about Keith Jarrett and Miles Davis's ensemble


<1章(2)>The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles

My favorite example is from the quintet's appearance at the Paris Jazz Festival, held at Salle Pleyel on November 6, 1967. Wayne Shorter's “Masqualero,” a constant on the November 1967 European tour, receives a striking treatment, beginning with a dramatic and forceful statement of the theme. This opening is followed by a quiet, spare solo by Davis, punctuated by short spikes by Herbie Hancock, a steady pulse by Tony Williams, and a stream of repeated notes by bassist Ron Carter. Suddenly, Hancock initiates a change in course by playing a downward, stepwise series of chords, which Davis imitates in his solo line, echoed by Hancock. As Davis's solo unleashes an outpouring of faster notes, the rhythm section builds energy and tension, reaching a peak, and then shifting to a pastoral mood. It is difficult to tell whether one musician has initiated this shift or it is simply a collective action. Either way, the entire band is instantaneously together. When Davis plays a more upbeat phrase, the band again responds, shape-shifting as a unit. 



This reconfiguration of mood, texture, and intensity occurs again and again throughout the performance. It happens next at the start of a Shorter solo that begins with a beautiful yet simple figure, juxtaposed to an equally lovely Hancock accompaniment. Again, it is difficult to tell who has initiated the change. Thirty seconds into his solo, Shorter reaches into a higher register to play a variant of his starting motif, then descends slowly. Before we know it, another moment of musical grace unfolds, beginning with a spontaneous, new Shorter melody, maybe a recasting of the previous one, joined by Hancock. Williams and Carter are immediately present to capture the subtle shift in mood. For most of the solo, Williams has played a repeated-stroke snare figure, akin to a very gentle military cadence. With only a slight shift in volume and intensity, the same material has been transformed into a perfect complement for the new emotional tone. 



While Miles Davis was exploring ― and, in a sense, mainstreaming ― abstraction and spontaneous invention, other musical worlds beckoned to him from beyond the jazz realm: rock, rhythm and blues, and funk. His eyes and ears were trained simultaneously on both abstract and populist principles. Chick Corea remarks: “In retrospect if I look at it now, it's pretty obvious where Miles was going. He wanted to reconnect with audiences. And to do that, he put a groove and rhythm back into his music. He more and more put flavors of the youth of the times into his presentation, the way he dressed, the musicians he hired, the way they played, the electric guitar. Davis's repertoire began to draw from vamps and grooves, the steady, repetitive rhythmic pulses and bass lines of rhythm and blues, and rock and roll. 



His path would lead from the blues-gospel bass line of “It's About That Time” (from In a Silent Way, 1969) through the funk riffs of James Brown and Sly and the Family Stone that ground his 1970 recording A Tribute to Jack Johnson, and ultimately to his vigorously percolating multilayered, polyrhythmic guitar and electric organ bands that produced Dark Magus (1974), Agharta (1975), and Pangaea (1975). 

こうして、ブルースやゴスペルのベースラインを取り入れた「It's About That Time」(1969年の「In a Silent Way」より)、ジェームス・ブラウンやスライ&ザ・ファミリー・ストーンのファンク音楽が持つリフを取り入れた「A Tribute to Jack Johnson」(1970年収録)、そしてついには、快活に漂う多重構造の複合リズムをもたらす、ギターや電子オルガンを擁した編成による「Dark Magus」(1974年)や、「Agharta」(1975年)、そして「Pangaea」(1975年)へとたどり着いた。 


While a youthful, more contemporary black aesthetic was guiding Davis toward a more pronounced, regular metric pulse, his music continued to tap into a deep well of experimental influences. As Corea notes: “Experimentation and the search for new combinations was definitely 'in the air.' .... The excitement over search for new forms was a peak, and as improvisers, the best place to start seemed to be with free-form improvisation, where the rules were made up as you go.” Aspects of this sensibility continued to shape his even more funk-oriented music until his first retirement in 1975. 



