commercial building at 131 Prince Street in lower Manhattan. The neighborhood’s industrial base in small manufacturing had declined, and Coleman became one of a group of artists and musicians to find affordable housing among its abandoned buildings. His interest in welcoming fellow musicians and other friends over to his loft to visit led to the space’s becoming viewed by some as an informal artists’ hangout. Thus, it was only a matter of time that, at some point in the early 1970s, he took over the first-floor storefront in his building, naming it Artists House. 



At first, Artists House was an extension of the saxophonist-composer’s home and was a place for socializing; secondarily, it served as a rehearsal space. By the early 1970s, it became to some degree an event venue. Revolutionary Ensemble drummer Jerome Cooper remembers: “He would give his parties, he would have his band, and he would let his friends rehearse there. I used to go to parties over there at the Artists House. I remember the bass player with John Coltrane Jimmy Garrison used to hang out there a lot. It was a great place.” Artist Fred Brown observes: “I thought a loft was a hayloft and this place was like Shangri-la.” A DownBeat writer described Artists House as “quickly becoming a haven for some of our more creative musicians. The House presented the perfect atmosphere for music African prints and paintings adorn the walls making for striking contrast between audio and visual. This is the type of setting where the music does the people and not, as it so often is the case, the other way around.” 



Coleman served as an informal mentor and support to younger players. Vibraphonist Karl Berger, a member of trumpeter Don Cherry’s band and soon the confounder, with Coleman, of Creative Music Studio, recalls: “We went a lot there in the late ‘60s. He had people coming over all the time. That’s the first time I met Leroy [Jenkins] and a lot of other people who’d come there. And we were playing pool. He had a pool table. Always on the weekends there was a bunch of people there. Basically, we were there every weekend and also some weekdays.” 



Cooper adds: “Leroy used to be at Ornette Coleman’s house all the time, Sirone [bassist Norris Jones] used to be over there [too] and [so was] I but I never talked to Ornette at that time. I used to hang out with Ed Blackwell. I remember the party he [Ornette] gave when he signed with Columbia and did Skies of America and Science Fiction. I went there and it was really nice. 

ジェローム・クーパーは更に続けて「リロイ・ジェンキンスオーネット・コールマンの家には入り浸っていた。シローネ(ベース奏者のノリス・ジョーンズ)もよく来ていたし、そういう私も。だが当時、オーネットと口を聞くことはなかった。私がよくつるんでいた相手は、エド・ブラックウェルだ。オーネットが、コロンビアレコードと契約し、「Skies America」と「Science Fiction」を制作した際のパーティーは、今でも覚えている。私も出席した。本当に良いパーティーだった。」 


When Jenkins first arrived in New York from Chicago via Paris, he too moved into Artists House at Coleman’s invitation, and he stayed for a few months. “We stayed downstairs at Ornette’s Artists House, which at the time wasn’t decorated. It was cold down there, where we slept. Ornette gave us a mattress but he didn’t realize how cold it was.” Berger recalls that when he first arrived in the United States, “Ingrid [Sertso, Berger’s spouse and collaborator] and I went to Ornette’s loft all the time, and we discussed matters. He was the only one who made sense to me in terms of how he talked about music. 



Artists House would be the site of Braxton and Jenkins’s rehearsals with Creative Construction Company in preparation for its concert appearance at the Washington Square Church (also known as the “Peace Church” due to its stated opposition to the Vietnam War), the first event sponsored by the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians to take place in New York. Coleman also hosted performances at the loft, among them those by his own group and shows by Julius Hemphill, Frank Wright, Sunny Murray, MEV, and, as Jerome Cooper remembers, Dave Holland and Jack DeJohnette (with a guitar player). 



The degrees of separation between present and former members of Miles Davis bands and Artists House were fewer than might be assumed. The Revolutionary Ensemble, Jenkins’s new trio with Cooper and Sirone, whom we’ll soon meet, would conduct rehearsals and hold a concert at Artist’s House. A 1973 New and Newer Music series held there included works from various downtown musical worlds, combining music by Ornette Coleman with offerings by Carla Bley and MEV's cofounder, pianist Frederic Rzewski. The following year, Creative Music Studio's first festival took place at Artists House. Unfortunately, Coleman's space closed soon after that event. 

マイルス・デイヴィスのメンバーとアーティスツ・ハウスのミュージシャン達について、この時点とそれ以前とでは、周囲の予想よりも、その乖離はさほどではなかった。レボリューショナリー・アンサンブル(リロイ・ジェンキンスがクーパー、シローネらと新たに結成したトリオ、本書で後述)は、アーティスツ・ハウスでリハーサルとコンサートを行った。1973年のコンサートシリーズの「New and Newer Music」に際しては、ニューヨークの様々な音楽シーンの作品が紹介され、オーネット・コールマンの音楽に、カーラ・ブレイやムジカ・エレットリカ・ヴィヴァの共同設立者でピアノ奏者のフレデリック・ジェフスキーらが楽曲提供をしたものも披露された。翌年、クリエイティブ・ミュージック・スタジオの最初のフェスがアーティスツ・ハウスで開催された。その直後、このハウスが閉鎖されてしまったことは、残念である。 


The informality and neighborly atmosphere of Artists House is captured in a sesion Coleman recorded in the space on February 14, 1970, released as Friends and Neighbors: Ornette Live at Prince Street. The spirit of the location is well captured by the buoyant, joyous title tracks that open the recording . Bassist Charlie Haden and drummer Ed Blackwell, members of Coleman's original quartet and reunited for the occasion, set up a rollicking, finger-snapping beat. The assembled crowed sings together: Friends and neighbors, that's where it's at. Friends and neighbors, that's where it's at. Friends and neighbors, that's a fact. Hand in hand ... “ 

アーティスツ・ハウスの、気さくで互いに親切な雰囲気が感じ取れる作品がある。コールマンがアーティスツ・ハウスで収録したセッションで、1970年2月14日に行われた。タイトルは「Friends and Neighbors: Ornette Live at Prince Street」。この場所の精神的雰囲気がよく感じ取れるのが、冒頭2つのの陽気で楽しいタイトル曲だ。コールマンのカルテットのメンバーだったベース奏者のチャーリー・ヘイデンやドラム奏者のエド・ブラックウェルらが、この収録のために再集結し、陽気なフィンガースナップ風のビートを効かせる。1曲目のFriends and Neighborsでは集まったミュージシャン達が声を揃えて歌う。「【訳詞】友よ、隣人よ、なんて素晴らしい、友よ、隣人よ、なんて素晴らしい、友よ、隣人よ、夢じゃないぞ、さあ、手に手をとって・・・・」 


Coleman wildly bows on viollin, one of his new instruments on top of which his old south Texas friend, tenor saxophonis Dewey Redman, plays a soulful solo, which dances around the melody. The chant returns, joined by Coleman's violin and the rhythm section. The audience whoops and shouts its approval before Redman continues his solo. The recording offered an inside view of the communal spirit of the “jazz loft” scene, which would spring forth two years later, in 1972. 





Joining Musica Elettronica Viva 



Situated in New York City, Anthony Braxton was adrift. Kunle Mwanga, the entrepreneur who had introduced Braxton and Leroy Jenkins to Ornette Coleman in Paris (but who was living in New York), found Braxton to be uninterested in playing music. “As a matter of fact, he was playing chess a lot in the park.” Mwanga would soon persuade him to play a reunion concert with Creative Construction Company, but throughout this period, he “was thinking about other things.” One of the first of these plans was another reunion, with his new friends from Amougie. As Braxton recalls: “I had the good fortune to be asked to join Musica Elettronica Viva, and in doing that, I had opportunities to meet American masters like Maryanne Amacher,” along with Richard Teitelbaum, Alvin Curran, and Frederic Rzewski. 







MEV's American Tour 




I thought it was one of the best MEV ensembles that ever existed. 







The tour was a success. I thought it was a really interesting group, actually. 







By 1969 MEV continued to use Rome as a home base from which it actively toured Europe. For the concerts that concluded its time in Rome, the group consisted of its three core members (Teitelbaum, Curran, and Rzewski) plus saxophonist Steve Lacy, Franco Cataldi, and Ivan and Patricia Coaquette. Composer Giuseppe Chiari joined for a concert in Palermo, Italy, where a work by Morton Feldman was on the program. 



Not long after meeting Braxton in Amougies, Teitelbaum and Rzewski prepared to return to the United States; Curran had decided to remain in Rome. Rzewski resettled in New York with his family for a few years. One factor in Teitelbaum's decision to return was the influence of Morton Feldman. “Somewhere in there, I came back [to New York] and Feldman took me out to lunch at Chock Full o' Nuts. He was dean of the New York Studio School in the Village. He kind of was urging me to come back. He said: 'This is your country' or something like that. I was pretty impressed by Feldman. I loved his music. I loved him. We had played a piece of his in Rome, at the Salon Casella.” 



The other factor influencing Teitelbaum's return to the States was his idea of developing a cross-cultural ensemble, which he called World Band. The ensemble began rehearsing during the months leading up to MEV's tour with Braxton. Both endeavors joined musicians who had been raised in different musical traditions.  



In late winter to early spring 1970, Anthony Braxton and sound artist Maryanne Amacher joined the three core members of MEV on an American tour. Tour stops included a cluster of colleges and universities: Notre Dame, Case Western Reserve, Antioch College, and Bowling Green University, followed by Wesleyan College, Brown University, Haverford College, and State University of New York campuses at Stony Brook and Albany. Teitelbaum recalls that the group made money from the tour: “The pay was decent, I think. We might have gotten a thousand dollars for a gig. That was good for then. I'm guessing.” 

1970年、冬の終わりから春の始めにかけて、アンソニー・ブラクストンとサウンドアーティストのマリアンヌ・エメシェールは、ムジカ・エレットリカ・ヴィヴァの中核メンバー3名とともに、アメリカツアーに参加する。ツアーは数多くの大学でも行われた(Notre Dame、 Case Western Reserve、 Antioch College、 Bowling Green University, 更には Wesleyan College、 Brown University、 Haverford Collegeそして ストーニーブルック&アルバニーにあるState University of New York の各キャンパス)。タイテルバウムはこのツアーであげた収益について振り返る「ギャラは良かった、と思う本番1回で1000ドルの収益だったんじゃないかな。当時にしては良かった、と思うけどね。」 


Curran explained the rationale for the tour to a New York Times reporter: “Our original music was based on friendship. We were all sort of sick of being composers abroad. Now, we are all very anxious to find out where we fit into the States. We have been in Europe six to eight years and things have changed a great deal at home, and we have changed a great deal. We could fall right into place, or we could flop right back to Rome.” 



During that same period, Miles Davis was engaged in duo-keyboard and duo-electric guitar studio sessions in between tour dates with the Lost Quintet, and Wayne Shorter was making his final appearances with the group. Chick Corea and Dave Holland had begun playing acoustic duet music to which they would soon add drummer Barry Altschul. 



The composition of the MEV group that toured the United States represented both a cultural shift and a new chemistry - in fact, a new formation that played together for the first time at its first show. Beyond the three core members, the personnel had changed from MEV's European tour. 




TEITELBAIM:The core group was the same, [but] Maryanne and Braxton had replaced the Cataldis and Franco. [Braxton played (and transported!) a wide range of clarinets, saxophones, and other instruments, from contrabass on upward.] 




CURRAN:Maryanne had her tapes .... and her Revoxes [tape recorders]. 




TEITELBAUM:She had a heat sink and a bass bow. She had a mixer and, I guess, a contact mic, and she made these incredibly high sounds. I don't remember. She'd find stuff. I think it was at Antioch she had a bass. And she'd scrape the scroll of the bass against the wall and made this amazing sound. So she'd just have whatever. And these tapes, she had amazing tapes. 




CURRAN:[The new composition of the band] changed everything. [But] when we found ourselves onstage when we played, there was absolutely no difference. And this was remarkable. 




TEITELBAUM:Braxton and Maryanne had the commonality of Stockhausen, for instance, and Cage. 




CURRAN:There were some clear cultural differences in the sense that what Braxton would play, you would hear there wasn't a moment when you weren't aware of the whole history of jazz behind him. But that didn't for one minute get in the way of his ability or the other MEV people's ability to integrate their sound with his. I think there was one common musical space that people liked to get into. And it was that space of delirious energy, and that could be shared at any time. Someone would get on a riff or a high, screaming overtone, like Braxton, or radical blatting down in the lowest registers, honking like geese or something ... And so there were spaces between the cultures where one could enter at any time and just hang on to the immaterial material of pure sound. So there were certain energies and certain vibrations. They could have been of any shape of any size. As I say, there were very high-energy places. But they could have been very quiet moments as well. They were almost made of pure breath. Those kinds of places were extreme places, in both directions of speed and slowness and silence; [they] were places that were easy meeting grounds for all of us. 








First Stop: The Brooklyn Academy of Music 



The MEV tour was organized by Saul Gottlieb, director of the Radical Theatre Repertory. It was planned around four or five gigs, the fruit of letter writing by group members while still in Rome 

ムジカ・エレットロニカ・ヴィヴァのツアーを計画したのは、サウル・ゴットリーブという、Radical Theatre Repertoryのディレクターである。4回(5回)の公演が組まれた。これもメンバー達がローマ滞在中に手紙をしたためた成果である。 


First stop was the newly opened Brooklyn Academy of Music. Curran: “We did an MEV classic program, starting with a Feldman piece. And Feldman was there. We ended it up with Christian Wolff's 'Sticks,' and that was supposed to segue into this mass improvisation ('Soundpool'), which it did.” The full program included Richard Teitelbaum's “In Tune,” which translated brainwave activity into Moog synthesizer sounds; Wolff's “Sticks,” a drone piece; Alvin Curran's “Rounds”; and music by Morton Feldman and Frederic Rzewski. Curran recalls: 

最初の公演は、当時開校したばかりのブルックリン音楽アカデミーだ。カラン「ここではムジカ・エレットロニカ・ヴィヴァの定番プログラムを組んだ。最初にフェルドマンの曲。彼も演奏に立ち会った。最後はクリスチャン・ウォルフの「Sticks」。この曲は途切れなくこの集団でのインプロヴィゼーションへ(別名「サウンドプール(音の溜まり場)」)続いてゆく予定になっていて、実際そのとおり事は運んだ。プログラム全体の曲目を見てみよう。リチャード・タイテルバウムの「In Tune」は、ムーグのシンセサイザーサウンドにより、彼が霊感的に音楽を発信するという曲。クリスチャン・ウォルフの「Sticks」は、持続低音を用いている。更には、アルヴァン・カランの「Rounds」、そしてモートン・フェルドマンフレデリック・ジェフスキーの作品。カランは当時を振り返る。 


I don't know how we announced it or how it actually came out, but I do remember that there was a kind of a dreadful informality going on [once the Sound Pool audience-participation improvisation piece began]. Which was no longer a performance. The first part was a concert. And then the second part became this dissolution into a kind of this happy neighborhood anarchy. I personally felt that it didn't generate the kind of energy that other Sound Pools had generated. And so therefore it failed. There was just the feeling that it didn't matter what was happening, who was there, or what. But somehow there was something that rode over everything to another experiential and existential level, [yet] it didn't transcend, it didn't go anywhere. 



New York Times critic Peter G. Davis concluded: “Contemporary music reached some sort of desperate nadir last night as the Musica Elettronica Viva displayed its waves ... If the shuffling aridities of this group of losers sounds like your cup of irrelevancy, it is giving a repeat performance at the Academy this evening.” Curran believes that the sheer size and sense of cultural importance of the Brooklyn Academy of Music, in contrast to the smaller venues Musica Elettronica Viva otherwise played, contributed to the difficulties. 





On the Road 



After the Brooklyn Academy of Music kickoff concert, Curran recalls: “We packed in an old Oldsmobile car [a station wagon] that belonged to Frederic's [Rzewski's] father or mother. We all packed into one car ... We just barreled on rainy highways right from New York across Pennsylvania, in to Ohio. It seemed like always with the radio going, playing Procol Harum. You know, the songs of those days. It's a kind of piece of history.” Once Musica Elettronica Viva left New York, the tour went well. Curran's assessment: “Antioch, I thought, was one of the best concerts Musica Elettronica Viva ever played. The Albany concert was insane.” Unfortunately, few recordings remain. But MEV's anarchic pieces, performed with American college students, were not without their challenges. 



