about Keith Jarrett and Miles Davis's ensemble


第5章(3)The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensemble

The Miles Davis Lost Quintet and Other Revolutionary Ensembles 

by Bob Gluck(2016) 

Chapter 5 Miles Davis's Increasingly Electronic 1970, and a Reflection on His 1971 - 75 Bands 

第5章 マイルス・デイヴィス 1970年代の急ピッチな電子楽器の導入と、1971年~1975年のバンド活動についての考察


Turning On the Funk 



During the June evenings at the Fillmore East, Davis solos over the steady vamp and many wah-wah sounds, and layers of organ and Fender Rhodes. On June 17, the first of those shows, his second solo is played over the bass vamp and Jarrett's wah-wah organ composing; Corea's arrival heightens the funky environment before the concluding section of Davis's solo, which becomes an elegy over sustained chords. In Freeport on August 2, 1970, Corea's playing is as highly rhythmic, tied to the vamp, as his ring-modulated sounds ― angular, atonal, with seemingly quasi-randomized pitch ― are electronic in timbre. 



During the band's final performances at Tanglewood and the Isle of Wight (August 18 and 29, 1970), the vamp during Davis's solos will become highly minimal. What remains is a repeated single pedal note, played on Holland's wah-wah bass, Jarrett's RMI electric keyboard, Corea's ring-modulated Fender Rhodes, and, locked into a groove, DeJohnette's drums. At Tanglewood, the comping has become heavily rhythmic. The two percussionists, two keyboard players, and the electric bassist, with lots of wah-wah, function like a cluster of drummers. Davis's second solo at Tanglewood returns over regular vamp. 



Davis had previously explored the idea of a bass line pivoting on a single repeated note in the band's treatment of “Spanish Key.” On the studio recording, starting around the three-minute mark, the drumming varies in its subtle details, fills, and layering. Variety is created through adjustments in the dynamic range of the drumming to suit each soloist. Tension is built through the repetitive (multi) electric piano ostinato, Corea's imitation of soloists, between-the-beat conga beats. A lively and funky rendition was performed as an encore on June 19, 1970, at the Fillmore East. Ironically, it was not included in the original recording of the concert, but can now be heard on Miles at the Fillmore (2014). 

これらに先立ち、マイルス・デイヴィスは既に、「Spanish Key」の演奏に際し、ベースラインを繰り返し演奏される一つの音を軸に旋回させる構想を進めていた。スタジオ録音では、演奏開始3分経過のあたりで、リズムの刻みが変化を醸し出し、細かな細工を施したり、フレーズ毎の間に即興で作ったリズムの音形をを入れたりして、音を重ねてゆく。そういった変化をつけるに際しては、各ソロ奏者達に適応するよう設定された、リズムを刻む音量幅の範囲内に、ちゃんと収まるようになっている。曲の緊張感を高めてゆくのは、電子ピアノによって繰り返される(2つ同時進行する別々の)オスティナート、チック・コリアによる各ソロ奏者の模倣、拍の間を狙って打ってくるコンガである。生き生きとした、そしてファンキーな演奏が繰り広げられたのは、1970年6月19日のフィルモア・イーストでの公演に際してのアンコール。皮肉にも、この演奏は当日の元の音源には収録されず、現在これが聞けるのは、「Miles at the Fillmore」(2014年)である。 



Collective Improvisation 



Open-ended improvisations were a regular feature of the Fillmore East shows in June. One striking moment within the opening-night performance of “Bitches Brew” (June 17) features a highly textural, free-form trio improvisation consisting of Steve Grossman's flute, Airto Moreira's chimes, and Keith Jarrett's organ. This grouping emerges from a Chick Corea solo that seems to undergo a structural collapse. 

