about Keith Jarrett and Miles Davis's ensemble


第5章(1)The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 


Chapter 5 Miles Davis's Increasingly Electronic 1970, and a Reflection on His 1971 - 75 Bands 

第5章 マイルス・デイヴィス 1970年代の急ピッチな電子楽器の導入と、1971年~1975年のバンド活動についての考察 


Oh, man, I heard some of the freest playing coming out of that band. Man, with Keith [Jarrett] and Chick in the band, when Miles stepped off the bandstand, these cats went out, and not only that, they were switching instruments, because Chick and Keith played drums very well. Jack plays piano, Keith plays saxophone; so everybody was switching instruments. It was incredible, man. 







An Increasingly Electronic Sound 



Chick Corea found a solution to the difficulty of placing an electric piano within a dense, loud swirl of sound and distortion. Josef Zawinul's tune “Directions” opens the recorded March 7, 1970, performance of Miles Davis's sextet, Live at the Fillmore East, as it did most of the band's sets. Jack DeJohnette and Dave Holland prepare the ground with a circular groove of seven notes (four-and one-and-two-and-three ... ), awaiting Corea's arrival. And what happens next is about neither the groove nor playing that is free of harmonic constraints. It is about the pure sonic experience. And it is wild and otherworldly. Even this repeated listener continues to experience surprise at being greeted by the harsh, maybe even shrill sound of Corea's electric piano. 

チック・コリアは、かねてから音が密集し大きく渦巻くサウンドとその歪みの中にあって電子ピアノをどう位置づけてゆくか、困難を抱えていたが、ここに至り、その解決方法を見出した。ジョセフ・ザヴィヌルの「Directions」で幕を開けた、1970年3月7日の、マイルス・デイヴィスセクステット(6人編成のバンド)の演奏は、「Live at the Fillmore East」として収録された。このバンドの本番の多くが、ここで行われている。ジャック・ディジョネットデイヴ・ホランドが、7つの音で構成される繰り返しのパターンによるリズムの絡み合いで、土台をお膳立てする。そこへチック・コリアが飛び込んでくるのを待つのだ。そして何と、次の瞬間、これに絡み合うでもなく、といってハーモニーの制約を取り払った演奏でもない、ただただ純粋に音の響きを体験してもらいましょう、と言わんばかりの演奏になる。そしてそれは、荒々しく、別世界のもの。筆者のように、こう言った演奏をさんざん聴いている者でも、チック・コリアの電子ピアノがかき鳴らす、攻撃的で、聞き方によっては甲高いという印象さえ持つようなサウンドのお出迎えに、ひたすら驚きの連続を体験することになる。 


The outlines of the narrative told by Herbie Hancock and Corea as to what led to their adoption of the electric piano are similar. Each of them, a year apart, arrived at a session with Davis (Hancock's was in the studio, Corea's at a club date; Corea thinks it might have been the old Jazz Workshop, on Boylston Street in Boston). Davis points to an electric piano and says in his whispery voice: “Play this!” Hancock skeptically plays a chord but becomes entranced by its lush, sustained tone. He remembers thinking: “He wants me to play that toy over there? I had heard about the Fender Rhodes electric piano from some other musicians, piano players, and they were saying: 'It's not an acoustic piano.' So I went in with that kind of skepticism, which was kind of negative. But I had never heard it. So I said: 'OK.' I turned it on and played a chord and much to my surprise, I liked the sound.” 




Corea, on the other hand, 




struggled with it for a while, because I really didn't like it. And I was struggling with it because I was with a maestro, a hero of mine; all of these guys were. And here I am with an instrument I hated the sound of. It just ate me up ... But as we continued to tour, I got more the idea of [what] Miles was doing. And the Fender Rhodes, I started to figure it out; started to see how to work it and how to bring it more into the sonic thing that Miles was looking for ... the sound of youth; it was the sound of pop and rock, too. But yet I could play jazz on it. 