Curran recalls that the Brown University concert was pretty much a ruckus. “Everyone jumped into the howling collective fray with large tree branches ― first used for 'Sticks,' then for the audience to play with ― and things did, in fact, get out of hand, and left undeniable damage to Brown property: floors, walls, tables, chairs, etc. For this the University sent us a bill, which I recall we threw away as if it never had arrived ― even me, the embarrassed Brown Alumnus.” Something similar happened at SUNY Stony Brook, maybe a year later. 

カランの回想によれば、Brown Universityでの公演は相当な騒ぎとなった「全員が舞台に飛び乗ってきて、手に手に大きな木の枝を持って、阿鼻叫喚の興奮状態に加わった。文字通り、全ては手に負えなくなり、Brown Universityの施設設備に明らかな損害を与えてしまった。床も、壁も、机も椅子も、なにもかもだ。これには、大学側も私達に損害請求書を送りつけてきた。だがこれを、自分も卒業生として申し訳ないと思いつつ、メンバー全員、見なかったふりをして捨ててしまった。」翌年、同じようなことがニューヨーク州立大学ストーニーブルック校での公演でも起きてしまった。 


Curran remembers the Midwest portion of the trip as passing through “some of the most depressed parts of America ... Well, it was remarkable to be at a Catholic college at that time and have so much upheaval and then at the same time we were in Ohio.” 



The Antioch College performance in Yellow Springs, Ohio, on April 6, 1970, stood out in Curran's memory as “like total freakout-ville.” Teitelbaum remembers vividly that “while it was still going on, Braxton and I found ourselves outside, maybe having a smoke. And also I think because it was a 'Sound Pool' [audience-participation improvisational piece]. Things got kinda wild. I was sort of driven out.” 

1970年4月6日、オハイオ州イエロースプリングスのAntioch Collegeでの公演は、カランの記憶の中でも「完全に興奮状態の村のようだった」として際立っていたという。タイテルバウムは当時を鮮明に記憶している「まだ本番中だったのに、ブラクストンと私は、ふと気づけば外に居た。一服するためだったかもしれない。それもこれも「サウンドプール」のせいだったと思う(聴衆参加型の曲)。場内はメチャクチャ。ある意味私は、そこからはじき出された格好だった。」 



I remember that. You got freaked. 





I said to Braxton, “Braxton, do you like this music?” Or something. “Do you like this?” But I don't remember what his answer was. I think it was sort of ambivalent. 





I remember those kids jumped onstage. They started rocking. It was crazy. But it wasn't rock. I remember an electric bass, a guitar. I think someone was trying to push it in [a beat-driven] direction. That was a kind of loose, Sunday afternoon freak-out. That was the least interesting. 




During the writing of this book, a recording of the Antioch College concert surfaced. This was an unanticipated, wonderful discovery. The recording spans about an hour and a half of what must have been a longer show, given that the audience participation piece, “Sound Pool,” is not documented on the reel-to-reel tape. The side of MEV in evidence here is stylistically diverse. Exploration abounds, and sometimes a rhythmic pulse evokes foot tapping. A panoply of musical improvisations ranges from textural sound collage to unfolding melodic and rhythmically driven processes. Four ensemble works are complemented by seven saxophone solo improvisations by Anthony Braxton, whose distinct musical personality is evident throughout. These solo forays provide Braxton the space to present his own work; as an ensemble member, his playing is an organic and comfortable musical fit. 

本書執筆中に、Antioch Collegeでの公演を録音したものが発見された。予期せぬ素晴らしい発見だった。録音時間は約1時間半。本番は実際はもっと長かったはずである。というのも、このオープンリールテープには聴衆参加型の「サウンドプール」が収録されていないのだ。ムジカ・エレットロニカ・ヴィヴァの演奏を収録した部分は、演奏スタイルも多岐に富んでいることを示している。彼らの探究心が満ち溢れていて、時にリズムの鼓動が、足踏みを彷彿とさせる。様々なインプロヴィゼーションの演奏がズラリと顔を揃え、様々な音の組み立て方をしているコラージュ、次々と生み出されるメロディ、リズミカルにエンジンのかかった曲の進行が味わえる。合奏曲が4曲、7つのサックスによるソロインプロヴィゼーションが、アンソニー・ブラクストンによって披露され、彼の際立った音楽的個性が、頭から終わりまでハッキリと伺える。次々と繰り出されるソロにより、ブラクストンは自身の音楽を示す場が与えられている。そして合奏帯の一員としては、彼の演奏は有機的であり、音楽的にも心地よく全体にフィットするのだ。 


In the course of his solo pieces, Braxton traverses a broad range of textures and moods, from the lyrical and even romantic to the cacophonous. At times, spinning lines resolve in a harmonically grounded zone, underscored by warm vibrato; altissimo screeches, squawking, and honking; intense breath-long angular phrases; quiet trilling passages; serene phrases contrasting with sudden sonic outbursts. One of the solos reflects compositional ideas akin to “Composition 6F,” described by Braxton elsewhere as “repetitive phrase generating structures ... a phrase-based repetition structure that establishes a fixed rhythmic patterns.” 

ラクストンは、自身の独奏曲においては、曲の組み立て方や雰囲気を幅広く吟味したことが伺える。叙情的でロマンチックなものから、騒音とまごうようなものまで、実に様々だ。時には、目が回るような旋律が、和声上の最低音域まで下がったところで落ち着いたと思ったら、心地よいビブラートや、一番高い音域の音を奇声のように響かせたり、キーキーとなるような音や、クラクションのような音、圧が強く息が長くて骨太なフレーズ、音量を抑えてトリルを効かせたパッセージ、のどかなフレーズを突然爆発するような音とコントラストを付けるなどして、パワーアップさせるのだ。いくつかあるソロの内の1つは、彼の「Composition 6F」を彷彿とさせる。彼の説明によると、繰り返しのフレーズにより曲が組み上がっていて、プレーズをベースにした繰り返しの構造が、しっかりとしたリズムパターンを作り上げている、という。 


Among the ensemble pieces is a ten-minute work that juxtaposes Braxton's angular saxophone (and then bass clarinet) lines to spoken text, Richard Teitelbaum's atonal synthesizer phrases, a bass vamp (played by an Antioch student), and drums.  

合奏曲に目を転じれば、何曲かある内の1つは、ブラクストンの骨太のサックス(そしてバスクラリネット)のメロディに朗読が加わり、リチャード・タイテルバウムの無調音楽の技法によるシンセサイザーでのフレーズ、Antioch Collegeの学生によるベースの即興演奏、ドラムによる演奏時間10分の作品である。 


The music then moves into a pentatonic, addictive construction, played in unison by piano, Alvin Curran's flugelhorn, a trombone-tuba “patch” on a VCS3 (Putney) synthesizer (together referred to below as “horn”), Teitelbaum's Moog synthesizer, and drums, reminiscent of Frederic Rzewski's “Les Moutons de Panurge” (1969). A second ensemble improvisation opens with melodic saxophone lines, from which Braxton suddenly shifts into a musical explosion and, subsequently, elegiac moods, as he weaves in and out of the horn lines. A third improvisation combines Braxton's snarling sounds with a strong, backbeat-heavy drum pulse; the overall musical direction then shifts into an unfolding sound cloud drawn in part from Curran's assemblage of recorded bird sounds and spoken readings from an ornithology catalog, and Maryanne Amacher's dramatic sounds of a soaring airplane, combined with Teitelbaum's Morse code-like synthesizer patterns. Later, the listener encounters dense and boisterous collective sound clusters and Rzewski's expansive, cascading gestures on piano. Braxton, along with the horn gestures, emerges from behind a distant fog amid the building electronic and metallic textures. 

曲は5音階を用いた構造へと移ってゆく。これが聴いていて癖になる。ピアノ、アルヴァン・カランのフリューゲルホルンとVCS3(パトニー)シンセサイザーによるトロンボーンテューバの「ツギハギ」(以下、「ホルン」という)、タイテルバウムのムーグ・シンセサイザー、ドラム、のユニゾンは、フレデリック・ジェフスキーの「Les Moutons de Panurge」(1969年の作品)を暗示するかのようだ。2番目のアンサンブルによるインプロヴィゼーションの口火を切るのは、メロディ感あふれるサックスの旋律。ここからブラクストンは「ハジケて」みせる。これに続いて、悲しみに溢れる雰囲気を作ってゆく。ホルンの旋律に絡んだり離れたりしながら進んでゆくのだ。3番目のインプロヴィゼーションは、ブラクストンの唸るようなサウンドに、力強いバックビートの重さをかけたドラムが規則正しくリズムを刻む。楽曲全体が次に向かうのは、次々と繰り出される音の数々だ。カランが集めた鳥の鳴き声や鳥類図鑑を朗読する声、マリアンヌ・エメシェールの手による轟音を立てる飛行機の劇的な音の数々、これらに、タイテルバウムがモールス信号のような規則正しい音をシンセサイザーで作ったものを組み合わせてゆく。その後聴いてゆくと、密度が高く、荒々しい、全体での音のクラスターから、ジェフスキーが大きな身振りでほとばしるようなピアノへと続き、ブラクストンは、ホルンとともに、遠くの方から、電子音楽のようで、そして金属的な雰囲気の曲を構成すべく、徐々に姿を表してくる。 




MEV's Impact 



While this configuration of MEV never performed together again, Anthony Braxton and Richard Teitelbaum's musical partnership has continued to this day. Braxton's participation in MEV exposed him to a broader cicle of improvising musicians. Might that experience have opened him to the new opportunity, Circle, that would soon manifest? Had they heard MEV, might Braxton's future Circle-mates have been influenced by the group in their own views about intuitive improvisational structures or about their range of sonic possibilities? As Chick Corea simultaneously moved in an increasingly electric direction with Miles Davis's band, his future engagement with Braxton would be entirely acoustic. Had he heard MEV during this period, might its meld of acoustic and electronic sounds have influenced his thinking? Many ideas were percolating in Braxton's mind as his career back in the United States continued to unfold. 






Kunle Mwanga Organizes Braxton's “Peace Church” Concert 



Kunle Mwanga had moved from Chicago to New York in May 1968. Before traveling to Paris in 1970, he opened a store, Liberty House, in the West Village, where he sold works of African and African American art. Mwanga was inspired by the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians' model of self-sufficiency coupled with organizational and business acumen: “It was my contention that we had to continue to develop our own power to move ourselves ... The industry is in control. Yet we could be that industry ourselves had we stayed in cotrol of ourselves. The power within: having to do with management, producing concerts, recordings and all administrative work, worldwide.” Mwanga found the New York environment at the time to be stimulating, as it seemed to him that there was no conflict between players representing differing musical styles and approaches. Thus, “it just seemed like things could happen if you wanted them to happen.” He decided to leverage his store income to produce a concert series at the Washington Square Church, the “Peace Church,” that was Anthony Braxton's first performance in New York. 



The May 19, 1970, concert featured Creative Construction Company, Braxton's group that had played in Europe, plus drummer Steve McCall. CCC ― Braxton plus Leroy Jenkins and trumpeter Leo Smith ― had played on Braxton's album 3 Compositions of New Jazz. Special guests also performing with the group were AACM cofounder Muhal Richard Abrams and bassist Richard Davis. All but Davis were members of that Chicago-based association. Mwanga found the Peace Church concert to be “one of the most exciting concerts I've ever been at.”  

1970年5月19日、コンサートが開かれた。出演はクリエイティブ・コンストラクション・カンパニー(CCC)。ブラクストンがヨーロッパで演奏したグループである。ここに、ドラム奏者のスティーヴ・マッコールが加わる。ブラクストン、リロイ・ジェンキンス、トランペット奏者のレオ・スミスを加えたCCCは、これに先立ちブラクストンのアルバム「3 Compositions of New Jazz」で演奏している。また特別ゲストとして、AACMの共同設立者であったムハル・リチャード・エイブラムスとベース奏者のリチャード・デイヴィスも演奏に加わった。デイヴィス以外は、いずれもAACMというシカゴを本拠地とするメンバー達だ。この「ピース・チャーチ」コンサートを、ムワンガは「私がこれまで目にした中で、最も盛り上がったコンサートの1つ」と称した。 



The performance was recorded thanks to Ornette Coleman, who, as John Litweiler reports, “arranged for an engineer to record the event. But Ornette's financial affairs were in flux, and a year later he offered Mwanga the concert tapes if Mwanga would pay the engineer; Mwanga eventually sold the tapes to Muse Records for their excellent Creative Construction Company LPs.” Braxton appeared with his trademark array of instruments (flute, clarinet, contrabass clarinet, soprano saxophone, alto saxophone, and orchestral chimes.) Jenkins supplemented his violin and viola with recorder, harmonica, toy xylophone, and bicycle horn. The first set of the Peace Church concert consisted of Leroy Jenkins's extended, thirty-seven-minute work “Muhal”; parts 1 and 2 are divided over the two sides of an LP, followed by a return of the theme, titled “Live Spiral” on the recording. 

当日の収録を買って出てくれたのが、オーネット・コールマンである。ジョン・リトワイラーは次のように記している「彼は公演の収録にエンジニアを一人都合した。だがオーネット・コールマンの財政状況は、安定したものではなく、コンサートの実施から1年経って、彼がムワンガに申し出たのは、当日都合したエンジニアの日当をムワンガが持つ条件で、収録音源を提供する、というもの。ムワンガは最終的には、その音源をミューズ・レコード社に売却する。これがCCCのLPという秀作になってゆくのだ。」さてコンサートの当日だが、ブラクストンは毎度おなじみの、ズラリと取り揃えた楽器の数々とともに、ステージに現れた(フルート、クラリネットコントラバスクラリネット、サックス(ソプラノ、アルト)、コンサートチャイム)。ジェンキンスが持ち込むのは、バイオリン、ビオラ、リコーダー、ハーモニカ、おもちゃの木琴、自転車に取り付けるラッパだ。「ピース・チャーチ」コンサート、第1部は、リロイ・ジェンキンス作曲「Muhal」。演奏時間37分の大作である。第1部と第2部はLPのそれぞれの面に収録された。これらに続き、主題回帰部は「Live Spiral」とのタイトルで収録されている。 




The Music of the Peace Church Concert 



A play-by-play description of the first half of the concert offers a flavor of the continuously changing, highly textural, yet periodically lyrical music that unfolded that evening. This is a music that depends substantially on close listening between players, an openness to building on what others are playing, and an instinct for when to lay out entirely. 



The performance opens in a serene, spacious mood. There are two motivic statements, each repeated twice. This sequence is followed by the main theme, played on violin, which leads the group to a dense tone cluster. After a pause, the second motif is presented by the full ensemble without piano; it is reminiscent of the opening of Richard Strauss's Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Next, Jenkins's gesture is more modest, yet affirmative . After a bass interlude backed by shimmering cymbal work, growing steadily in intensity, Jenkins returns to his thematic statement shortly after the two-minute mark. The motif is joined by cascading piano runs, over which Braxton ― displaying a bell-like tone on soprano saxophone, followed by Jenkins and Smith and then all three in unison ― echoes the theme. 



Jenkins opens an expansive solo, with contrapuntal lines added by Braxton, and Abrams on cello; Smith punctuates Jenkins's playing with repeated trumpet notes and floral figures. Around five minutes in, Braxton's lines have moved to the forefront, and the entire ensemble quiets and pauses. The next section is far more textural in quality, blending Davis's harmonics and extended techniques on bass, Abrams's open harmonies on piano, Jenkins's recorder melodies, and Braxtoin' s melodious saxophone, bells, and small percussion. After another pause, Davis plays a repeated G and then an E- D- E motif, which he embroiders, and Smith solos in the altissimo range. 




A folksy Jenkins harmonica solo follows at the eight-minute mark, joined by bicycle horn. Jenkins then returns on viola, building a repeated note and then a double-stop motif ― which he moves up and down the neck of his fiddle. Various squeaking horns and small percussion then come to the fore, the bass actively creating a bridge, joined by Braxton's rhapsodic solo on flute, backed by bass and percussion, and joined by viola, which then moves to the front. After the eleven-minute mark, the ensemble increases in energy level, with Abrams's piano figures, trumpet tones, intense viola gestures, and small percussion. 