What drove Corea's and Dave Holland's passions while playing with Davis wasn't the beat but, as Corea continues, “the free music aspect of the band; that's what interested us ... Miles was 'in kind of a search.'” Although “as the concerts developed, Miles kept going more and more to a groove rhythm. He'd start a groove rhythm and the band would go in all kinds of different directions, with Wayne's solo and mine and what Dave and Jack were doing.” The “free music aspect” of this Miles Davis Quintet was equal in importance to the grooves, and the flexibility and open instincts of Jack DeJohnette rendered his drummer as deeply implicated in these directions as Corea and Holland. 



What is notable is Davis's ability to maintain his balance while remaining on a leading edge. Greg Tate speaks of his deep rootedness in his sense of himself as a black man, culturally confident. Tate adds: “Miles' music makes you think of Nat Turner, proud without being loud because it was about plotting insurrection. In this sense Miles never changed. His agenda remained the same from day one: stay ahead.” Despite his ambivalence about what has been termed the “freedom principle” linking open improvisation, black identity, and political freedom, Davis at various points embraced elements of all three concepts. As in most things, he did so in his own way and in his own time. 



He was at the time a nondirective bandleader. Members of his quintet were given wide latitude to play what they wished. The “just going places” ethic noted by Corea was pregnant with possibilities, opening tremendous space for unanticipated musical creativity. Corea observes that Davis's method was focused on the choice of musicians: 





Miles .... was a chemist ― a spiritual chemist ― as far as putting musicians together, because he himself didn't really compose tunes that much, although he developed styles and arrangements but he chose musicians that went together a way that he heard and that he liked. And he went from this piano player to that piano player or from this drummer to that drummer ― he chose these guys so that it went together in a way that he heard it. And I guess that's leadership, you know, it's like the choosing of the way and the treatment of the group. 

「マイルスは … メンバーのまとめ方に限って言えば、化学者、それも「人と人を配合する」化学者だ。彼自身が曲を一から作ることは、実際にはあまりない。勿論、楽曲のスタイルやアレンジを展開してゆくことはするが、要は彼は、自分が聞いて気に入ったミュージシャン達を、みつくろっているのだ。「人と人を」と言われる所以は、そこにある。こっちのピアノ奏者からあっちのピアノ奏者へ、こっちのドラム奏者からあっちへと、みつくろっては、集めて、自分が聞いて気に入った通りの音楽をさせるのだ。チームの方向性とその扱いを、そうやって選択する、これこそリーダーシップといえるのではないか。」 




In 1969 DownBeat interview with Larry Kart, Corea relates that in their first conversation, Davis told him about how to interprets Shorter's compositions: “I don't know what else to tell you except that we'll go and play, but whatever you think it is, that's what it is. 

チック・コリアは、1969年に「ダウンビート」誌のラリー・カートとのインタビューの中で、デイヴィスとの初めての言葉のやり取りについて述べている。ショーターの楽曲をどう演奏するかについて、デイヴィスは次のように語った「特に言うことは … うん、分からないけれど、まぁ、集まって楽器を演奏する。それだけだよ。結果として出てきた演奏、それについて、お前さんがどう思おうと、お前さんの勝手さ。」 


Hancock remembered Davis's leadership of the previous quintet in a similar way. He explains in a 1971 Downbeat interview: 





With Mile's band we were all allowed to play what we wanted to play and shaped the music according to the group effort and not to the dictates of Miles, because he really never dictated what he wanted. I try to do the same thing with my group. I think it serves this function that I just mentioned ― that everybody feels that they're part of the product, you know, and not just contributing something to somebody else's music. They may be my tunes, but the music belongs to the guys in the band. They make the music ― it's not just my thing. 