In an interview with Marc Myers, Corea recalled: 




Before joining Miles, I had been pretty much a purist in my tastes. I loved Miles and John Coltrane and all the musicians who surrounded them. But I didn't look much further into rock or pop. I listened to a little bit of classical music, but that was it for me. When Miles began to experiment, I became aware of rock bands and the energy and the different type of communication they had with audiences during a show. I'd see young people at rock concerts standing to listen rather than sitting politely. It was a different vibe and more my generation. It got me interested in communicating that way. People were standing because they were emotionally caught up in what they were hearing. I related to that. 



He [Davis] sensed early that something big was shifting in the culture. Miles didn't want to give up his form of jazz expression but he wanted to communicate with that new crowd, to a younger, more emotional audience. So the sound and the rhythm of his music changed. The band I was in with Miles starting in '68 was pretty wild. It was transitional in the fusion movement, and we were doing all kinds of stuff. 




When the first electric Miles Davis recording, Filles de Kilimanjaro, appeared in 1969 (recorded in 1968), audiences were already familiar with the electric piano thanks to Ray Charles and Joe Zawinul's work with Cannonball Adderley. The warm, funky sounds of the Wurlitzer and later the Fender Rhodes were appreciated for both their sharp attack and their long sustain. The “attack” added a percussive quality, and the “sustain” offered a rich choral feel that could fill out the harmonic richness of an ensemble. But Corea's sound on this March 1970 date was something of another order. The Fender Rhodes at first sounds like a bus honk, sharply articulated and insistently repeated. It is more an electronic than an electric sound, calling to mind more of the electronic music avant-garde than rock, pop, or funk. Its level of distortion is different in kind from fuzz guitar. Fuzz emphasizes a sustained albeit “dirty” sound; these articulations are brief and sharp edged. 

マイルス・デイヴィス初めて電子音によるサウンドを導入したレコーディング「Filles de Kilimanjaro」は、1969年に登場する(収録は1968年)。この時、聴衆はすでに、レイ・チャールズとジョセフ・ザヴィヌルが、キャノンボール・アダレイと共に取り組んだ演奏のおかげもあり、電子ピアノの音には、耳が馴染んでいた。ワーリッツァー製の電子ピアノが醸し出す、温かみがあり、野性的で躍動感のあるサウンド(後にフェンダー・ローズ製を採用)は、切れ味のより音の立ち上がりと、長い持続音が、その良さとされた。その「立ち上がり」が、打楽器のような打突音的効果を、そして「持続音」が、バンドの和声の豊かさを、それぞれもたらしてくれるのだ。だが、チック・コリアの1970年3月付とする録音を聞いてみると、もう一つ別の取り組みが伺える。この時使用したフェンダー・ローズの電子ピアノは、まずは、バスの警笛のように、音の立ち上がりが切れ味良く、執拗に繰り返しのパターンを聞かせる。そのサウンドは、単なる「電子音」というよりは、電子的な操作によって作り込んだものであり、どちらかというと、ロックやポップス、あるいはファンクミュージックというよりも、アヴァンギャルドの音楽を彷彿とさせる。音の歪ませ方は、ファズ・ギターとは異なる。ファズ・ギターの場合、持続音だが、サウンドに「汚し」がかかる。音符の処理の仕方は、短めで、立ち上がりや切り方も鋭いものになる。 


One might think “synthesizer,” but this was early 1970, when few audiences had heard that instrument in live performance. Early recordings featuring the Moog synthesizer, such as Bernie Krause and Paul Beaver's Zodiac Cosmic Sounds (1967) and Wendy Carlos's Switched on Bach (1968), were both melodious and created within the security of a studio. The first live synthesizer performance took place in 1965 at Town Hall in New York City, featuring Herb Deutsch and his New York Improvisation Quartet. The first that was widely publicized, “Jazz in the Garden,” took place before a packed crowd at New York's Museum of Modern Art Sculpture Garden. The August 28, 1969, event featured two quartets and relatively conventional sounds. Both groups included a noted jazz pianist, respectively Hank Jones and Hal Galper. Guitarist John McLaughlin, recently arrived from England and active in Davis recording sessions, was with Galper (Cris Swanson led the group). 