Nearing twelve and a half minutes, Jenkins's repeated strummed chord is imitated by Abrams and Smith and moves into a far-ranging solo; behind him there is growing activity on recorder, piano, bass and percussion. Next, Braxton jumps into an energetic, spiraling clarinet solo, screeching and then ebbing and flowing. Jenkins returns with violin double stops. As the sixteen-minute mark approaches, he plays a solo line that builds in intensity and then slows down as orchestra bells are heard. These continue, joined by harmonica, bass harmonics, and sundry percussion hits as part 1 concludes, after nineteen minutes. 




The performance is a tour de force, a masterly work of ensemble playing. Points of cacophony are limited; the focus is on building a sense of group sound, from which emerge individual solos and, more often, small, collaborative, interwoven parts. 




The idea of the individual within, among, and in tension with the group is in a sense a meeting point between Anthony Braxton's aesthetic and that of (Wadada) Leo Smith, who wrote: 





The concept that I employ in my music is to consider each performer as a complete unit with each having his or her own center from which each performs independently of any other, and with this respect of autonomy the independent center of the improvisation is continuously changing depending upon the force created by individual centers at any instance from any of the units. The idea is that each improviser creates as an element of the whole, only responding to that which he is creating within himself instead of responding to the total creative energy of the different units. This attitude frees the sound-rhythm elements in an improvisation from being realized through dependent re-action. 



Thus, in this concert we experience constant, dynamic movement between self-contained solo moments and group engagement. 






Braxton Broadens His Horizons 



The concert provided an opportunity for Braxton to connect and reconnect with other musicians who were living in New York City. This included a reunion with MEV member Frederic Rzewski, who subsequently introduced him to the noted minimalist composers Steve Reich and Philip Glass; he informally rehearsed with them during the summer of 1970. Braxton observes: “By that time it became clear to me that I did not want to be remembered in only one context. I came to understand that I wanted to be involved in a broader area of creativity, Glass and as such, I didn't want to limit myself to just performing jazz. Not to mention I simply was curious and attracted to what people like Glass and [electronic music composer David] Behrman were doing.” 



Also in the audience for the Creative Construction Company performance was Jack DeJohnette, Chick Corea and Dave Holland's Miles Davis bandmate, who knew Braxton from college. Later that evening, DeJohnette suggested to Braxton that they head over to the Village Vanguard, several blocks to the west. It was there that the propitious meeting leading to the founding of Circle took place.  



The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 2 “Bitches Brew,” in the Studio and on the Road 

第2章 「ビッチェズ・ブリュー」スタジオとライブと 




With that band we were playing our butts off, everybody was raising hell. 







Back home in New York after a spring European tour, Miles Davis brought an expanded band into the studio to record Bitches Brew on August 19 - 21, 1969. The sessions included tunes that had been honed on the road - “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down,” “Spanish Key,” and “Sanctuary,” plus two new compositions: the opening track, “Pharaoh's Dance,” and the title tune, “Bitches Brew.” 

春のヨーロッパツアーを終えて、本拠地ニューヨークでしばらく過ごした後、1969年8月19日から21日にかけて、マイルス・デイヴィスは拡大メンバーを擁した自分のバンドとともに、レコーディングスタジオへと入っていった。「ビッチェズ・ブリュー」の収録である。このセッションでは、すでにツアーで演奏した曲がいくつか含まれていた。「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」「Spanish Key」そして 「Sanctuary」。さらには新曲として2作品が加わる。1曲目に「Pharaoh's Dance」そして、タイトル曲の「Bitches Brew」である。 



The band in the studio included three electric keyboardists (Chick Corea, Joe Zawinul, Larry Young); four drummer-percussionists and two bassists (one electric, one acoustic), of which Jack DeJohnette and Dave Holland were core members; and two reed players (Wayne Shorter, plus Bennie Maupin on bass clarinet). A guitarist, John McLaughlin, took a highly rhythmic approach, adding a solo voice and also another percussionist. (He and Young were two-thirds of the Tony Williams Lifetime.) What this expanded band created is the “brew,” shaped by the rich, ever-changing, swirling mix of keyboards and multiple percussion. 




Davis describes the process of conception through recording in his autobiography: 



I had been experimenting with writing a few simple chord changes for three pianos. Simple shit, and it was funny because I used to think when I was doing them how Stravinsky went back to simple forms. So I had been writing these things down, like one beat chord and a bass line, and I found out that the more we played it, it was always different. I would write a chord, a rest, maybe another chord, and it turned out that the more it was played, the more it just kept getting different. This started happening in 1968 when I had Chick, Joe, and Herbie [Hancock] for those studio dates. It went on into the sessions we had for In a Silent Way. Then I started thinking about something larger, a skeleton of a piece. I would write a chord on two beats and they'd have two beats out. So they would do one, two, three, da-dum, right? Then I put the accent on the fourth beat. Maybe I had three chords on the first bar. Anyway, I told the musicians that they could do anything they wanted, play anything they heard but that I had to have this, what they did, as a chord. Then they knew what they could do, so that's what they did. Played off that chord, and it made it sound like a whole lot of stuff.  

「以前から3台のピアノ用に、シンプルなコード変化を作って、これを試しに弾かせる実験をしてきた。超がつくほどシンプルで、おかしな気分だった。というのも、ストラヴィンスキーもシンプルな構成の曲作りに、ある時期回帰していたよな、と実験のたびに考えていたからだ。そんな訳で、例えば拍の頭で構成音全部を同時に鳴らす、それに伴うベースラインも作っておく、など、思いついたことは全部譜面に書き記した。すると、記譜したものは、何回も弾いてみると、その都度違う響きがすることに気づいた。こんな事が起き始めたのは、当時あったいくつかのスタジオ収録のために、チック・コリアジョー・ザヴィヌル、そしてハービー・ハンコックを呼んだ1968年のことだ。このことは「In a Silent Way」収録に際し、色々と組み合わせて演奏することを試していた時にも引き続いてゆく。こうなってくると、ある作品の、より大きなこと、つまり、作品自体の骨格について、考え始めるようになった。あるコードを2拍伸ばすように設定する。するとメンバー達は、2拍音を伸ばす。要するに、2分音符(1,2拍)、2分音符(3,4拍ただし4拍目は裏拍で8分音符で「ダ」、次の小節の頭で「ダン」)となるだろう。そして、こちらは4拍目にアクセントを置くよう指示を出す。もしかしたら最初の小節には、コードを3つ設定したかもしれない。いずれにせよ、メンバー達には、好きなように弾いてくれ、聞こえたよう弾いてくれ、そのかわり、こちらはメンバー達が弾いたものを、一つのコードとして処理するから、と言った。すると、メンバー達も心得ており、それを音にしてくれた。そうやって出来上がったコードは、結構大した響きになったと思う。 


I told them that at rehearsals and then I brought in these musical sketches that nobody had seen, just like I did on Kind of Blue and In a Silent Way .... So I would direct, like a conductor, once we started to play, and I would either write down some music for somebody or I would tell him to play different things I was hearing, as the music was growing, coming together. It was loose and tight at the same time. It was casual but alert, everybody was alert to different possibilities that were coming up in the music. While the music was developing I would hear something that I thought could be extended or cut back. So that recording was a development of the creative process, a living composition. It was like a fugue, or motif, that we all bounced off of. After it had developed to a certain point, I would tell a certain musician to come in and play something else, like Benny Maupin on bass clarinet ... Sometimes, instead of just letting the tape run, I would tell Teo [Macero] to back it up so I could hear what we had done. If I wanted something else in a certain spot, I would just bring the musician in, and we would just do it. That was a great recording session, man, and we didn't have any problems as I can remember. It was just like one of them old-time jam sessions we used to have up at Minton's back in the old bebop days. Everybody was excited when we all left there each day. 

これをリハーサルの度にメンバー達に伝え、そうやって出来上がった、いくつもの素描は、まだ誰も聞いたことのないものだ。このやり方は、「Kind of Blue」や「In a Silent Way」の時も同じ。こちらはクラシック音楽の指揮者のように指示をだしてゆく。演奏が始まると、音楽が展開し、合わさり、そうしてゆく中で、こちらは、別に投入するメンバー用に譜面を作ったり、あるいは、演奏中のメンバーに変更した譜面を用意したりする。自由に弾かせたり、こちらが手綱をしめたり、これを同時進行で行う。肩の力を抜いて、でもアンテナは敏感に、するとメンバー全員のアンテナに、実際に音にしたものの中からでてくる、様々な可能性が、感知されてゆく。こちらは、メンバー達の演奏が展開してゆくのを聴きながら、これは更に掘り下げてゆこうとか、これはいらないからカットしよう、というように選り分けていった。そうすることで、収録そのものが、何も無い処から物作りをする行程となる。まさに「楽曲が生き物となる」のだ。全員が、例えばフーガのように、先行する他のメンバーの演奏を聞いて自分が後から追いかけたり、一つのモチーフを聞いてそれを自分なりに展開したりするなど、各自のアイデアをぶつけ合った。こちらは、ある程度まで音楽が展開したところで、それまで控えていたメンバーを投入して、全然別のことを弾かせる。バスクラリネット奏者のベニー・モウピンなどは、そうやって投入された一人だ。時には、ただ録音テープを回し続けるのではなく、テオ・マセロにバックアップをとらせて、じっくり聴き直す。聴きながら、「ここは」と思ったところで、必要なメンバーを呼んで、音を取る。何しろ、スゴい録音セッションだったし、特に問題はなかったと記憶している。かつてのビ・バップの時代に、ニューヨークのライブハウス「ミントンズ」でやっていた、昔のジャムセッションみたいだった。毎日終わって出てくる度に、皆テンション高く盛り上がっていた。  


What we did on Bitches Brew you couldn't ever write down for an orchestra to play. That's why I didn't write it all out, not because I didn't know what I wanted; I knew that what I wanted would come out of a process and not some prearranged shit. This session was about improvisation, and that's what makes jazz so fabulous. Any time the weather changes it's going to change your whole attitude about something, and so a musician will play differently, especially if everything is not put in front of him. A musician's attitude is the music he plays. 

「Bitches Brew」で創ったものを、例えばオーケストラで演奏してみようとして楽譜に起こそうとしても、おそらくムリだろう。事前に楽譜に書かなかったこともある。アイデアが浮かばなかったからではない。演奏してみる、その作業の途中でアイデアが浮かぶことを、こちらは知ってたからだ。そういう訳で、事前に楽譜に書けば良いってもんじゃない、と言っているのだ。今回のセッションは、インプロヴィゼーションそのものであり、ジャズの素晴らしさはここにある。状況の変化に応じて、プレーヤーはそれまでのやり方を全部変えてゆく。そうすることで、どんな演奏もできる。予め決められているものばかりではない状況では、尚更だ。ミュージシャンの演奏に対する姿勢は、そいつの演奏する音楽に「全部」現れている。」 




Jack DeJohnette: 



Miles had some sketches and bass patterns. He'd ask me, “play a groove, play this,” and he'd count off a tempo and if that wasn't it he'd say, “No, that's not it!” and he'd say to try something else. I'd start something and if it was okay he wouldn't say anything and it would continue, then he'd cue each instrument in and get something going. When it would start percolating, then Miles would then play a solo over that and let it roll, let it roll until he felt it had exhausted. Then we would go on to something else. 





On another occasion, DeJohnette noted: 



As the music was being played, as it was developing, Miles would get new ideas. This was the beautiful thing about it. He'd do a take, and stop, and then get an idea from what had just gone before, and elaborate on it, or say to the keyboards “play this sound.” One thing fed the other. It was a process, a kind of spiral, a circular situation. The recording of Bitches Brew was a stream of creative musical energy. One thing was flowing into the next, and we were stopping and starting all the time, maybe to write a sketch out, and then go back to recording. The creative process was being documented on tape, with Miles directing the ensemble like a conductor an orchestra. 

実際に音にして、それを展開させてゆく中で、マイルスは新しいアイデアを次々と出してくる。これはなんともスゴいことだ。録音を始めて、ストップし、その過程でアイデアが浮かび、それをやってみたり、キーボード・プレイヤーの連中に「こんなプレイをしろ」と指示を出したりする。一つの演奏が、別の演奏を引き出すきっかけとなる。このプロセスは、物事がグルグルと循環しているようなものだ。「Bitches Brew」のレコーディングは、創造性あふれる音楽のエネルギーが、あふれ流れるようであった。1つの流れが次に繋がり、立ち止まっては再スタートする、これを繰り返し、下書きを作っては、また録音作業に戻る。こうした創造性あふれるプロセスは、しっかりと記録された。マイルスはこのアンサンブルを、オーケストラの指揮者のように仕切っていた。」 


Various participants in the sessions have pointed out that while the music spontaneously unfolded, there was more advance preparation than Davis acknowledged. Down Beat writer Dan Ouellette quotes Joe Zawinul: “There was a lot of preparations for the sessions. I went to Miles' house several times. I had 10 tunes for him. He chose a few and then made sketches of them.” Paul Tingen quotes drummer Lenny White: “The night before the first studio session we rehearsed the first half of the track 'Bitches Brew.' I think we just rehearsed that one track. Jack DeJohnette, Dave Holland, Chick Corea and Wayne Shorter were all there. I had a snare drum, and Jack had a snare drum and a cymbal. I was 19-year-old kid, and I was afraid of Miles. My head was in the clouds!” 

このセッションに参加した様々なミュージシャン達が指摘しているのは、この楽曲は自発的に展開していった一方で、マイルス・デイヴィスの気づかないところで、事前の準備が存在していた、というものだ。「ダウン・ビート」誌のダン・ウィレットによると、ジョー・ザヴィヌルは次のように述べている「このレコーディングに際して行われた様々なセッションについては、事前の準備が数多くなされていた。私はマイルスの自宅を数度訪問しているが、10曲ほど用意していき、彼はそのうち2つか3つを選んで、その素材を作った。」ポール・ティンゲンは、ドラム奏者のレニー・ホワイトが「最初のスタジオセッションの前の晩のことだった。私達は「Bitches Brew」の前半を合わせてみた。合わせたのはその1トラックだけだったと記憶している。ジャック・ディジョネットデイヴ・ホランドチック・コリア、それからウェイン・ショーターと、みんな集まっていた。私はスネアドラムを持参していた。ジャックはスネアドラムとシンバルを持参していた。当時私は19歳のガキで、マイルスが怖かった。浮足立ってしまっていたのだ。」と語っている、と証言している。 


Bob Belden, producer of The Complete Bitces Brew Sessions boxed set released in 1998, lays out the sequence of the three days of recording. On August 19, the order was “Bitches Brew,” followed by the music later titled “John McLaughlin,” “Sanctuary,” the various segments of “Pharaoh's Dance,” and then “Orange Lady.” August 20 began with “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down,” and on the twenty-first, “Spanish Key” and further work on “Pharaoh's Dance.” He also offers a “score” and narrative detailing the various edits involved in the assembly of “Pharaoh's Dance” and “Bitches Brew.” Enrico Merlin's “Sessionography, 1967 - 1991” offers a more detailed analysis of the construction of “Pharaoh's Dance,” noting slight differences between the LP and CD versions. 

ボックスCDとして1998年にリリースされた「The Complete Bitches Brew Sessions」のプロデューサーであるボブ・ベルデンは、この3日間のレコーディングがどの様に行われたか、その流れを示す。8月19日の曲順は、まず「Bitches Brew」、次に「John McLaughlin」とタイトルが付けられる楽曲、そして「“Sanctuary」、更には「Pharaoh's Dance」の部分的な収録と、最後に「Orange Lady」。8月20日は「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」。そして21日は「Spanish Key」と、「Pharaoh's Dance」の残りを収録し完成させる。彼はさらに、「Pharaoh's Dance」と「Bitches Brew」のレコーディングで集められたセッションの数々に含まれる、様々な編集について詳細を物語る「楽譜」とナレーションを用意した。エンリコ・メルリンの「Sessionography 1967-1991」には、「Pharaoh's Dance」の制作について、更に詳しい分析が記されていて、LP版とCD版の僅かな違いの数々についても触れられている。 


The process that unfolded during the studio sessions is apparent within the original session tapes. These can be heard in compilation CDs that have been in unofficial circulation for years. They include fragments of various takes recorded during the sessions. Some fragments are as short as twenty seconds, and most are under two minutes. Some seem to be microphone checks. Particularly tantalizing are those that fade out after a minute or two. Together, they survey the two days of recording, presenting something like an X-ray of the events. Periodically among the in-studio banter, we hear the voice of record producer Teo Macero announcing a code number for the take - “this will be part 2 of CO103745 take 1,” “part 2 take 2.” A phone rings. Dave Holland asks questions. At one point, Miles Davis says, “Hey, Teo, come on!” At the end of his solo on one of the takes of “John McLaughlin,” Davis declares: “Hey, Teo, I can't hear nothing ... I can't hear myself.” 