Wayne Shorter 



Shorter's first decade on the national stage began in 1959 with sessions with John Coltrane and fellow members of Davis's first quintet (Wynton Kelly, Paul Chambers, Philly Joe Jones), a recording under his own name, Introducing Wayne Shorter, and the beginning of a five-year stint with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers. Blakey's group was the preeminent hard bop ensemble of its time and a training ground for young musicians. With Blakey, Shorter joined a front line with trumpeter Lee Morgan (later replaced by Freddie Hubbard); all three horn players recorded on one another's Blue Note Records sessions. Shorter became the Blakey band's chief composer, a role he continued when he joined the Miles Davis Quintet in 1964. 

ショーターが全米にその活動を展開し始めたのが、1959年。ジョン・コルトレーンと、デイヴィスの最初のクインテットのメンバーだったウィントン・ケリーポール・チェンバースフィリー・ジョー・ジョーンズらとのセッションで、自身の名を冠した「Introducing Wayne Shorter」の収録だ。そして、アート・ブレイキージャズ・メッセンジャーズとの5年契約の最初の年だった。ジャズ・メッセンジャーズといえば、当時のハード・バップの最高峰であり、併せて、若手ミュージシャン達が腕を磨く場でもあった。ブレイキーの元で、ショーターはトランペット奏者のリー・モーガン(後にフレディ・ハバード)とともに主席奏者となる。ショーター、モーガン、ハバードの3名は、互いにブルーノート・レコードのセッションでの作品を残している。ショーターは、ブレイキーのバンドが演奏する楽曲の、主たる作曲担当となった。この役目を、彼はマイルス・デイヴィスクインテットに1964年に参加した際にも、担うことになる。 


Shorter was always an arts man, majoring in visual art in high school and graduating with a degree in music education from New York University. The university's Greenwich Village location afforded him the opportunity to hear Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, and other prominent musicians at a neighborhood theater, and at Birdland and the Open Door farther uptown. The timing of his graduation proved prescient: “One week I was hanging out at the Cafe Bohemia [in the Village]. Everybody was in the joint ― Kenny Clark, Donald Byrd, Max Roach, Jimmy Smith had just come to town, and Cannonball [Adderley] had come from Florida ― all in that same week. I was standing at the bar, and Donald Byrd said, 'Hey, Wayne, come on up.'” After serving in the army, he returned to New York. Shorter built a close association with Coltrane ― he recalls Trane inviting him over to play: “Hey, you're playing that funny stuff, like me. Come on over to my house.” There, he heard Coltrane experimenting with what would become the chord patterns of “Giant Steps.” He realized that “if there is anything new that I am going to do, I'm going to have to do it all by myself.” 

ショーターは芸術一筋の人生を歩んだ。高校時代は絵画や彫刻、デザイン等を専攻し、ニューヨーク大学卒業時には、音楽教育学士号を取得している。大学がグリニッジ・ヴィレッジにあったおかげで、彼はデューク・エリントンディジー・ガレスピーチャーリー・パーカーといった超一流のミュージシャン達を、生で、それも近所の劇場や、バードランド、さらにはオープンドアといった「山の手」の名門ライブハウスで聞く機会に恵まれた。彼が大学を卒業するタイミングが、その後の彼の人生に、大きな幸運をもたらすことになる。「1週間ほど、(ヴィレッジの)カフェ・ボヘミアに入り浸っていた。みんなそこに集まっていた。ケニー・クラークドナルド・バードマックス・ローチ、そしてジミー・スミスらが、丁度その時、グリニッジ・ヴィレッジに来ていて、そして何と、キャノンボール・アダレイまでもがフロリダから来ていたのだ。全員、たまたま、その同じ週に、である。私がカフェ・ボヘミアにいると、ドナルド・バードが「よぉ、ウェイン。来いよ」と声をかけてきた。」兵役を終えて、ショーターはニューヨークへ戻る。彼はコルトレーンとも親しくなったのだ。キッカケは、コルトレーンがショーターに、一緒に演奏しないかと誘ったことである。「よぉ、お前さんの演奏、オレもそうだが、へんてこりんだな。どうだ、オレの家に来ないか。」そこでショーターは、後に「Giant Steps」のコード進行となるものを、コルトレーンが試し弾きしているのを聞かされた。この時彼は気付いた「新しいことをしようと決めたら、自力で全部やらねばならなくだろう。」 