6月のフィルモア・イーストでの各公演では、完全に各奏者が自由に展開できるインプロヴィゼーションが、お決まりになっていた。初日の晩の公演で演奏された「Bitches Brew」(6月17日)で、衝撃的な瞬間が訪れる。高度に組み立てられた、フリー形式による、トリオでのインプロヴィゼーションだ。メンバーは、スティーヴ・グロスマンのフルート、アイアート・モレイラのチャイム(チューブラベル)、そしてキース・ジャレットのオルガンだ。この組み合わせの発生元は、チック・コリアのソロだ。このソロは、全体の構造が崩れる中を通ってきた感がある。 


Steve Grossman's solo on June 19 unfolds into a multilayered madhouse of rapid streams of notes. The proceedings speed up and slow down; bass and drums move at multiple tempi, part of an amorphous sound mass. Jarrett's wah-wah organ and Moreira's bells match timbre. The keyboardists play faster and faster, not quite in sync. As the textures slow and thin out, the performance calms, leading into Davis's sparse solo. While the accompaniment becomes quieter and more clearly synchronized, it remains no less playful than during the collective improvisation, in part thanks to Moreira's squeaks. Soon, the keyboard wah-wah sounds of Jarrett's organ ramp up the energy level. 



On June 20, the final evening of the Fillmore East stand, the distinct sounds made by each of the keyboards maintain their unique identities. Then, out of a thicket of sound, the two ― Jarrett's organ and Corea's ring-modulated Fender Rhodes ― somehow, though uneasily, coexist, or we might say collide, within the same sonic space. Open improvisations occur elsewhere within these shows; “Directions” was regularly a vehicle the band used for this approach. 



Sometimes in the absence of open improvisation, seemingly unrelated sounds could be juxtaposed. During saxophonist Gary Bartz's solo at Tanglewood on August 18, the mood of Jarrett's organ accompaniment is elegiac, while Bartz is playing in an earthier and more blues-based realm. (Bartz had replaced Grossman shortly before this show.) 



And abstraction and funk could coexist as well. At the Isle of Wight, the various layers in the rhythm section behind Bartz's solo begin to move out of sync. Only Jack DeJohnette holds the pulse, to which Bartz remains tied, allowing the groove to continue unabated. Jarrett moves at a different clock, Holland's bass slows, and Corea plays abstract sounds that are distorted by the right ring modulator. Jarrett remains slightly out of time sync during Davis's solo. The rhythm section's accompaniment is quite spare. Despite all the abstraction, though, the overall feel reflects the funky beat. When the band is locked in together rhythmically, we hear a clear sense of where Davis was heading: toward an Afro-futurist blend of funk, electronic sounds, and abstraction. His future direction would be a groove with swirling electronic sounds. 




Final Months of the Lost Quintet (plus Two) ― through Summer 1970 



In early April, Chick Corea and Dave Holland recorded their own acoustic session, released as The Song of Singing; Jack DeJohnette also made a record. A few days later, the Miles Davis band performed at the Fillmore West from the tenth through the twelfth. Corea's sound on the set opener, “Directions,” is highly distorted and percussive on the recording, including during most of Davis's opening solo, although less so when new saxophonist Steve Grossman is playing. If an electric sound was not Corea's preference at the moment, it certainly is not apparent in this show. His comping for Grossman is more active, utilizes more ostinati, and is responsive to the abstraction of the saxophonist's angular lines. Yet his sound becomes more distorted once again during his own solo. 

4月初旬、チック・コリアデイヴ・ホランドは、独自にアコースティックセッション(電子楽器を使用しない演奏)のレコーディングを行い、「The Song of Singing」をリリース。同じく、ジャック・ディジョネットもレコードを作成する。その数日後、マイルス・デイヴィスのバンドが、フィルモア・ウェストで、10日から12日までの公演を行う。この公演は、1曲目の「Directions」でのチック・コリアサウンドをCDで聞いてみると、しっかりと歪ませたサウンド、そして打楽器のような叩きつけるような発音を確認できる。これらのサウンドは、マイルス・デイヴィスの冒頭のソロの大部分や、若干トーンダウンさせて、この時新加入だったサックス奏者のスティーヴ・グロスマンのソロでも聞くことができる。この時点で、仮に、電子楽器によるサウンドは、チック・コリアの好むところではなかったとするなら、この公演ではそれは、あからさまにはなっていないのは、確かである。彼のスティーヴ・グロスマンのソロに対する伴奏付は、どちらかと言えば活発なフレーズで、オスティナートを多めに使用し、サックスのソロがゴツゴツとしたメロディラインをしていて、更にはその抽象的な曲想、そのいずれにもしっかりと応えている。なおも、自分自身のソロでは、音の歪みに、更にもう一歩踏み込んでいる。 