このセッションの模様を収めた元テープを聞けば、スタジオセッションの間繰り広げられた過程が、明らかになる。それらが聞けるコンピレーション・アルバム(CD)は、何年にも亘って非公式なものである。セッション中録音された様々なテイクの断片が、収められている。20秒しかない短いものもあれば、最長2分ほどのものもある。一部、マイクチェックのようなものも入っている。特に興味深いのが、1,2分でフェードアウトしてしまうものだ。全体として、2日間にわたる収録を俯瞰できるもので、各セッションをX線で透視して分析しているようだ。時々、スタジオ内での会話の中で、レコードプロデューサーのテオ・マセロが練習番号を伝えるのが聞こえる。収録箇所の指示だ。「CO103745のテイク1のパート2からになります」「「パート2のテイク2です」。電話の受信音が聞こえる。デイヴ・ホランドが何か質問している。「おい、テオ、ちょっと!」とマイルス・デイヴィスが言っている箇所もある。「John McLaughlin」のソロのテイクの一つでは、終わりの方でデイヴィスが「おい、テオ、何も聞こえない、自分の音がぜんぜん聞こえない。」 


We hear the band members trying out various thematic elements, such as Chick Corea experimenting with possible ways to approach material around and about the “Bithces Brew” vamp, varying the degrees of chromaticism. The two bassists try out their parts on “John McLaughlin.” There are two approximately seven-minute runs of the tune, complete with solos. “Spanish Key” receives a range of treatments, some with a lighter rhythmic feel than the one we know. That final version clearly works better than one that begins with a Corea solo, or another, echo drenched, that opens with a denser ensemble, the texture more akin to “Pharaoh's Dance.” Here, the editing process involved more selecting between takes. Some material, such as rehearsals of Joe Zawinul's “Orange Lady,” simply isn't included on the recording. 

バンドンメンバー達が、色々と主題のネタを試しに弾いているのが聞こえる。例えばチック・コリアは、「Bitches Brew」のヴァンプ(イントロや間奏部のリズムのみのパターンフレーズ)用の素材をあれこれと物色している。二人のベース奏者達は、「John McLaughlin」 の自分達のパートを聞かせあっている。色々なソロだけから成る、概ね7分程度の、2つの部分がある。「Spanish Key」は様々に手が加わっていて、その内のいくつかは、最終的に収録されたものよりも、軽めのリズム感が伺える。他にも、チック・コリアのソロから始まるものや、エコーがかかりすぎているもの、かなり分厚いアンサンブルによるもの、曲の構造が「Pharaoh's Dance」に酷似しているものなど、色々あるが、やはり最終的に作品として収録されたものが明らかに良い。素材のいくつか、例えばジョー・ザヴィヌルの「Orange Lady」の試し弾きなどは、単純に録音には含まれていない。 


“Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” receives several rehearsal segments and eight actual takes, some between two to more than nine minutes long. Davis and the rhythm section approach the material in a variety of ways. Several times, Davis opens with a slow, unaccompanied presentation of the theme; elsewhere, it is the rhythm section that begins the tune, similar to how it appears on the recording. Another take features a slow and breezy solo bass opening, and then abruptly ends. On three of the latter takes, Bennie Maupin's bass clarinet immediately joins with the rhythm section. Take 7 has from the start a more rhythmically interlocking funk feel, continuing through Wayne Shorter's solo. John McLaughlin continues in this vein during the first section of his solo. 

「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」は、リハーサルでの部分取りがいくつかと、実際に8回テイクが行われた。これらのそれぞれの時間は、2分のものから、9分を超えるものもある。デイヴィスが、リズムセクションとともに、色々と方法を変えて、一つの素材に取り組んだのである。デイヴィスがゆっくりとしたテンポで、無伴奏で主題を吹き始めるものがいくつかある。他には、リズムセクションから始まるものもあるが、これは最終的に作品として収録されたものに近い感がある。他にも、ゆっくりながらも明るい雰囲気のベースのソロから始まり、終わり方が突然呆気ないテイクもある。8回行ったテイクの後半の方では、ベニー・モウピンのバスクラリネットが、急遽リズムセクションに加わる。7回目のテイクでは、初っ端から比較的連動的なファンクのリズム感を漂わせ、それはウェイン・ショーターがソロを吹いている間中続く。この曲調は、ジョン・マクラフリンが自分のソロの最初の部分でも維持している。 


By Davis's solo, the rhythm section has simplified its beat structure, and the electric piano is limited to long, sustained notes and chords. In Belden's essay, percussionist Don Alias recalls that after a few failed takes, he remembered a drum rhythm he had recently heard at Mardi Gras in New Orleans that he thought would work. Davis suggested that Alias sit at Lenny White's kit, and he ended up leading the rhythm section during the version that appears on the final recording. 



The most interesting takes from the perspective of this discussion are of “Pharaoh's Dance,” in which the band rehearses various possibilities for segments of the tune, moving from section to section. The bassists and Corea try out variants of lines, sometimes in unison, that do not appear on the final recording. There is a five-note unison passage, really a cadence, rehearsed several times, that remains on the editing room floor. Another option is tried a few times, and then a third. Portions of composer Joe Zawinul's original conception, rehearsed and recorded in the studio, don't make it into the final mix. 

ここまでお読みいただいた観点で、最も興味深いテイクは、「Pharaoh's Dance」だろう。この曲では、バンドが、各セクションの間を飛び交う様々な素材を試し弾きしている。2人のベース奏者達とチック・コリアは、いくつかのメロディラインに変奏を加えたものを、いくつか試している。時にユニゾン(全員が同じことを演奏すること)で、これは最終的に収録されたものには入らなかった。5つの音から成るユニゾンのパッセージがあって、実際にはカデンスだが、これも何度か試し弾きが行われたものの、編集室を出ることはなかった。他にも、2度、そして3度と試されたオプションもある。作曲者のジョー・ザヴィヌルが元々 



Tiny phrases are rehearsed in multiple ways. In one instance, after several takes, Macero is heard saying without irony, “Want to do that again?” And that is exactly what happens. Corea's double-time passages near the end of “Pharaoh's Dance” are rehearsed several times. After a particularly successful attempt, Holland can be overheard saying, “Yeah!” Listening with 20/20 hindsight, we can hear some elements, but not others, that will ultimately be stitched together to form the fabric of Bitches Brew. Clearly, Davis rehearsed and rehearsed segments of material, and then moved on to others. The musicians could have no clear sense of what form the music would ultimately take, but they knew what some of its ingredients would be. 

小さなフレーズは、色々な方法で試し弾きされている。その模様を録音したものの一つを聞いてみると、何度も取り直したあとで、テオ・マセロが、別に皮肉でもなんでもなく、「まだやりたいの?」と叫ぶ声が聞こえる。実際にそうなっているのが、「Pharaoh's Dance」の終わりの方で、チック・コリアが弾く速いパッセージだ。これは幾度となく試し弾きが行われた。特に上手くいったものがあったので、デイヴ・ホランドが「やったな!」と言っているのが聞こえる。このように、予め情報を得てから聴いてみれば、色々な素描素材が聞こえてくる。そういう情報がないと、わからないものも沢山ある。これらが最終的に織り上げられて、一枚の織物「Bitches Brew」へと仕上がったのだ。デイヴィスはこうした素描素材を一つ一つ繰り返し試し弾きしてから、新たなものへ移り、また幾度も試し弾きする、これを繰り返した。演奏に携わったメンバー達は、最終的にどんな姿になるのか、全くわからない状態のままだったが、自分達が取り組んでいることが、何かしらの糧となるべきものだ、ということは、しっかりと自覚していた。 


The basic material that ultimately comprises “Pharaoh's Dance” includes a lively melody that appears at the beginning of the recording; a repeated, single-note vamp to ground solos; one or more unison passages designed to conclude sections; and a second melodic theme that is performed by Davis toward the end of the recording. The crafting of the tune involved organizing a coherent structure from bits and pieces of studio takes, a vast assemblage of these thematic elements and ever-morphing textural material. 

「Pharaoh's Dance」の基本素材として最終的に採用されたものは、次の通り:冒頭の快活なメロディ、各ソロの土台となる単音を繰り返すヴァンプ、各セクションの締めくくりとなるパッセージ(一人の奏者もしくは複数奏者のユニゾンによるもの)、曲の大詰めに向かうデイヴィスの吹く第2主題。こうした曲作りをするには、一貫性のある構造を作ってゆくことが必要だ。スタジオテイクでの、小さな部品作りから始まり、そうした主題の素描素材が、膨大な数となって集まってきたら、連続性を維持して姿かたちを変えてゆくように、材料を組み立ててゆくのである。 



Postproduction as a Compositional Process 



“Pharaoh's Dance” and “Bitches Brew,” the compositions that open Bitches Brew, are the album's most extended compositions. They are the most densely layered, the most heavily edited and postproduced. Since they lead off the recording, the listener's experience was going to be shaped by these first compositions.  

「Pharaoh's Dance」と「Bitches Brew」という、アルバムの口火を切る両作品は、収録曲全体の中でも、他より大きな規模となっている。多重録音の重ね具合、編集の手のかけ具合、製品化までの工程、いずれも他の作品よりもしっかりと行われている。両方とも最初の曲なだけに、ここから聴手は、作品全体にふれる体験をスタートさせる。 


Constructions might be a better term than compositions, since in this context the word composition is freighted with the question of who the composer was. “Pharaoh's Dance” is credited to Zawinul (albeit substantially reworked by Davis), and “Bithces Brew” to Davis. Yet, as several writers have noted, Macero played a significant hand in the final versions that appear on the record. As Davis observes in his autobiography, Macero recorded every note played during the recording sessions, sometimes multiple takes of those tunes and oftentimes just fragments of varying length; consequently, the material was going to require structuring in postproduction. The new recording shifted the balance between Davis and the band's contributions and those of Macero, who treated the studio recordings as material in search of structure, if not quite operating in the tradition of sonic collage within electronic music. 

この場合、音楽作品を作るという「作曲」という言葉よりも、建物か何かを作るという「建設」という方が適切かもしれない。というのも、本作品が出来上がるまでの状況を見ると、「作曲」と言ってしまうと、誰が「作曲者」なの?という問題がついてくる。「Pharaoh's Dance」はジョー・ザヴィヌル(大部分にマイルス・デイヴィスの手が入って入るが)で、「Bitches Brew」はマイルス・デイヴィスということになっている。だが複数の評論家も指摘するように、最終的にレコードやCDになった段階のものについては、テオ・マセロがたいへん大きな役割を果たしている。マイルス・デイヴィスが自叙伝で述べているように、この収録作業全体を通し、マセロは各プレイヤーの音を、一つ漏らさず記録している。時には、一節丸ごとを何度も録音したものや、よくあるのが、様々な長さの切れ端であり、そうやって集めた材料は、それらを組み立てる必要が生じていた。この、今までにない作品が、その重きをおいたのが、マイルスと、バンドのメンバー達やマセロとのバランスの取り方だ。彼らは、スタジオでの収録作業は、特に別段、電子的に作った音による曲作りのやり方(例:エレキベースや電子ピアノを用いた曲作り)に則って行ったわけではないが、楽曲をどう組み立てるかを模索する素地であると考えていた。 


One point of reference for this discussion is Karlheinz Stockhausen's early electronic composition Gesang der Junglinge (Song of the Youths; 1956). The work is crafted by a process of interweaving recorded fragments of sung texts with electronic sounds. Working in Cologne, Germany, Stockhausen drew from the emerging Parisian tradition of musique concrete pioneered by radio engineer Pierre Schaeffer. Schaeffer had recorded, collected, and edited sounds (objects sonores, sonic objects) on tape, abstracting them from their original source and complex of meaning. He then composed by arranging the sounds according to purely aesthetic criteria unrelated to their original context; his aesthetic roots are in the collage forms of visual artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. 



In Gesang der Junglinge and later works, Stockhausen changes the terms of this process by taking into account the referential meaning of the text and sound material and by adding purely electronic sounds. His sound collage provided a model for early pop music producers - and Teo Macero - who edited studio-recorded material in postproduction. What began first as documentation of performance and then as error correction came to represent a compositional process. As Albin J. Zak III observes: “In their lack of any real world counterpart and their frank artifice, pop records of the early fifties rendered the goal of real life sonic depiction meaningless.” Tape splicing migrated to popular music most famously with the Beatles, as early as “Please Please Me” in 1962.  

「少年の歌」そして、その後の作品群において、シュトックハウゼンは曲作りの仕方を変えてくる。それは、音源が持つ元の姿や意味を「無関係」にしないこと、そして、純粋に電子的に作った音を付け加えることだ。彼が音のコラージュを描く手法をモデルとしたのが、当時ロックンロールから派生したとされる「ポップ・ミュージック」の制作を統括するプロデューサー達、そしてテオ・マセロのように、スタジオで収録した音楽音源に、編集を加えてから商品化へもってゆく者達だった。まず演奏を録音し、その後でエラーを修正する(雑音を消去する等)といった過程は、「曲作り」の一環となる。アルビン・ザックは次のように述べている「ポップ・ミュージックは、「現実世界ではこれ」に相当するものが無く、また、作り手が率直な表現をぶつけてくることから、作曲の目的として、現実世界の姿を音に表すことが、無意味に感じられるようになってしまった。」テープの継ぎ接ぎがポップ・ミュージックの世界へ進出してきた、最も有名な例が、1962年のビートルズの「Please Please Me」である。 



Segments of one take of a song could be edited together with segments of another to create a new track. Beatles' producer George Martin and Davis producer Teo Macero each crafted sound collage, new compositions that drew from what had been recorded in the studio. 



Macero had already begun using editing techniques in his work with Davis in the late 1950s. In his autobiography, Daivs recalls that Macero “had started to splice tape together on Porgy and Bess and then on Sketches of Spain, and he did it on this album, too [Someday My Prince Will Come, 1961]. We post-recorded solos on those albums, with Trane and me doing some extra horn work.” When he adds, wryly, “It was an interesting process that was done frequently after that,” he is referring to a more radical use of the technology. 

実は既に、マセロは編集技術を、1950年代後半に、マイルス・デイヴィスの作品で導入し始めていた。マイルス・デイヴィスは自叙伝の中で次のように振り返る「既にマルセロは、「Pogy and Bess」や「Sketches of Spain」などで、テープの継ぎ接ぎ方式を導入していた。そしてこのことは、このアルバム(Someday My Prince Will Come, 1961) でも実行された。ジョン・コルトレーンと2人で、別途ホーンセクションの録音をして、そうしたソロを、あとからアルバムに録音で落とし込んだのである。」更に、少々苦々しく「この興味深い一連の作業は、その後もちょくちょく行われた」として、この技術的処理が、かなり思い切った使われ方をしたことに触れた。 


In the 1960s, rock musicians and producers grew increasingly expansive in their use of their inheritance from Schaeffer, Stockhausen, and early pop studio engineers, most famously in 1967 recordings; notable among these are the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Frank Zappa's You're Only in It for the Money and Lumpy Gravy, and the Beach Boy's Pet Sounds. Recordings of studio sessions plus, at times, unrelated sounds are sped up, slowed down, played backward - in sum, rock music merged with sound collage. It is that hybrid into which Teo Macero stepped while working on Miles Davis's recordings of the late 1960s. 