One year into Shorter's tenure with Davis ― around the time of the famous concerts at Chicago's Plugged Nickel ― the band members began to actively ground their musical structures in intuition. This shift is documented on the recordings ESP (1965), Live at the Plugged Nickel (1982 / 1995, recorded in 1965), Miles Smiles (1966), Nefertiti (1967), and Sorcerer (1967). The new approach also served as the engine that would guide the Lost Quintet. It was one that suited Shorter well, provided there was attentive and flexible support from his bandmaster. His improvisational approach is described by Kart as one “in which emotion is simultaneously expressed and 'discussed' (i. e. spontaneously found motifs are worked out to their farthest implications with an eye-open conscious control.)” These “workings out” are anything but clinical, as Kart adds: “His playing has more overt emotional qualities of tenderness or passion which can give pleasure to the listener.” Indeed, what Shorter brought to both Davis bands was great imagination, intensity, and emotion. Four years with the 1960s Davis Quintet gave him a deep knowledge of the give-and-take chemistry Davis sought within his new ensemble.  

ショーターがデイヴィスの元に来てから1年、かの有名な、シカゴの名門プラグド・ニッケルでのコンサートが、行われた時期である。デイヴィスのメンバー達は、自身が音楽を構築するその土台を、直感に求める方向で、活発に動き始めていた。彼らがこの様に方向転換したことが、良く現れている作品が、「ESP」(1965年)、「Live at the Plugged Nickel」(1982年/1995年再版:収録は1965年)、「Miles Smiles」(1966年)、「Sorcerer」(1967年)である。彼らの新しいアプローチは、同時に、ロスト・クインテットを導く動力源となってゆく。ショーターにもしっくり来るものだったが、それにはバンドのメンバーに、気配りの良さと柔軟性の良さがあるサポートが、備わっていることが必要だった。「ダウンビート」誌のラリー・カートによれば、ショーターのインプロヴィゼーションの手法は、次の通り「彼の心情が、音になり、同時にそれについてメンバー間で話し合いが発生する(例えば、思いつきで見つかったモチーフがいくつかあると、メンバーがどんどん細部を練ってゆく。その意識の働かせ方は、実に驚異的だ。」そうやって「練った細部」は、スリム以外の何物でもない、とラリー・カートは続ける。「彼の演奏には、思いやりとか、情熱といった、心の様相が込められていることが、ハッキリと分かる。それは、聴手に喜びを与えるものだ。」ショーターが、マイルスのバンドにもたらしたもの、それは、大いなる想像力、強靭さ、そして熱い思いである。1960年代、マイルスのクインテットと関わる4年間の中で、彼は、デイヴィスが新たな彼のバンドに求めた、ギブ・アンド・テイクの「化学反応」についての深い知恵を得た。 








At first, Miles Davis's Lost Quintet seemed less oriented toward free exploration than the previous band, composed of Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, and Tony Williams. That situation changed as the band shifted in personnel, allowing a new chemistry to develop. First, in August 1968, twenty-one-year-old British bassist Dave Holland replaced Carter. In July, Miroslav Vitous had filled the gap left from Carter's departure. Davis, vacationing in London, came to Ronnie Scott's club one night to hear pianist Bill Evans, but unexpectedly discovered Holland, who was playing that night with a group opposite Evans. Jack DeJohnette was Evan's drummer but was also playing melodica in the group with Holland. Holland relates: “Miles dropped in, and between two sets his former drummer Philly Joe Jones passed on the message to me. But when I got off, he had left, and I missed him the next morning at his hotel, as he had checked out and was on his way back to New York. Three weeks later, his agent called, informing me I had to be there in three days. That's when I met him for the first time, in the studio.” 



Holland played both electric and acoustic bass ― Carter had not wanted to play electric ― and once Davis heard him, the bandleader immediately surmised that he just might be the right person for his band. The choice proved prescient, because Holland could play not only what Davis was seeking but much more, since his musical interests had been shaped in part within London's open-improvisation world.  