これはシンセサイザー話ではないのか?」思う読者もおられると思うが時は1970年観客を入れての演奏の場でシンセサイザー耳にすることは、殆どない時代だ。初期の音源で、ムーグ製のシンセサイザーを前面に押し出したものと言えば、バーニー・クラウスとポール・ビーバーによる「Zodiac Cosmic Sounds」(1967年)、そして、ウェンディ・カルロスの「Switched on Bach」(1968年)が、ともにメロディを楽しむことが出来る作品で、制作においては、スタジオという守られた環境で行われた。最初に生演奏でシンセサイザーが使用されたのは、1965年のニューヨーク市にあるタウンホール、ハーバート・ドイチと彼が率いるニューヨーク・インプロヴィゼーション・カルテットの演奏だ。最初に大々的に宣伝されて実施されたのが、「ジャズ・イン・ザ・ガーデン」と銘打ったものだ。会場はMoMAニューヨーク近代美術館)のスカルプチャーガーデン(彫刻の庭)。当日は、大勢の聴衆が詰めかけた。1969年8月28日、カルテットが2団体、どちらかというとサウンドは保守的な方である。それぞれ著名なジャズピアノ奏者を擁していた。かたや、ハンク・ジョーンズ、もう一方は、ハル・ギャルパーである。当時イギリスから帰国したばかりで、マイルス・デイヴィスのレコーディングセッションで活躍中だった、ギター奏者のジョン・マクラフリンは、ハル・ギャルパーのバンドの方にいた(バンドのリーダーはクリス・スワンソン)。 


The relatively conservative nature of the sounds is suggested by two critical responses. Bertram Stanleigh wrote in Audio: “These were real musicians playing real music, and it was clear that their message was getting to the audience ... that was having too much fun to quit.” Allen Hughes of the New York Times observed: “Actually, not too much happened that really held the attention. Much of the time, the music sounded like a rather clumsy imitation of jazz.” A reprise jazz performance with a Moog synthesizer was given a year later by a quartet fronted by Dick Hyman, around the same time as synthesizer events that captured a larger public: the premier performances by Emerson, Lake and Palmer in August 1970. ELP's eponymous album featuring the famous Moog synthesizer solo on “Lucky Man” appeared at the close of 1970. Emerson's sound highlighted the synthesizer's lyrical capabilities, but not its sonically outside-the-box timbres.    

この2団体のどちらかと言えば本質的に従来型のサウンドについては、2人の音楽評論家がコメントを寄せている。バートラム・スタンリーが「オーディオ」誌に掲載したのがこちら「生身のミュージシャン達が、生身の音楽を奏でる、ミュージシャン達のメッセージは、しっかりと聴衆に伝わっていた…聴衆の方は、聞き所やお楽しみが満載で、その場を離れがたい様子だった。」ニューヨーク・タイムズ紙のアレン・ヒューズは、次のような見方を示した「実際の所、さほど目を引くものはなかった。ライブの間、聞こえた音楽は、概ね、どちらかと言えばジャズをぎこちなく真似た、という印象。」この1年後、ムーグ製のシンセサイザーを用いたジャズの公演が、再び行われた。このときのカルテットは、ディック・ハイマンが率いていた。これとほぼ同じ頃、比較的集客のあったシンセサイザーを用いた公演といえば、エマーソン・レイク・アンド・パーマーのデビュー公演だ。1970年8月のことだった。ELP命名のきっかけとなったアルバムは、収録曲「Lucky Man」の有名なムーグ製のシンセサイザーによるソロを含め、1970年末にリリースされた。ELPサウンドは、このシンセサイザーのもつ情熱的な表現力が際立っていたが、既存の枠にとらわれない音響の数々は、さほど注目されなかった。 


Emerson's and Hyman's performances occurred during the final months of Chick Corea's tenure with Davis. But, already at the March 1970 Fillmore date, there was something distinctly novel and right in your face about Corea's new keyboard sound, unparalleled even by what larger audiences were hearing created on the Moog synthesizer.