1960年代になると、今度はロックミュージシャン達とそのプロデューサー達が、ピエール・シェフェルやシュトックハウゼンから引き継いだものを、大々的に使い始める。そして、ポップ・ミュージックの初期のスタジオエンジニア達は、1967年にレコーディングされた錚々たる作品の数々を世に送る。主なところでは、ビートルズの「Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band」、フランク・ザッパの「You're Only in It for the Money」「Lumpy Gravy」そして、ビーチ・ボーイズの「Pet Sounds」が挙げられる。スタジオでの収録に加えて、時々、それとは関係のない音が、スピードに緩急をつけたり、最初の音形を後ろから逆に弾いてみるなど、そうやって合わせることで、ロックミュージックは音のコラージュの手法とともに台頭してくる。これらを併用したものを、テオ・マセロが、1960年代終盤の、マイルス・デイヴィスの作品のレコーディングに際し使用に踏み切っている。 



The construction of final versions out of recorded fragments may have been the plan from the start, a simple necessity, or both. As mentioned above, Davis later recalled: “I didn't write it all out ... I knew that what I wanted would come out of a process ... This session was about improvisation, and that's what makes jazz so fabulous.” Yet the need for deft tape splicing doesn't explain the use of Echoplex and brief, looped segments, all accomplished in postproduction. The triple repetition of the opening section of “Pharaoh's Dance,” all copies of the same recorded take, before leading into an extended through-performed segment, points to a compositional scheme not evident in advance. Was it part of an advance plan that Davis's solo during the latter portion is really a precomposed theme on which he comments during his opening solo? This is an inversion of the usual head-solo arrangement; here, variations and elaborations appear long before we hear the actual melody. The full compositional details surely emerged in Macero's editing room, where he sought to craft a coherent extended work a half hour in duration. Yet questions remain regarding authorship of the overarching musical structure. The form of side 2 of Davis's previous recording, In a Silent Way, sandwiching “It's About That Time” between two exact copies of the title tune, seems to have provided a working mode that was agreeable to Davis.  

収録した素材を元に、最終完成品を作り上げるという、「物作り」的なやり方は、初めから計画されていたことか、それとも単に必要だったからか、あるいはその両方か。先にも記した通り、マイルス・デイヴィスは後に、次のように振り返る「事前に楽譜に書かなかったこともある。…演奏してみる、その作業の途中でアイデアが浮かぶことを、こちらは知ってたからだ。…今回のセッションは、インプロヴィゼーションそのものであり、ジャズの素晴らしさはここにある。」だが、エコープレックスや、短くてループのように繰り返す素材の使用といった、全部録音後の作業については、器用に録音テープを継ぎ接ぎしなくてもできることだ。「Pharaoh's Dance」の冒頭、同じことを3回繰り返す部分がある。同じテイクを3回繰り返しているのだ。その後、全曲通した部分へと続いてゆく。録音時に前もって3回繰り返そうと、ハッキリ決まっていなかったからである。3回繰り返したあとの部分でマイルス・デイヴィスが吹くソロは、実は、出鼻で彼が演奏するソロの間について、彼が語るところの「事前に用意しておいた主題」の一部分だったのか?これは、通常よく行われる「ヘッドソロ」を、逆さまにしたものだ。つまり、実際の主題であるメロディがでてくるよりもずっと前に、メロディの変奏や、メロディに手を加えたものが、先に演奏されてしまうのである。楽曲全体の詳細は、録音現場ではなくマセロの居る編集室で、確実なものが見えてくる。ここで彼は、演奏時間30分に及ぶ大作を、頭から終わりまで通して作り上げようとする。だがここで疑問が浮かぶ。全体的な楽曲の構造について、誰が権限を持って組んでゆくのか?ということだ。マイルス・デイヴィスが先行してリリースしたアルバム「In a Silent Way」の、サイド2は、「It's About That Time」という曲の前後に、アルバムの表題にもなっている「In a Silent Way」を、全く同じ演奏の音源で配置している。これなどは、こういうやり方をマイルス・デイヴィスも納得している、ということを示していると言えよう。 





Macero testifies to the compositional hand he exerted during postproduction: 



I had carte blanche to work with the material. I could move anything around and what I would do is record everything, right from beginning to end, mix it all down and then take all those tapes back to the editing room and listen to them and say: “This is a good little piece here, this matches with that, put this here,” etc., and then add in all the effects - the electronics, the delays and overlays ... [I would] be working it out in the studio and take it back and re-edit it - from front to back, back to front and the middle somewhere else and make it into a piece. I was a madman in the engineering room. 



Herbie Hancock's producer during the 1970s, David Rubinson, observes that while true partnership between producers and musicians may have been growing within rock music, this was “[less so in jazz, where] the musicians were grist for the mill, and had little or no control or participation in the creative process of post-production or mixing, as little as there was of that then ... [Historically] the structure of the record business is basically a plantation where the white guys ran the record business and the studios.” Rubinson understands the relationship between Davis and Macero as having been in this mode, as Macero himself attests. In his autobiography, Davis alludes to his ambivalence about the substantial control Macero assumed over the final version of his work. He asserts “[I] .... started putting 'Directions in Music by Miles Davis' on the front of my album covers so that nobody could be mistaken about who was the creative control behind the music.” This may reflect a reality that Davis ultimately had limited choice in the production of his music. 



Writer Victor Svorinich places Davis more firmly in the compositional driver seat. He resolves conflicting claims of authorship by citing a contemporaneous letter from Daivs to Macero. In it, Davis explicitly directs how Macero should order much of the recorded raw material for the title track “Bitches Brew.” Davis identifies which segments from two studio takes should begin and conclude the piece, and he insists that continuity be maintained between the opening figures and the entry of the bass clarinet. Improvisatory sections should “run together whether they are high in volume or low in volume.” Svorinich finds support for the Davis letter in an interview with the album's mixing editor, Ray Moore. Moore recalls Davis unexpectedly sitting by his side in the postproduction studio in September during the final edits, going through the entire project with a fine-tooth comb. 

音楽ライターのヴィクター・スヴォリニッチは、マイルス・デイヴィスが曲作りにおいては主導権を握っていたことを、もっとハッキリ記している。アルバム制作時にあわせて、マイルス・デイヴィスがテオ・マセロに宛てた手紙を引き合いに出して、マイルスが「この曲の生みの親は自分だ」と、衝突するかのごとく主張していることに触れている。この手紙の中で、マイルス・デイヴィスがハッキリと示しているのは、マセロがタイトル曲「Bitches Brew」について、録音時に収集した素材の大半について、マセロの意のままにしていたことだ。マイルス・デイヴィスは、2回のスタジオ収録のどの部分から、曲をスタートし、そして終えたのかを聴き取っている。そして曲の冒頭からバスクラリネットのソロが入ってくるまでの間、曲のつながりが維持されるべきだという。インプロヴィゼーションを展開する各セクションについては、「音量の大小に関わらず、足並みをそろえるべきだ」としている。この手紙の裏付けを、スヴォリニッチは、このアルバムのミキシングにおいて編集をてがけたレイ・ムーアとのインタビューで見出している。ムーアによると、9月のある日、収録後の作業中だったスタジオで、編集の最終段階に差し掛かった時、マイルス・デイヴィスが突然となりにすわって、制作過程全体を精査しだした、というのである。 


Svorinich proposes that Macero's memories of postproduction - seasoned with complaints about not being adequately credited - may indeed reflect his frustrations about the amount of detailed legwork Davis had entrusted to the engineers. Further, Macero may have conflated memories of Bitches Brew with his exasperation with the trumpeter's diminished presence in later years. In Svorinich's view, Davis was truly the director, leaving Macero's team responsible for the realization of a wide range of details. These numerous decisions did, however, represent compositional thinking on the part of both Davis and Macero. 

収録後から発売までの間の作業について、マセロはその回顧録の中で(100%信用してもらえていたという訳ではないことに不満をにじませつつ)、マイルス・デイヴィスが録音エンジニア達に対して、膨大な量を事細かく調べるよう依頼していたことに、不満をいだいていたことを伺わせる。更に、マセロは自らの記憶の断片を継ぎ直して、「Bitches Brew」制作の思い出として、後年、マイルス・デイヴィスが自らの存在感を減らしていることに、強い憤りを覚えているとのこと。スヴォリニッチの考えでは、徹頭徹尾、マイルス・デイヴィス音楽監督として、広範囲に渡る詳細な事柄について、これをきちんと実行する責任を、マセロとそのチームに負わせてた。その実行過程で、膨大な数の判断が下されたわけだが、それらは全て、楽曲作りをする者としての発想が、マイルス・デイヴィスとテオ・マセロとで共有されていたことを物語っている。 


Macero's consistent record-producing method can be seen in the distinct similarities found between Bitches Brew and the highly edited Miles Davis Live at the Fillmore East (1970). The net result is that he structured the outcome of Davis's recording sessions in a way that was alien to the aesthetic of the live band. This outcome may have been acceptable to Davis, because the trumpeter personally privileged his live performances over the recordings, and because Macero produced commercial products out of exploratory, structurally amorphous material. Davis wished to release recordings but was most engaged in performing with his musicians, on the road and in the studio. Creatively, he was ever on the move, performing abstract music with the Lost Quintet one day and recording funk-oriented music in the studio the next, rarely if ever looking back. 

「Bitches Brew」と、そして高度な編集が施された「Miles Davis Live at the Fillmore East」(1970年)との間には、特徴的な共通点が色々とあるが、そこには、マセロの堅実で一貫したレコード制作の手法が見て取れる。出来上がったものを見てみるとわかることだが、マイルス・デイヴィスのレコーディングセッションで収録したものを、マセロが構築していった方法は、生身の人間が構成するバンドにとっては、その音楽的価値観からかけ離れた代物だった。でもマイルス・デイヴィスには、許容範囲内だったのだろう。なぜなら、マイルス・デイヴィス自身にとっては、自分で演奏したものはレコーディングよりも優先順位が高かったことと、そして、マセロは、試しに演奏した程度のものや、構造的にハッキリしていないものを素材としても、売り物になる商品を作り出せたからである。デイヴィスはレコードのリリースについては乗り気であったが、彼は専ら、自身が抱えるミュージシャン達との演奏に、ライブにせよスタジオにせよ、かかりきりだった。新しいものを生み出してゆく、という点で、彼は常に前進んでおり、ある日ロストクインテットでは抽象的な音楽を演奏したかと思えば、その次の日には、ファンク色を帯びた楽曲のスタジオ録音に臨んだりした。それらについて、後日検証するということは、彼は滅多にしなかった。 





“Bitches Brew”: Structure  

「Bitches Brew」楽曲の構造(訳注:ここでは「アルバム」と区別) 


The basic elements of tune “Bitches Brew” remain relatively constant, starting with the recorded version and continuing throughout the live band's performances. How Miles Davis and his band made use of these materials changed over time, from the initial “construction” of “Bitches Brew” in postproduction through the next year of performances. Opening the work is a series of motifs; the performers move from one to the next as if they were modules to be assembled. On the recording, the full set of modules is on display; later, the material was treated more flexibly. 

「Bitches Brew」の基本的な素材は、録音時のものがライブ演奏においても、形はそのまま維持されている。その使い方は、変化を遂げている。マイルス・デイヴィス本人、そしてバンドのメンバーとも、録音後から発売までの「組み立て」から、翌年に数々のライブが行われる間に、変化している。曲の冒頭は、モチーフがいくつか次々と提示される。そのモチーフを、メンバー達は、部品をピッキングして組み立ててゆくかのように、次から次へと演奏してゆく。そうやって全て組み立てた一セットが、作品として提示されたのが、レコード制作時のもの。その後のライブ演奏では、「部品」の組み立て方は、柔軟的になっていった。 


On the recording, “Bitches Brew” is organized into five sections (time units here are approximate). During subsequent live shows, Chick Corea embroidered various forms of musical commentary and filigree around all the opening figures. 

レコード制作時には、「Bitches Brew」は5つのセクションに分かれるよう、構成されている(下記演奏時間は目安)。その後の行われた、数々のライブ演奏では、チック・コリアが、冒頭に出てくる様々な音形に、色々と口を挟んだり飾り付けをしたりしている。 


1. The opening motifs (2:50) 

2. First series of solos over a vamp (10:30) 

3. Return of the opening (1:30) 

4.Second series of solos over the vamp (4:00) 

5. Coda: Exact repetition of the opening (2:50) 







In live performances, a more malleable form of a coda, in which elements of the opening motifs are reiterated, replaced the repetition. 





Opening Motifs 



The opening section consists of a series of five interconnected motifs. On the recording, the sequence becomes fixed, because the repetitions are copied from the session tape. In live performances over time, the elements were treated more freely. 



1. “Pedal”: A pattern of repeated low Cs separated by silences 

2. “Alarm”: Rapid-fire pairs of high Cs played on trumpet, with an accent on the first 

3. “Crashing chord” A sustained chord with a short attack, played by the rhythm section. Harmonically, it is ambiguous. The chord is a C-minor+7 in three simultaneous flavors: diminished, minor, and augmented. It can be thought of as much a tone cluster as it is a highly unstable chord. 

4. “Staircase”: Three pairs of descending minor thirds (sometimes harmonized as three pairs of major triads), each pair beginning a major second below the previous pair - as if descending a staircase. The upper notes of the chords are [F D] - [Eb C] - [Db Bb]. On the recording and in some live performance, each chord is repeated twice before descending to the next. 

5: “Clarion call”: A melodic phrase played on trumpet that concludes with descending notes of a C-minor chord; the penultimate note bending, following blues conventions, to suggest ambiguity about whether it is a minor or major third. 




4.「階段」:短3度が下降形になっている2つの和声が3組あって、(時々、2つの長3和音が、3組あるような形で、和声が組んであるものもある)どの組も、その前に鳴っている和音の、長2度下の音から始まる。こうすることで、階段を降りてゆくような印象を与える。各コードの上の音は、それぞれ[F D] - [Eb C] - [Db Bb]となっている。レコード制作時と、ライブ演奏のいくつかは、いずれのコードも、2回鳴ってから、次のコードへ移っている。 







Vamp and Solos 



In “Bitches Brew,” the vamp is a simple, repeated bass line - G-C-pause-F#-B-pause-G#-E-pause-B - that underpins a lengthy section of solos. 

「Bitches Brew」では、即興伴奏のベースラインは、シンプルで繰り返しによるものだ。G→C→間をおいて→F#→B→間をおいて→G#→E→間をおいて→B、となる。ソロが出てくるこの部分は、演奏時間が比較的長めで、その下支えとなっている。 


The studio recording of “Bitches Brew” includes two sets of solos, played over the vamp. These solo sets are separated by a repetition of the opening section.  



In the first series, Davis plays two solos, each two and half minutes long, that sandwich one of the same length by John McLaughlin. A curious aspect of McLaughlin's solo is an extended pause in the middle as the vamp continues. Wayne Shorter follows for one minute, Dave Holland for just several seconds, and then Chick Corea for nearby two minutes. Corea's first solo is introduced by ten seconds of a Jack DeJohnette solo. 



A quotation generally said to reference “Spinning Wheel,” a hit song by the jazz-rock group Blood, Sweat and Tears, appears during Davis's first solo, around six minutes in. The quotation seems to emerge logically from the melodic material he is playing, and it nicely offsets the vamp; McLaughlin hints at the motif, quickly responding to one of Miles's phrases while comping early in Davis's solo. Davis briefly referred to this recorded quotation during a concert at the Fillmore West in San Francisco, on April 10, 1970. Might he have also been thinking about “Lulu's Back in Town,” a song featured in a movie and performed by both Fats Waller and Thelonious Monk, which opens with related thematic material? Was Davis signifying on his relationship with the jazz-rock ensemble or on its musical world? 

マイルス・デイヴィスの最初のソロから6分ほど経過したところで、耳に入ってくるのが、通称「Spinning Wheel」という。ブラッド・スウェット・アンド・ティアーズというジャズ・ロックグループの代表曲の一つである。彼が吹くメロディの素材から、理にかなった出現の仕方をしているように思えるし、いい感じで、即興伴奏を埋め合わせてゆく。ジョン・マクラフリンがモチーフを提示する際に、これを暗示し、マイルス・デイヴィスのソロの最初の方で、伴奏を合せている間に、マイルスのフレーズの一つに素早く反応しているのだ。マイルス・デイヴィスは、このレコード制作時に使用した引用を、1970年4月10日の、フィルモアウェスト(サンフランシスコ)でのコンサートでも、短く使っている。ファッツ・ウォーラーセロニアス・モンクが、映画の中で特に取り上げて演奏した「Lulu's Back in Town」についても、使用を検討していたのだろうか?そのジャズ・ロックアンサンブルと、あるいはその音楽の世界と、関係を持ったことを世に示そうとしていたのだろうか? 


In the second series of solos, Dave Holland opens, then Bennie Maupin takes over, followed by an additional Davis solo (the general length of solos is around two minutes) and then a quiet, extended collective improvisation in which there are segments when Maupin moves forward in the collective mix. There is an ebb and flow in the brief vamp segments between solos, which serves to connect them all into a more coherent whole. In between the two sets of solos played over the vamp and again afterward lies a coda, which consists of an exact repetition of the opening 2:50 of the work. 