In September 1968, Chick Corea replaced Herbie Hancock, at Tony Williams's recommendation. Hancock told John S. Wilson of the New York Times on the eve of the premiere of Hancock's new sexet: “Miles had heard Chick Corea and felt he would be the best new piano player for him. While Chick was with Stan Getz, he had six weeks off so Miles decided to use him for that period.” Holland and Corea's first studio session with Davis was on September 24, 1968, recording two tunes that would appear on Filles de Kilimanjaro. The pair recorded in the studio with Davis throughout November and into early December. These sessions often involved multiple keyboardists, including Hancock and Josef Zawinul. Guitarist John McLaghlin was another regular participant. 

1968年9月、トニー・ウィリアムスの後押しで、チック・コリアハービー・ハンコックの後任に就いた。ハンコックは、彼が新たに結成したセクステット(6人編成のバンド)のお披露目公演に際し、その晩、ニューヨーク・タイムズ紙のジョン・S・ウィルソンに、次のように語っている「マイルスはチック・コリアの演奏を聞いたことがあり、自分の新たなピアノ奏者に最高だと、その時すでに感じたようだ。チックがスタン・ゲッツのバンドに居た頃、6週間休暇をとった時期があって、その時マイルスは、その間彼を使ってみようと思ったわけだ。」デイヴィスの元、デイヴ・ホランドチック・コリアが初めてスタジをセッションしたのが、1968年9月24日。その時録音した2曲は、後にアルバム「Filles de Kilimanjaro1」に収録される。この2人は、翌11月から12月初旬まで、デイヴィスとスタジオ収録に取り組む。このセッションでは、キーボード奏者を複数導入し、そこにはハービー・ハンコックやジョー・ザウィヌルらもいた。ギター奏者として、ジョン・マクラフリンが、別途全参加している。 



A New Bassist: Dave Holland 



Dave Holland was born in Wolverhampton, a town in the West Midlands of England. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the region became home to automobile, glass, and other manufacturing industries. According to Holland, “There were no musicians in my family, but my uncle brought a ukulele home and started strumming some chords. I wanted him to show me, so that's how I picked up my first things, and I was just five years old then. There was a piano, too; my mother and grandmother sang songs from sheet music, so I began to pick out tunes with it.” 



The young Holland took up rock guitar but switched to bass as a teenager, playing in local “beat ... C&W-style [country and western] pop” groups and “studying Ray Brown's work on Oscar Peterson's albums Night Train and Affinity, plus two Leroy Vinnegar records, Leroy Walks and Leroy Walks Again.” When he was eighteen, he left Wolverhampton for the musically more cosmopolitan London scene. “For kids like myself, music was like a ticket to ride, a way out of that dreadful working environment and rigid class system.” 

ホランドはその後、ロックギターに手を出すが、13歳になるとベースに転向する。地元の「ビート云々カントリーウエスタンポップ」のグループでベースを弾くようになり、本人曰く「オスカー・ピーターソンのアルバム『Night Train』や『Affinity』に収録されているレイ・ブラウンの楽曲や、リロイ・ヴィネガーの2枚のアルバム「Leroy Walks」と「Leroy Walks Again」を教材にした」。18歳の時、彼はウルヴァーハンプトンを出て、音楽的に多彩な街・ロンドンを目指す。「私みたいな子供からすれば、音楽とは、うんざりするような労働環境やギスギスした階層社会から脱出するための、列車の切符のようなものだった。」 


In London, Holland played clubs and restaurants; his diverse repertoire included Dixieland, which was sweeping England at the time. He also joined visiting American saxophonists Coleman Hawkins, Ben Webster, and Joe Henderson and British sax player Ronnie Scott at the eponymously titled premier London jazz club, Ronnie Scott's. Holland recalled in 1968: “When I came to London four years ago, I couldn't read music and had to take all kinds of jobs ― even worked in a Greek restaurant playing bouzouki.” During this period, he was studying bass with James Merrett at the Guildhall School of Music and became involved with the growing British open-improvisation world, which included a trio he joined in 1967 with guitarist John McLaughlin and drummer Tony Oxley.  