“Bitches Brew” appears late in the set. Here Corea presents an abstract introduction, leading into a cat-and-mouse duet with Holland that is soon joined by DeJohnette and Airto Moreira. When Corea lands on a chord, he distorts it, again creating a cloudlike sonic event. Grossman's solo becomes another display of interesting lines, this time between him and Corea. There are moments of intense abstraction at the Fillmore West, but they occur in the context of a rhythmically simpler presentation. 

「Bitches Brew」は、この公演のプログラムのあとの方にでてくる。ここでは、チック・コリアは出だしで抽象的な演奏をし、デイヴ・ホランドとの追いつ追われつの2重奏へと進み、ほどなくそこへ、ジャック・ディジョネットアイアート・モレイラが加わってくる。この着地点で、チック・コリアがコードを響かせると、これに歪みを加える。またもや「よってたかって」という音の状態になる。スティーヴ・グロスマンのソロが、またひとつ興味深いメロディラインとして、居場所を作る。ここでは、その相手はチック・コリアである。フィルモア・ウェストでの公演では、抽象的な演奏が、かなり極端になった瞬間が次々と聞こえてくる。だがそのいずれもが、リズムの面ではどちらかと言えばシンプルな演奏の仕方の中で、発生しているものである。 


By early August, Corea and Holland were engaged in further recording sessions, now as a trio with Barry Altschul. Through the rest of that month, Anthony Braxton joined them for the first sessions as Circle. By now there were just two more engagements for Corea and Holland to fulfill with Miles Davis: at the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood, and at the Isle of Wight Festival. 



At the Isle of Wight Festival, a major rock event with an audience of several hundred thousand, the show opens with a rhythmically driven version of “Directions.” Holland and DeJohnette are locked into a solid groove, with growing levels of abstraction flying around them. In both that tune and “Bitches Brew,” Corea creates abstract electronic sounds with his ring-modulated Rhodes; Jarrett seems to be playing a much thinner-sounding RMI electric piano, resulting in a disjunctive combination, but one where the distinction between instruments is clearer. The band moves into a simple vamp for Davis's solo, with everyone more in sync than usual. 

ワイト島のフェスと言えば、数十万人規模の観客が訪れる、ロックのイベントではメジャーなものである。ここでの公演の口火を切ったのは、リズムに推進力を与えた形に仕上げた「Directions」。デイヴ・ホランドジャック・ディジョネットは、腰を据えて安定感のあるリズムの調和を固める。その周りを飛び交うのが、更に抽象的な度合いを高めたサウンドだ。「Directions」も「Bitches Brew」も、両方とも、チック・コリアが生み出す、リングモジュレーターを駆使したフェンダー・ローズの電子的に手を加えたサウンドの数々と、キース・ジャレットが、いつもより更に音の厚みを薄くしたと思われるRMI電子ピアノの演奏、この2つが、お互いの距離をおいた上でのコンビネーションを聞かせる。コンビネーションをとはいえ、それぞれの違いが、より鮮明になっている。マイルス・デイヴィスのソロでは、伴奏がシンプルになり、全員が、いつもより一体感を出している。 


This pattern of groove plus swirling electronic sounds ushers the septet through the end of the engagement and the conclusion of Chick Corea and Dave Holland's tenure with the band. A door had already opened for Corea and Holland to explore open improvisation in a more collective setting. Another door now opened for Davis, with Keith Jarrett and soon to be joined by Michael Henderson, to create some mighty creative funk ― yet funk not as dance music but as the ground for further creative exploration of unconventional ideas, still under the umbrella of jazz.