Maupin's contribution on bass clarinet is one of the most distinctive aspects of this recording. His playing lurks beneath the surface in a couple of places: during the opening, and in the opening seconds of the vamp (a recorded segment that is repeated several times). The addition is both textural and contrapuntal. Maupin also provides an added ingredient juxtaposed to Shorter's solo. Holland's solo, which opens the second set of solos, is enhanced by Maupin's presence within the quiet comping that includes guitar, keyboards, and drums; Maupin gradually emerges more prominently partway into the solo, shifting the balance from accompanied solo to duet. He adds a layer beneath Davis's solo in section two, continuing underneath as counterpoint during the brief vamp that bridges Davis's solo and his duet with Corea, under which Maupin plays long tones. A bass vamp, soon with drums, becomes a collective improvisation featuring Corea, McLaughlin, and Maupin. Joe Zawinul emerges with soloesque lines through the second solo, and the vamp then fades in its final seconds into just bass and drums, providing a segue to the coda. 







Comparative Structure 



The structure imposed on “Bitches Brew” by Teo Macero is in an ABABA form: three repetitions of the introduction are wrapped around two series of solos. This approach was immediately abandoned in live concert during the fall 1969 European tour; as evidenced in the recording, the opening section is followed by solos and then by a coda. The distinction is practical: there are fewer soloists and thus fewer solo segments to shape within the context of a coherent whole. 

テオ・マセロが「Bitches Brew」の基本構造としたのは、ABABA形式である。冒頭部分が3回繰り返され、それが2回のソロ提示部を包む形になっている。この形式は、1969年秋に開催されたヨーロッパツアーでのライブでは、直ちに廃された。レコード制作時に行われているように、冒頭部分が、2回のソロ提示部の間と、曲を締めくくるコーダで繰り返されているのだ。これには実用的な意味がある。こうすることで、曲全体の一貫性を保ちつつ、ソリストとソロの数を減らすのである。 


In neither case is a standard bebop head-solo-head form present. The opening and the coda do not provide a melody or chord sequence from which the solos take off, and the soloists spend little time reflecting further on the motifs as they solo on the seven-note bass vamp and metric beat. This format continues through the spring of 1970 and even at Freeport, Grand Bahama Island, in August of that year. The band returned to Macero's ABABA structure during the August 1970 dates at Tanglewood in Lenox, Massachusetts, and the Isle of Wight Festival in England. At those concerts, a repeated single note sometimes replaced the vamp. 





“Bitches Brew” as an Impetus for a Shift in Musical Direction 

音楽界の方向性を変える力としての「Bitches Brew 


“Bitches Brew” was a core part of the band's repertoire during its final year, through August 1970. Rhythmic riffs and vamps were already on the mind of Miles Davis when his new band played the Newport Jazz Festival in July 1969. But the new kind of composition introduced with the tune “Bitches Brew” helped instigate a more open approach to performance. Davis had already experimented with minimalist composition in “It's About That Time.” That tune introduced the idea that a Miles Davis composition could be based on a pulse, a bass vamp, and minimal melodic (or other) motifs. More than a vamp (such as “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down” or “Spanish Key”), “Bitches Brew” could be thought of as a series of moods or textures. It suggested a different kind of trumpet solo, pairs of stuttered notes or fractured lines strung together, with as much space between them as there were notes. 

「Bitches Brew」は、このバンドにとって最後の1年間、1970年8月は、レパートリーの中心に位置するものだった。この曲に使用されているリズム上のリフや、即興伴奏は、1969年のニューポート・ジャズ・フェスティバルで、マイルス・デイヴィスが新たに結成したバンドを率いて演奏した際には、既に構想にあったとされる。だが、「Bitches Brew」といった作品に、曲作りの新しい方法を導入したことで、音楽の演奏のあり方に、より多様で制限を持たないアプローチを促すこととなった。これに先立ち、マイルス・デイヴィスは、ミニマリストの作曲法を「It’s About That Time」で試みている。この曲で、マイルス・デイヴィス流の作曲法として、一定のリズムを刻む鼓動や、ベースによる即興伴奏、そしてミニマル音楽のメロディー(あるいはそれ以外も含めて)モチーフを土台に音楽を作ってゆく方法を、世に示した。また、「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」や「Spanish Key」にも見られるように、マイルスは即興伴奏だけでなく、「Bitches Brew」については、魅力的な音の響きを創り出し、それを連続させたものという捕らえ方をしていた向きもある。自身のトランペットのソロについても、口ごもったような音形や、バラバラなメロディラインを、つなぎ合わせてゆく時に、間を十分にとって、そこにも音符があるかのような今までにない演奏の仕方を、世に問うている。 



The studio performance of the material that became “Pharaoh's Dance” - the creation of many segments of constantly changing multilayered textures - seems to have particularly impacted Chick Corea. If his performance goal before this recording was more linear and in close relationship to the vamps, it now shifted to crafting changing textures and abstractions that could emerge from or be juxtaposed to those vamps. His performances necessarily became more deeply embedded within the textures collectively created in the moment by the full band, particularly the rhythm section. 

「Pharaoh's Dance」の素材となったスタジオでの演奏は、目まぐるしく変化する多重構造の部分を多く抱える楽曲作りとなって、特にこれにインパクトを受けたのが、チック・コリアだったようである。本作の収録前に、もし仮に、彼が目標としていたものが、即興伴奏と明確かつ密接な距離を保つことだったとするなら、収録後これは変化している。こういった即興伴奏から発生したり、あるいはそれと一緒に提示される、目まぐるしく変化する音の響きや抽象的な表現を作り上げてゆくことへと、シフトされている。だから必然的に、彼の演奏は、バンド全体、特にリズムセクションが一丸となって、その瞬間ごとに生み出される音の響きの中に、しっかりと深く根を下ろしている。 


The shift to a band with a single electric keyboardist, bassist, and drummer netted a very different sound from the recording, but the electronic qualities introduced by Macero's effects reappeared and were expanded when Corea adopted a ring modulator to process his electric piano. The device generates from an existing sound, such as a guitar or electric piano, far more complex sounds. The result was a broader and more electronic sonic environment. The sound of the band moved even further in this direction during its final months, when in spring 1970 percussionist Airto Moreira was added (he had appeared on the studio recording, and his cuica sounds blended well with the electronics), and finally second keyboardist Keith Jarrett joined. Also during this period, Dave Holland increased his use of the electric bass, often with wah-wah. Consequently, at this point half the band was playing electric instruments with electronic processing. 



The instrumentation was new, but so was Davis's approach to performance. While the studio sessions were conducted piecemeal and assembled in postproduction by Macero, the live performances did not utilize the released recording as a template. The modular motivic approach to composition remained, but not the assemblage of larger structures that emerged from Macero's editorial razor blade: beginning with, repeating, and concluding with verbatim segments. While “Bitches Brew” opened and closed with elements selected from the same cluster of motifs, the exact components, their order, and their emphasis varied. The primary musical mission was the unfolding of an organic form, not a preconceived or standardized one. 

刷新されたのは使用する楽器だけでなく、マイルス・デイヴィスの演奏に対するアプローチも同様であった。スタジオ収録というものが、断片的に行われるようになり、集められたものをマセロが収録後手をかけてゆく、という流れになると、レコードとして出来上がったものを元にして、ライブ演奏をするということをしなくなる。組み立て部品として、モチーフを使用するという、曲の作り方はそのままだが、マセロが辣腕の編集術を駆使して大作へと組み上げてゆく手法、すなわち、スタジオで収録したまんまの素材から取り掛かり、それを繰り返し、そしてそれで締めるというやり方は、ライブ演奏ではできない。「Bitches Brew」は、曲の初めと終わりに用いる素材を、同じモチーフの引き出しから取り出してくるのだが、厳密に言えば、使用する部品にせよ、その順番にせよ、メリハリの付け方にせよ、様々に変化する。一番大事な演奏の目的は、曲を作る際に、予め準備したり、何かの基準に従って行うのではなく、音楽自体が生き物であるかのように、有機的な曲作りを展開してゆくことなのだ。 





“Bitches Brew” as a Live Performance Vehicle 

ライブ演奏を推進させるものとしての「Bitches Brew 



Soon after the Bitches Brew album-recording sessions, the Lost Quintet moved into a new phase during its two-week European tour in the fall of 1969. “Bitches Brew” was a frequent show opener, alternating with Zawinul's tune “Directions.” Most apparent in those shows' recordings are Corea's highly angular, nonlinear, atonal solos and comping and, at times, open improvisation by the entire band. The electric pianist creates dissonant lines from patterns of major and minor seconds, far more rhythmic and percussive than melodic in character. Wayne Shorter's solos are less linear than before, seeking to explore endless variants of rapidly ascending melodic shapes. Their rhythms do not follow beats aligned on a grid, but are asymmetric and fragmented. Each repetition shifts the beat ever so slightly in a different direction, yet rarely aligned with a specific pulse. Dave Holland and Jack DeJohnette find a sense of balance, however unpredictable, and a particularly strong chemistry is developing between Holland and Corea. 

「Bitches Brew」のアルバム収録を終えると間もなく、ロストクインテットは新たなフェーズへと進む。1969年秋に実施された2週間のヨーロッパツアーである。「Bitches Brew」と、ジョー・ザヴィヌルの作曲した「Directions」は、交互に、公演の1曲目に使用された。これらのライブ音源を聞いてみると、チック・コリアの、鋭角的で、対位法を用いない、無調性の、ソロや伴奏、更にはバンド全体で繰り広げられるオープンインプロヴィゼーションが、非常に高度な内容であることが明らかである。チック・コリアは電子ピアノを駆使して、長2度と短2度の和声パターンから不協和音的な旋律を創り出す。これが、旧来のメロディ的なものよりも、遥かにリズムがくっきりとしていて、打楽器的な効果もでている。ウェイン・ショーターのソロは、以前と比べると明快さは影を潜め、急激に盛り上がってゆくメロディの形を、無尽蔵に変化を加えてゆく中で生み出す方法を、切り拓いている。各奏者のリズムは、決められた枠に沿った形を採らず、変拍子であったり、単発的なリズム音形だけであったりする。それらを繰り返す度に、少しずつ異なる方向へ展開してゆくが、まれに特定のパルス(一定の音の鼓動)と距離を維持する場合もある。デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットの両者は、互いに予測し合うわけではないが、絶妙なバランス感覚を二人の間に見出した。そして特に強力な「化学反応」を展開したのが、デイヴ・ホランドチック・コリアの両名である。 




Musical Example 3: Paris, November 1969 



Chick Corea's percussive approach to the Fender Rhodes is exemplified within an electric piano and drums duet during “Bitches Brew” at the Salle Pleyel in Paris (November 3, first set). Holland's restless lines continuously stream in the background. Corea's repeated patterns of alternating tone clusters are reminiscent of Cecil Taylor. Later, fast-moving arrays of notes expand into further tone clusters. DeJohnette follows the entire enterprise very closely, intensely interlocking with the pianist's constructions. In the second set, Corea comps for Shorter with one complex, rhythmic chordal ostinato after the next. Soon, as if to underscore the rhythmic essence of the moment, he abandons the Fender Rhodes entirely, moving from piano to a second drum kit to add another rhythmic layer to DeJohnette's drumming . After a late Coltrane-esque sequence by Shorter, the two drummers and Holland continue alone as a trio, accumulating multiple layers of rolls all around the kit, with DeJohnette in the lead. Even after returning to the Fender Rhodes, Corea continues as if he were drumming, offering cascading tone clusters and abstract runs. 

アルバム「ロスト・クインテット・パリ」のDisc1の2曲目に収録されている「Bitches Brew」(11月3日、パリのサル・プレイエル)では、チック・コリアフェンダー・ローズを用いて打楽器的な奏法が、ドラムとの間で繰り広げられている。デイヴ・ホランドがバックで、常に変化し続ける音の流れを描き続けている。チック・コリアが次々と変化するトーン・クラスターを繰り返すパターンは、セシル・テイラーを彷彿とさせる。それはやがて、動きが細かくて速い音形となって広がり、さらにトーン・クラスターを生み出してゆく。この全体像に、ジャック・ディジョネットはピタリとついて行き、テンション高くチック・コリアの音作りと連携を取る。Disc2では、チック・コリアウェイン・ショーターに伴奏を付けてやるのだが、手の混んで、リズム感にあふれる、ハーモニーを伴うオスティナートを次から次へと紡ぎ出す。程なく、ある間リズムを強調しようと言わんばかりに、楽器をピアノからドラムへと持ち替えて、メインとなるジャック・ディジョネットのドラムに、もう一枚リズムの層を重ねてくる。かつてのジョン・コルトレーン風の一節を聞かせたウェイン・ショーターの後は、2人となったドラム奏者とデイヴ・ホランドが、トリオとして、ジャック・ディジョネットがリードして様々な「役割」を次々と展開して盛り上げてゆく。チック・コリアは、ひとしきり叩き終えてフェンダー・ローズへと戻った後も、引き続きドラムを叩くかのように、トーン・クラスターや、あえて明確な形を持たせない急速な音階パッセージを、畳み掛けるように弾いてくる。 


Corea demonstrates another side of his skill set during Shorter's solo, where his playing is minimal (initially playing variations based on the “staircase” motif), followed by a section in which he lays out to leave space for Holland and DeJohnette to comp with more transparency. Shorter plays rapid runs, separated by pauses. Later, Corea exemplifies his close listening when he imitates Shorter's rapidly repeated notes and then, as Shorter's solo builds toward its peak, moves into pointillistic and staccato articulations. 




In Stockholm on November 5, 1969, Davis's solo is accompanied by drums alone and, for a brief period, bass, with Corea laying out. DeJohnette's highly soloistic accompaniment is one of his most majestic moments with the band, enforcing the beat but adding a wealth of elaboration and filigree. Corea again lays out during Shorter's solo. DeJohnette outlines the pulse on cymbals, crafting variation upon variation. As Shorter's solo builds, the saxophone lines lengthening, DeJohnette's support grows in strength, featuring multiple rolls around the kit, and slashes at the cymbals. Shorter pays limited attention to the beat, while DeJohnette enforces that beat. As Holland plays on and around the vamp, DeJohnette's drumming continues and accentuates the vamp. 






Solo without the Vamp - and When the Vamp Changes Shape 



In Berlin on November 7, 1969, the band supports Shorter's solo without any sign of the tune's characteristic vamp. The result is harmonically ambiguous, leaving Shorter the space he needs to build a motivic solo. His solo begins with a four-note phrase drawn from the final moment of Davis's preceding solo (moving steadily upward, Eb - G - Eb, and then down to C). Corea's solo receives a spare treatment from the rhythm section, accompanied by Holland alone. The lack of harmonic expectations allows Corea to build a rapid series of lengthy phrases, sometimes highly pointillistic, drawing heavily from major and minor seconds. When he harmonizes his playing, continuing after the end of his solo, Davis comes in, playing a quiet, lyrical line above these chords, setting a mood that is melancholy and beautiful. 






But When Does the Tune Begin? 



When “Bitches Brew” opened a set, the point at which the tune begins was relatively obvious. “Relatively,” because the sequence of sound events evolved, and showed some flexibility from performance to performance. But since the set list progressed from tune to tune without a break, the question arises nonetheless: How did the band know when and how to make the shift? Enrico Merlin refers to Davis's technique as “coded phrases.” He explored how Miles cued the next tune by inserting a representative musical gesture as the band was playing the current tune. The type of phrase reflected the characteristics of the upcoming tune: if it had a core melodic figure, he would play the “first notes of the tune.” If the core was a bass vamp, “the signal would be a phrase from that vamp; or if there was a core harmonic component, the signal would be 'voicings of the harmonic progressions.'” “Miles Runs the Voodoo Down" could be cued either by the bass vamp or by the first notes of the descending trumpet melody. “It’s About That Time” could be cued by alluding to the descending harmonic (chord) progression. In the recorded version of “Spanish Key,” the code was a key change. This approach continued through the mid-1970s. 