Among Holland's musical associates was saxophonist John Surman, and he played with John Stevens's Spontaneous Music Ensemble, recording Karyobin Are the Imaginary Birds Said to Live in Paradise in early 1968. The recording included musical pioneers Derek Bailey, Evan Parker, and Kenny Wheeler. This collective improvisation was organized as a series of short spurts of activity, each one a phrase played in parallel (not unison), each separated by a brief pause. In this form of improvisation, embedded within each cluster of activity, individual musicians listen closely and respond to one another, completing and commenting on the other's gestures. At times, one or more of the players are akin to a relay race, where one person hands a baton off to the next. Holland's rapid, mellifluous phrases, first pizzicato and later arco, reflect the kind of individual-within-the-collective thinking that would serve him well with Miles Davis and later with Circle, Anthony Braxton, and Sam Rivers. He is rarely in the foreground, yet is an integral element in the group chemistry, an ever-active, highly engaged presence, crafting well-shaped phrases and thinking on his feet. 

ホランドの音楽仲間には、サックス奏者のジョン・サーマンがいる。また、彼はジョン・スティーヴンスの「スポンティニアス・ミュージック・アンサンブル」に参加し、「Karyobin Are the Imaginary Birds Said to Live in Paradise の収録に参加した。1968年初頭のことである。収録には、楽界の先駆者達、デレク・ベイリーエヴァン・パーカー、そしてケニー・ウィーラーらが参加していた。ここでの集団によるインプロヴィゼーションの構成は、短めの演奏を並べてゆくというもので、それぞれに並行して(全く同じく重ねるのではなく)演奏するスタイルを持つ。そしてそれぞれが、短く間をとっている。このインプロヴィゼーションの形式では、各奏者の演奏行為が集中して起こるところにインプロヴィゼーションが発生する。個々のミュージシャン達は、互いによく聴いてそれに反応し、演奏を作り上げ、相方の演奏に反応を音で示すのだ。時には、一人ないしそれ以上のプレーヤー達が、陸上競技のリレーでもやっているかのように、自分から次の走者へと、バトンを渡すようにやり取りしてゆく。ホランドの紡ぐフレーズは、俊敏にして流麗、初めはピチカートで、そのうち弓を用いて弾きだす。「集団の中での個別行動」的な発想を反映していて、マイルス・デイヴィスや、後のサークル、アンソニー・ブラクストン、そしてサム・リヴァースらとの演奏に、大いに役立つ。彼は滅多なことでは、目立つ演奏立ち位置には出てこない。とはいえ、彼は、チームで化学反応を起こす上で、欠かせない存在であり、常に積極的に弾き、全体への関わり方も高度であり、非常によく仕上がったフレーズを作り出し、そして常に自分自身で物事を考えて演奏に臨んでいる。 


Holland came to the States to join Miles Davis's band after completing his final semester at the Guildhall School of Music. “I had only four days to prepare. Luckily I knew most of his music from the records. Right after I got to New York, we opened for 10 days at Count Basie's Club in Harlem. Melody Maker critic Jeff Atterton gave the band a rave review, noting “the strong bass playing of Dave Holland who seemed very much at home with the group and more than able to hold his own in this fast company.” 



The move to the States represented a big change for Holland, but he quickly learned to navigate the New York scene. “I had been out of the country [England] only once before that and being there at that time was a eye-opener. There was a cultural revolution going on then: you had the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement coming to a head, then the political assassinations, so it was such an incredibly intense period. Sure, the language was the same, but I was learning a new culture as well as finding my way around making contacts.” An informal recording from October 28, 1968, has Holland playing with John McLaughlin, Jack DeJohnette, and an unidentified pianist in a relatively open improvisational setting.