「Bitches Brew」のツアーステージで演奏されるそれぞれの曲は、その始まりは比較的ハッキリしている。「比較的」と書いたのは、各曲とも、その音の並び方は本番によって一定ではなく、柔軟性を持たせてあり、ステージを重ねる度にどんどん発展してゆくからだ。だが、全ての曲が切れ目なく演奏されることから、当然疑問が湧いてくる。メンバー達は、次の曲へ行くタイミングとそのキッカケを、どうやって知るのか?その答えを、エンリコ・メルリンはマイルス・デイヴィスの「コードを感じさせるフレーズ」にある、としている。エンリコ・メルリンによれば、マイルス・デイヴィスは、次の演奏曲目の「出の合図」を次のように出している。ある曲を演奏している、その最中に、次の曲の特徴的なフレーズなどを発信するのだ。もし核となるメロディがあれば、マイルス・デイヴィスはその「出だしの音をいくつか」吹いて聞かせる。もしその曲の、ベースが即興的に挟み込む伴奏フレーズに特徴があるなら、「それを元にしたフレーズを、出の合図として聞かせる。あるいは、核となるハーモニーがあるなら、そのコード進行を発信することで、出の合図とする」というものだ。「Miles Runs the Voodoo Down」の場合、出の合図は、ベースの伴奏フレーズか、トランペットが演奏する下降形のメロディの出だしの数音のどちらかだ。「It's About That Time」の場合だと、曲中にでてくる下降形のコード進行を、それとなく演奏すれば良い。「Spanish Key」の録音バージョンでは、コードが鍵となっていた。こういったやり方は、1970年代の中頃行われ続けていた。 




Testing the Waters 



After the autumn 1969 tour, Davis seemed ready to explore a lineup of musicians different from that of the Lost Quintet. The Bitches Brew album would not be released until April 1970. In the months before that, he brought an expanded group of musicians into the studio between November and early February, playing a more groove-driven music (grounded in a cyclical rhythmic pattern suggesting a dancelike feel) and experimenting with the inclusion of Indian instruments. The rhythmic feel was flavored in part by the presence of the pitched Indian drum, the tabla. Guitar-oriented and backbeat-driven sessions began in mid-February, with the recording that resulted in Jack Johnson taking place in early April. 

1969年秋のツアー終了後、マイルス・デイヴィスは、ロスト・クインテットとは異なるメンバー集めの準備を整えた、とされている。アルバム「Bitches Brew」は、翌年1970年4月までリリースはされない。リリースまでの数ヶ月、11月から翌2月までの間、かなりの規模のミュージシャン達を、一団としてスタジオに招集した。そこでは、プレーヤー同士の絡み合いから発生するエネルギーを推進力にして、音楽を作ってゆく手法がとられ(ダンスのような雰囲気を感じさせるような、同じリズムパターンをグルグル繰り返すものを土台にしている)、更には、インドの楽器をいくつか導入することが試みられている。曲全体のリズムの雰囲気は、インドの「タブラ」とよばれる音程差をつけた対の太鼓を使用することで、部分的に変化をつけられている。ギターを中心に据えて、バックビートを推進力とするセションが、2月中旬に相次いで始まった。この際同時に行われたレコーディングは、後にアルバム「Jack Johnson」として同年4月上旬の収録へとつながっていった。 



A Tribute to Jack Johnson was crafted as a film score about the world champion boxer much beloved by Davis. It is here that we first see full blown the trumpeter's fascination with James Brown, maybe heightened by Brown's appearance at the 1969 Newport Jazz Festival. Funk, particularly as championed by Brown and Sly and the Family Stone, would heavily influence Davis's work in 1972-75, but bass lines from their recordings have a strong presence on Jack Johnson and onward. The April 1970 sessions were joined by Steive Wonder's bass player, Michael Henderson, whose creative funk-oriented playing would help tilt the live band in that direction when he replaced Dave Holland the next fall. 

アルバム「A Tribute to Jack Johnson」は、マイルス・デイヴィスも敬愛するボクシングの世界チャンピオンである、ジャック・ジョンソンについてのドキュメンタリー映画サウンドトラックである。まずマイルス・デイヴィスがフルパワーで吹きまくってくるのが、彼がジェームス・ブラウンに魅了された影響を感じさせる。1969年のニューポート・ジャズ・フェスティバルでジェームス・ブラウンが出演した時に、最高に感化されたのであろう。ファンクミュージックといえば、ジェームス・ブラウンやスライ&ザ・ファミリー・ストーンがその代表格だが、マイルス・デイヴィスの1972年から75年にかけての作品に、大きな影響を与えた、と考えられている。もっとも、このレコーディングから聞いて取れるベースラインの数々は、「Jack Johnson」やそれ以降の作品に大きな存在感を示している。1970年4月の各セッションに加わったのが、スティーヴィー・ワンダーのベース奏者であるマイケル・ヘンダーソンだ。彼の創造性豊かなファンクミュージックの演奏は、後に、このバンドの方向性に変化を与え、翌年秋のデイヴ・ホランド交代へと繋がってゆくことになる。 



But also on Davis's mind was the new band of his former  

drummer, Tony Williams. From a young age, Williams was an aficionado not only of the avant-garde and hard-bop approaches already noted, but also of British rock and roll - the music of Eric Clapton and Cream, the Who, and others. His new band, Tony Williams Lifetime, placed the electric guitar way out front, side by side with Williams's own hard-driving drumming and alongside the organ. It was a high-volume power trio akin to Cream or the Jimi Hendrix Experience. Drummer Lenny White observes: 




In 1969, Tony had the idea to take a traditional concept - the standard organ trio - and put it on steroids. He formed Tony Williams Lifetime with John McLaughlin and Larry Young, and it became the new way, the new movement. I saw that group at Slugs when they first started - it was so great and SO LOUD. They were so good Miles wanted to hire Tony's band and call it, “Miles Davis introduces Tony Williams Lifetime.” Tony said no, he didn't want to do that. So Miles went ahead and got Larry and John for Bitches Brew. Tony was not happy with that but I think he had definitely made the decision to go off on his own by then anyway. 

1969年、トニー・ウィリアムスは、従来からあるオルガントリオのコンセプトを元に、更にこれを強化した構想を立ち上げる。彼はジョン・マクラフリンラリー・ヤングらとともにトニー・ウィリアムス・ライフタイムを結成、これが音楽界の新たな手法・動きとなっていった。結成当初の彼らを、私はニューヨークのライブハウス「スラグス」で見かけた。大変素晴らしく、そして大変な大音量であった。彼らの演奏の素晴らしさに、マイルス・デイヴィスはバンドごと丸抱えにし、自分がこのバンドを世に紹介する、と銘打とうとした。トニー・ウィリアムスはこれを拒否、望まないことを言明する。するとマイルス・デイヴィスは、トニー・ウィリアムス以外の2人を「Bitches Brew」制作に召喚する手に出た。トニー・ウィリアムスはこれが不満だったが、いずれにせよ彼は独自のやり方で行く、ということを既にしっかりと心に抱いていたのではないか、と私は考えている。 



With Williams forming Lifetime, Jack DeJohnette became drummer of the Lost Quintet, with Billy Cobham, soon to join McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra, playing on Jack Johnson, which was released in 1971. In the meantime, Bitches Brew was newly available to listeners, and Davis was on the road with the Lost Quintet, which expanded to a sextet and then an octet, continuing to present its repertoire. 

トニー・ウィリアムスが「ライフタイム」を結成した頃、ジャック・ディジョネットがロスト・クインテットのドラム奏者となり、ビリー・コブハムジョン・マクラフリンマハヴィシュヌ・オーケストラに参加して「Jack Johnson」(1971年リリース)の収録に関わる。そうしている間に、「Bitches Brew」が新たに音楽ファンに届けられ、マイルス・デイヴィスはロスト・クインテットとともにツアーを敢行、バンドの規模を6人から8人へと拡大し、自らの音楽を発信し続けた。 




Up and Down, In and Out 



As Chick Corea describes the flights of the Lost Quintet: 



We always took the audience on a roller coaster kind of trip. When Miles would play, everything would get very concentrated and to the point, and I'd see the audience come up because there'd be one line of thought being followed: Miles would play a melody, and then another melody that made sense after it, and suddenly a composition was being formed and there was an accompaniment that made sense. It would be happening, and the audience would get into it, and he'd stop playing, and the whole thing would blow up; and the audience would go down and not understand it. 



What Corea means here is that the audience's attention would wax (”come up”) and wane (”go down”) based on how directional and conventional the band's presentation was. When Davis played, his melodic focus, supported with an easier logic, would be easy for concertgoers to follow. But when Wayne Shorter or Corea stepped forward, the solos might follow a more abstract logic, and the rhythm section might go its own direction, juxtaposed to more than supporting the soloist in an obvious way. Audiences expecting a one-to-one correspondence between soloist and accompaniment would cease to follow the logic and could get distracted or even uninterested. 




By “roller coaster,” Corea is describing the general organizing pattern for the music that came about as the new band evolved. What it created was a more extreme version of what had happened in the 1960s quintet. Like the earlier band, the rhythm section developed a pattern of playing simpler, more beat-driven structures during Davis's solos, but would grow freer in his absence. In the previous lineup of musicians, Herbie Hancock recalls Davis complaining as early as 1963 that he wanted to be accompanied in the more complex, freer way that the group backed its saxophonist, George Coleman. The result was what Hancock refers to as “controlled freedom”: “He'd take the inherent structure and leave us room to breathe and create something fresh every night.” 




In the new band, DeJohnette relates: “When Miles played, there was more of a beat to grab hold to, and then when Wayne would play, it would get more abstract, and then when Chick and Dave would play, it would get even more abstract.” There were times when, after a remarkably abstract segment with Davis, the trumpeter could return and play a lyrical, melodic solo line, as if nothing remarkable had happened moments prior. Or as if he were still playing in the previous band. 




Writing in Rolling Stone, Langdon Winner offered a listener's perspective, in the context of his review of Bitches Brew. He compares the recorded Holland-DeJohnette “amorphous rhythmic patterns .... a new way to cook, a way that seems just as natural and just as swinging as anything jazz has ever known,” which supported soloists who “are fully accustomed to this new groove and take one solid solo after another,” with a later, mid-spring 1970 performance of the Corea-Jarrett two-keyboard band, in which “fully one third of the audience at Davis's recent Fillmore West appearances left the hall in stunned silence, too deeply moved to want to stay for the other groups on the bill.”  

ラングドン・ウィナーは、「ローリング・ストーン」誌に寄稿した「Bitches Brew」の書評で、音楽ファンの視点からこの曲を見てゆこうと提案している。彼が比較するのは、一つは、デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットによるレコーディングバージョンの、「明確さを避ける伴奏のリズムパターン。リズムの処理としては新しい考え方で、従前のジャズ音楽が経験してきたどんなものと比べても、自然で、ノリが良い。これに支えられるソリスト達は、この新しいグルーヴ感に完全に馴染み、そしてしっかりとしたソロを次々と発信する。」もう一つは、後の1970年春頃のチック・コリアキース・ジャレットというキーボード2人体制のバンドによる演奏で、「これを聞いた最近のマイルス・デイヴィスフィルモアウェストでの公演を聞きに来た聴衆の内、まず1/3は確実に驚いて言葉を失い、深く感銘を受けて、当日の他の出演者の演奏はもう聴きたくない、と思って会場を後にしてしまったほどだ。 





Musical Example 4: Antibes, July 1969 



As an example, in “Directions,” the opening tune played at the Antibes Festival in Juan les Pins, France, on July 25 and 26, 1969, we hear the rhythm section shifting gears when Davis's solo winds down and Shorter's begins. First, DeJohnette's driving drums press Davis's energetic solo forward. As Davis concludes, Corea departs from a more strictly rhythmic accompaniment to reach for a rising, terraced series of chords, preparing for the transition to Shorter. Now, Corea and DeJohnette seem to move in opposite directions - as the drummer pushes rhythmically ahead, Corea plays a series of slower, syncopated, longer sustained chords. The combination of these opposing forces quickly increases tension, which is released a half minute later when Corea speeds up his repetitions and then plays a series of varied chordal ostinati, some multiply repeated and others rising in series. Soon, toward the end of Shorter's solo and into Corea's, it is Holland who gradually changes speeds. The bassist alternates between a walk, sometimes unsteady, a series of rapidly repeated notes, and a groove. 




Holland credits the eclectic approach he adopted to trend-setting bassists and other musicians he was observing: “What I did with Miles was influenced by the things that I heard around me at those times, what Jack Bruce was doing with the Cream, what Jimi was doing with his band and of course there was the influences of James Brown music and a lot of the other things that were going on at that time.” Holland's assessment is extremely modest. The genius in his playing with Davis in 1970 indeed incorporates techniques of his electric peers, but it is equally grounded in the open-improvisational approaches he learned and pioneered during his earlier career in London's free music scene. Thus, the abstraction of the Lost Sextet and Octet of 1970 is due in equal measure to the members of the bands' rhythm section, in which Holland played an integral and decidedly inventive role. 






Who's in Charge?


The adventuresome nature of the rhythm section no doubt pushed the envelope on Miles Davis's musical conception. At Antibes and elsewhere during this period, he often remained onstage only while he played, moving offstage during everyone else's solos. From the perspective of Hancock's experience of Davis's nondirective leadership, the trumpeter's departure from the spotlight would seem to project a message to the band: “Go wherever your collective logic takes you.” Holland explained Davis's leadership mode to Toronto-based drummer and artist John Mars in a 1975 conversation. According to Mars, “Dave said that all Miles would do is just say 'play C' or something, and those were the total instructions. Miles just ambled up onto the stage and started playing at the concerts, and everyone was supposed to just file in and begin” - something that Mars describes as “a baptism by fire.” 




But one wonders whether the rhythm section had gone beyond the bounds of Davis's comfort zone. Shorter recalls that after he'd solo and join Davis offstage, the trumpeter would say to him: “What the fuck is going on out there?” Yet when Corea and Holland left the band, it was at their own choosing, having been urged by Davis to stay on beyond the point when they had given notice. 




There were exceptions to the template of “simple accompaniment for Davis, but then all hell can break loose.” One of many moments of exquisite engagement between players came later, during a March 1970 show at the Fillmore East in New York City. In the midst of a solo by Davis, he and Corea lock “horns” until Davis breaks away to play a rising figure, only to land back in tandem with Corea. The interplay between the two is exhilarating: they take turns, one playing a line that lifts off while the other provides ballast, pulling it back down to earth with an incessantly repeated phrase. Then, as Corea and the rhythm section move into a prelude to the theme of “Directions,” the band is off and running. And this is before Davis leaves the stage to make space for the intense, busy, abstract improvisations within the Corea-Holland-DeJohnette rhythm section, which promptly go their own mercurial way. 




From Davis's perspective, at least in retrospect, as bandleader he was always in charge of organizing the music: 



Sometimes you subtract, take away the rhythm and leave just the right sound. Or take out what you know belongs to somebody else and keep the feeling. I write for my group, for something I know Jack can do, or Chick. Or would want to do. What they've got to do is extend themselves beyond what they think they can do. And they've got to be quick. A soloist comes in when he feels like it. Anyway that's what he's being paid for. If it's not working out I just shut them up. How? I set up obstacles, barriers like they have in the streets but with my horn. I curve them, change their directions. 




Chick Corea acknowledges this: 



Miles had quite a lot of direction in what he did. It wasn't a free-for-all. When we were touring on the road, he would very often let the musicians play and play longer, because he knew that they were stretching out and experimenting. But, he knew what he wanted and he knew when the music was getting a little bit too self-indulgent and when it needed some form. He would walk back up to the stage and put some form back into the music redirecting the course of it with his horn. In the studio, he was very aware of what he was trying to get. 



From this perspective, Davis was comfortable when accompanied in the style he desired for his own solos, yet he allowed the band to play more abstractly when it didn't inhibit his own playing. As Dave Holland recalls: “Miles liked things to be kept fairly clear behind him. He liked the groove to be kept consistently, not messing with the groove or making it too elastic. And also, he adhered to the form of songs. Obviously there's a lot of freedom in his playing, but Wayne by contrast was just ready for anything to happen. We sensed that, and it gave us a sense of a little more freedom with Wayne in the music.” 





There were times when Davis reined in his band members. Holland remembers Miles offering a constructive “reality check” on the young bassist's approach to his instrument. Within a year in the band, Holland began “feeling like I could do what I wanted to do. I started to maybe take too many liberties with the music as a bass player. So Miles just came over to me at the end of the concert and said to me, 'Hey Dave, you know you are a bass player.' That kind of gave me a reality check.” This intervention led him to consider “how to maintain control of the bass and free it up somewhat so that it can have a freer role and a more interactive role with the band.” 





Clearly, the music could be complex and volcanic. Corea remembers finding it difficult at times to find a role for his piano in what could be a dense morass - what he later referred to as “out in the ozone, but happily so.” “Sometimes Wayne would be taking his solo and Jack and Dave's playing would become so vigorous that playing the piano wouldn't make much sense to me. So I'd jump on the drums, and Jack and I would both go at it, making all kinds of wild rhythms, creating even more energy. Jack and I had some fun with that for a few gigs, and Miles seemed to let it go for a while - he was willing to let anything go for a while - then he said, “That's enough.” 



We can see the two drummers, Jack DeJohnette and Chick Corea, playing during Wayne Shorter's solo and then moving into a drums duet, starting around seven and a half minutes into the filmed performance of “Bitches Brew” in the second set at Salle Pleyel in Paris on November 3, 1969. The duet leads into a driving but highly abstract electric piano and drums duet when Corea returns to his usual station. The activity calms substantially a minute later, when Davis enters with a somber muted trumpet, eventually returning to hints of the tune's opening section and building toward a brilliant, virtuosic, more linear trumpet solo. Following Shorter's solo on “It’s About That Time,” Jack DeJohnette takes a solo on the Fender Rhodes, accompanied only by Corea on drums. He begins simply but builds into a construction no less complex and abstract than what Corea might have played. 

1969年11月3日の、パリのサル・プレイエルでの2回目の公演の「Bitches Brew」の映像を見ると、演奏開始後7分半程のところで、ドラムがジャック・ディジョネットチック・コリアの2人になり、ウェイン・ショーターのソロの間中それで演奏している。ソロが終わると、ドラムのデュエットになるのがわかる。この2人の演奏は、チック・コリアが自身の電子ピアノに席を戻した時、推進力がありつつも相当に明確さを潜ませた演奏になっている。1分後、一気に演奏は穏やかになり、マイルス・デイヴィスが陰鬱でミュートを用いたトランペットを演奏し始める。最終的のは、曲の冒頭で提示された各動機へと戻り、やがてきらびやかで技を駆使した、明快でわかりやすいトランペットのソロへと繋がってゆく。ウェイン・ショーターの「It's About That Time」のソロに続いて、ジャック・ディジョネットフェンダー・ローズでソロを弾く。これにはチック・コリアがドラムで伴奏をつけるのみだ。ジャック・ディジョネットのソロは無駄のない内容だが、チック・コリアが弾いたとしてもそれより複雑さや表現の抽象性は、一歩も引けを取らないフレーズの構築を進めてゆく。 





Continuous Evolution 




As the quintet matured as an ensemble, its performances began to explore more fully the implications of the “new directions” promised by the studio recording Bitches Brew. This would include bringing the electronic - rather than simply electric - sonic exploration into live performances, and reconciling the central role of the beat in light of open form. In the band's first year, Davis had begun to consider how to square his conception of a beat-centered music with a highly exploratory group of musicians. Yet just as his interest in the beat was continuing to grow, so also was the band's interest in the freer elements. His test for the next year was how to reconcile the challenges of a beat-centered music with sonic and improvisatory complexity. This would remain an issue throughout Davis's work until his first retirement in 1975. 

ロスト・クインテットが合奏体として成熟度を増してくると、「Bitches Brew」の収録で確たるものとなった「新たな方向性の数々」が見いだせないか、バンドの演奏が模索し始めた。これには、電子的な音響の掘り下げ(単に「エレキ」楽器群を導入するだけでなく)をすすめて、これをライブ演奏にも取り入れられないか、そうなった時に、オープン形式の演奏という観点から、拍感の持つ役割を中心に据えようという動きにもなってくる。ロスト・クインテット1年目に、マイルス・デイヴィスはすでに、探究心旺盛なミュージシャン達で構成されるバンドを手兵として、拍感を中心に据えた演奏に対する自らのコンセプトの構築を模索し始めていた。マイルス・デイヴィス自身がそうする一方、バンド自体の興味関心は、より自由な素材の使い方へと膨らんでゆく。2年目は、拍感を軸とした音楽作りと、音響面やインプロヴィゼーション面での複雑さを求めてゆくこととの両立を図った。このことは、1975年にマイルス・デイヴィスが1回目の引退をしてゆくときまで、ずっと解決できなかった。 



The premise of this book is that Miles Davis's Lost Quintet, even as it expanded in personnel, did not operate within a vacuum. It increasingly embraced but was not limited by the jazz, rock, and funk worlds. Its members were highly conscious of their more experimental predecessors and contemporaries. Then, during the height of the band's free-form and electric excursions, Chick Corea's and Dave Holland's more exploratory interests were heightened when they encountered a future collaborator, Anthony Braxton.   



The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 1 Miles Goes Electric 

第1章 マイルス、エレクトリックに 



For musicians within the world designated “jazz” who sought to expand their horizons, 1969 was ripe with possibilities. An arresting sense of urgency marked both Ornette Coleman's Crisis, symbolized by its album cover image of the Bill of Rights in flames, and Tony Williams Lifetime's searing Emergency, showcasing his new high-volume, high-energy drums, electric guitar, and organ trio. This was but one year after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The night after King's death, at a televised concert in Boston, James Brown soothed an audience that was hurting and angry, and cities burned. Meanwhile, a black cultural renaissance was burgeoning. People were proudly assuming Swahili names and wearing dashikis. Politically, the Black Panther Party was at its height. 




Nineteen sixty-nine was also the year of the first moon landing, a growing antiwar movement, and Woodstock Nation. Musicians mirrored and generated the high level of imaginative possibilities percolating throughout American culture. While this was the era of the concept album, the best examples display a startling depth and breadth of emotional expressivity and sonic variety across a single recording. Among these are the Art Ensemble of Chicago's People in Sorrow, Herbie Hancock's The Prisoner, and Frank Zappa's Uncle Meat, a mash-up of rock and roll, 1950s doo-wop, exploratory improvisation, Stravinskian angularity, and musique concrete. 

1969年と言えば、他にも、初の月面着陸、反戦運動の激化、そして第1回目のウッドストックウッドストック・ネーション)の年であった。ミュージシャン達は、想像力を掻き立て、高いレベルの力を発揮して、それを映し出して作品として生み出してゆく。彼らの作品は、アメリカの文化全体に浸透していった。その最も良い例を示しているがシングルレコードである。「コンセプト・アルバム」の時代と呼ばれていた1969年だが、一方で、シングルレコードに対しては、心の内を表現する深みと懐の大きさに人々は驚き、音作りのバラエティも豊富であった。代表的なところを見てゆこう。シカゴの「People in Sorrow」、ハービー・ハンコックの「The Prisoner」、フランク・ザッパの「Uncle Meat」、ロックンロールにおいては2つの曲を1つにあわせる「マッシュアップ」や、1950年代のドゥワップ、探り合う手法によるインプロヴィゼーションストラヴィンスキー信奉者による厳格主義、そして生活雑音なども演奏とともに取り入れるムジークコンクリート、といったところ。 


Festival programming offered dramatic genre-crossing juxtapositions: In Monterey, the Modern Jazz Quartet and Miles Davis performed alongside Sly and the Family Stone; at Newport, Bill Evans and Freddie Hubbard were paired with James Brown and Led Zeppelin. Even more extreme was the assemblage at Festival Actuel in Amougies, Belgium: an eclectic montage of the Art Ensemble of Chicago, Sunny Murray, Don Cherry, and Archie Shepp; Pink Floyd, Frank Zappa, keyboard whiz Keith Emerson and the Nice; and Musica Elettronica Viva. 



The permeability of musical boundaries was being tested and stretched. It is not by chance that 1969 was the year when Miles Davis recorded two albums that meditated on the wealth of musical influences that defined the 1960s. Each took the vantage point of a jazz recording to look outward and inward. On one hand, the albums balanced rock and funk's rhythmic dynamism with a relatively static aesthetic sensibility. On the other, they sought grounding in Davis's lyrical sensibilities while casting off familiar conventions of musical structure. 



Along with Cecil Taylor, Charles Mingus, and Sun Ra (each of whom had released pivotal albums in 1956), Ornette Coleman had opened a new musical passageway with the 1959 release of The Shape of Jazz to Come and premiere performances of the material at the Five Spot in New York City. A growing number of younger musicians were exploring the possibilities his music suggested. Coleman provided a way out what some, including John Coltrane and Miles Davis, had felt to be the growing tyranny of cyclical chord progressions. In an interview with Martin Williams, Coleman famously remarked: “If I'm going to follow a preset chord sequence, I may as well write out my solo.” What he meant was that the repeated cycle of harmonic movement shaped expectations of note choices based on what is suggested by functional harmony. Within bebop, harmony had expanded to accommodate broader note choices. But Coltrane demonstrated the limitations of this approach. His recording of “Giant Steps” (1959) traversed rapid-fire, cascading chord changes as if to say: “You want chords? I'll give you chords!” An overabundance of chords pointed to the need for new structural principles and the desire to balance freedom of the individual with membership in a collective. 

この10年前の1959年、新たな音楽の道が、既に切り開かれていた。オーネット・コールマンが、セシル・テイラーチャールズ・ミンガス、サン・ラ(3人共1956年に代表作となるアルバムを出している)と共に、「The Shape of Jazz to Come」をリリースし、その初演を、ニューヨークのファイブスポットで行ったのである。彼の音楽が世に示した可能性を、更に追求しようと、多くの若手ミュージシャン達が取り組みを始めた。「循環コード進行は絶対だ」という風潮が高まっている、そう感じていた一部のミュージシャン達(ジョン・コルトレーンマイルス・デイビスもその一人)にとっては、コールマンの示したものは、そこからの脱出路となった。コールマンは、マーチン・ウィリアムスとのインタビューの中で、次のように述べたことは、良く知られている「予め決められたコード進行に沿って演奏しなければいけない、そういうことなら、本番演奏するソロは、前もって楽譜を用意するほうがマシだ。」機能和声を使うことが基本だというなら、彼曰く、循環コードで曲作りをしたら、使う音符なんて限られてしまう。音符を制限せずもっと使えるように、として、コードを広げてみせたのが、ビ・バップである。だが、このやり方には限界がある、ということを示したのが、コルトレーンだ。彼の「Giant Steps」(1959年作)では、コード変化が矢継ぎ早に発生する。それはまるでこう言っているようだ「コードが聞きたい?ほれ、ほれ、ほれ!」そうやってコードを沢山盛り込むことで、曲作りの新しいやり方が必要となっていた状況を解決し、各奏者の自由と集団としてのまとまりとのバランスを取りたいという声に応えたのである。 



Saxophonist Sam Rivers described the new music of the period as “freeform,” a “revitalizing force” in jazz. In place of the detailed intricacies of bebop, the goal was to play with “no preconceived plan,” to “make every performance different, to let your emotions and musical ideas direct the course of the music, to let the sound of the music set up its own impetus, to remember what has been stated so that repetition is intentional, to be responsive to myriads of color, polyrhythms, rise and fall, ebb and flow, thematic variations, etc., etc.” 



Although Davis publicly expressed scorn and, frankly, jealousy toward what he believed to be unwarranted attention given to Coleman, he was clearly listening. 



Davis writes: “I used to go and check them out when I was in town, even sat in with them a couple of times.” His reading of what happened could be viewed as reportage or as braggadocio: “I could play with anybody, in any style ... But Ornette could play only one way back then. I knew that after listening to them a few times, so I just sat in and played what they played.” He caustically adds: “He just came and fucked up everybody. Before long you couldn't buy a seat in the Five Spot ... They were playing music in a way everyone was calling 'free jazz' or 'avant-garde' or 'the new thing' or whatever.” 

デイヴィスはこう記している「街へ繰り出せば、彼らの演奏を見に行ってチェックしたものだった。時には演奏を共にすることも数回あった。」彼が見聞きし感じたことを書いたものを読むと、極めて客観的とも取れるし、一方で、相当自信満々な書き方もしている。「オレは誰とでも、どんな音楽ともやっていける。だが当時のオーネットは、やれるのは一つだけ。数回聴いて、それが分かった。だから、席につけば、あとは彼らのやっている通り演奏するだけだった。」彼は更に、辛辣に続ける「オーネットは来ても全員を引っ掻き回すだけだった。程なく、ファイブスポットのチケットは買えなくなった… 彼らが演奏していた音楽は、いわゆる「フリー・ジャズ」だの「アヴァンギャルド」だの「新しい音楽」だの、そういったものだった。」 


Critic Larry Kart reports Coleman's memories of the encounter, confirming Davis's presence at the Five Spot but adding an ulterior motive: 




Years later Ornette said, “I'm not mentioning names, but I remember one trumpet player who came up to me and said, 'I don't know what you're doing, but I want to let the people see me playing with you. Why don't you play some blues and let me come up and play.' So I said, 'OK,' and we did some song that he had played with Charlie Parker. Then when they asked him what he thought of my music, he said, 'Oh, the guy's all messed up ― you can tell that just by listening to him.' And it wasn't true.” 




Davis commented that he liked Coleman and trumpeter Don Cherry as people but saw them as neither talented nor original and revolutionary. He reserved particular scorn for Cherry: “I didn't like what they were playing, especially Don Cherry on that little horn he had. It just looked to me like he was playing a lot of notes and looking real serious.” Davis challenged not only Coleman's choice of this fellow trumpeter but Coleman's own performance on trumpet and violin, for which he lacked formal training: “[He was disrespecting] all those people who play them well.” But this wasn't the first time Davis had disparaged a musician. Robin D.G. Kelly reports a screaming match Davis had with Thelonious Monk at Monk's house in the early 1950s; while playing one of the pianist's compositions, Davis reportedly told him that he wasn't playing the music correctly. Monk's father asked Davis to leave. 



Davis's rivalry with Coleman seems at least in part generational, as both men were close in age. Coleman's dramatic appearance on a scene where Davis had staked a claim as a central innovator could not have been easy for him. Even with fifteen years of history in New York, he was already contending with the rising star of another contemporary, former sideman John Coltrane. In his autobiography, Davis expresses appreciation for Coltrane's late work, both musically and in terms of its sociopolitical meaning for young black people. But it was Coleman who commanded the attention that had previously been directed Davis's way; rattled by this, he sought to reassert his dominance. Davis's tensions with Coleman can also be viewed with respect to the comparative ease and esteem with which a younger generation of musicians related to Coleman. Anthony Braxton, Leroy Jenkins, and drummer Jerome Cooper, all of whom we will meet in this book, were among the many who saw Ornette Coleman as a mentor and generous supporter. 



Despite his complicated feelings toward Coleman, Davis learned from him. Although years later he continued to diminish the import of Coleman's method and execution, he acknowledged the significance of his methodology: “[The group was] just being spontaneous in their playing, playing 'free form,' bouncing off what each other was doing ... it had been done before, only they were doing it with no kind of form or structure ... that's the thing that was important about what they did, not their playing.” And Davis added a respectful postscript: “Now, what Ornette did a few years later was hip, and I told him so.” 

デイヴィスは、コールマンに対しては複雑な思いを抱いていたが、同時に彼から多くを学んだ。随分あとになってからは、コールマンのやり方や演奏については、吸収することを減らしていったものの、彼の手法の重要性は、良く分かっていた。「この集団は、自発的な演奏をする。「フリーフォーム」に基づいて演奏し、互いのやっていることに、しっかりと耳を傾ける… 前から行われていたことだが、彼らは既存の形式や仕組みを用いない。それこそが、彼らの取り組み(演奏、ではなく)にとって重要なことだった。」そしてデイヴィスは敬意に満ちたあとがきを添える「そして、オーネットが数年後に取り組んだことは、本当にスゴい。それは彼にも言ってある。」 


The influence of Coleman's approach, his use of intuition to govern improvisation and his application of a democratic principle to guide collectivity, can be heard in Davis's quintet of the 1960s as the band turned toward open forms. By 1965, it was deeply engaged in what Chick Corea calls “that thing of vaporizing themes and just going places.” “Going places” was the result of a collective musical mind at work. Davis's new electric quintet of 1969 was primed to take these principles further. 




The musically democratic principle had gained influence across North America and Europe. In 1964 in New York, a cluster of creative musicians participated in a four-day festival named the October Revolution in Jazz; some of these players later formed the Jazz Composers Guild. The next year in Chicago, black musicians gathered under the banner of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM), with sister groups springing up in other parts of the United States. London had its own “free jazz” scene; among its participants were guitarist John McLaughlin and bassist Dave Holland, future musical associates of Miles Davis.